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wisdom of men, but ‘in the power stery, even the hidden wisdom, which A. M. 4060. A. D. 56. A.U. C. 809. of God.
God ordained before the world unto A. U.C. 809.
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6 Howbeit, we speak wisdom among our glory: them that are perfect : yet not the wisdom of 8 'Which none of the princes of this world this world, nor of the princes of this world, that knew : for 5 had they known it, they would not come to nought:
have crucified the Lord of glory. 7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mys
9 But as it is written, Eye hath not seen,
2 Cor. 4. 7. & 6.7.- ch. 14. 20. Eph. 4. 13. Phil. 3. 15. Heb. 5. 14. Le ch. 1. 20. & 3. 19. ver. 1, 13. 2 Cor. 1. 12. Jam. 3. 15.4 ch.1. 28.
Rom. 16. 25, 26. Eph. 3. 5, 9. Col. 1. 26. 2 Tim. 1.9.-Matt. 11. 25. John 7. 48. Acts 13. 27. 2 Cor. 3. 14
.. Luke 23. 34. Acts 3. 17. See John 16.3. Isai. 64. 4.
was not employed : and human power, if it had been em- termed TEE1), the perfect. This, says the apostle, is not ployed, could not have produced the change.
the wisdom of this world, for that has not the manifested Verse 6. We speak wisdom among them that are perfect] || Messiah in it; nor the wisdom of the rulers of this world. By the ev TOIS TENELoss among those that are perfect, we are to The chief men, whether philosophers among the Greeks, or understand Christians of the highest knowledge and attain- rabbins among the Jews ; for those we are to understand as ments: those who were fully instructed in the knowledge of implied in the term rulers, used here by the apostle. These God through Christ Jesus. Nothing, in the judgment of St. rulers came to nought ; for they, their wisdom, and their go. Paul, deserved the name of wisdom but this. And though vernment, were shortly after overturned in the destruction he apologizes for his not coming to them with excellency of of Jerusalem. This declaration of the apostle is prophetic. speech or wisdom, yet he means what was reputed wisdom | The ruin of the Græcian superstition soon followed. among the Greeks; and which, in the sight of God, was Verse 7. The wisdom of God in a mystery] The GOSPEL mere folly when compared with that wisdom that came from of Jesus Christ, which had been comparatively hidden from above. Dr. Lightfoot thinks, that the apostle mentions a| the foundation of the world, (the settling of the Jewish four-fold wisdom. 1. Heathen wisdom, or that of the Gen- economy, as this phrase often means,) though appointed tile philosophers, chap. i. 22. which was termed by the Jews from the beginning, to be revealed in the fulness of time. non noon Chokmah yonith, Græcian wisdom; and which For though this gospel was, in a certain sense, announced by was so under-valued by them, that they joined these two the prophets, and prefigured by the law; yet it is certain under the same curse; cursed is he that breeds hogs; and that even the most intelligent of the Jewish rulers, their cursed is he who teaches his son Græcian wisdom. Bava doctors, scribes, and pharisees, had no adequate knowledge Kama, fol. 82.
of it; therefore it was still a mystery to them and others; 2. Jewish wisdom; that of the Scribes and Pharisees, who till it was so gloriously revealed by the preaching of the crucified our Lord, ver. 8.
apostles. 3. The gospel, which is called the wisdom of God in a Verse 8. Which none of the princes of this world knew] mystery, ver. 7.
Here, it is evident, that this world refers to the Jewish state, 4. The wisdom, ToU awos TOUTCU of this world; that and to the degree of knowledge iu that state : and the rulers, system of knowledge which the Jews made up out of the the priests, rabbins, &c. who were principally concerned in writings of their scribes and doctors. This state is called the crucifixion of our Lord. nin obyn haólam hazzeh ; this, or the present world; to The Lord of glory.] Or the glorious Lord: infinitely distinguish it from xan obyn haốlam haba, the world to transcending all the rulers of the universe; whose is, eternal come ; i. e. the days of the Messiah. Whether we under- glory; who gave that glorious gospel in which his followers stand the term this world, either as relating to the state of may glory, as it affords them such cause of triumph as the the Gentiles, cultivated to the uttermost in philosophical heathens had not, who gloried in their philosophers. Here is learning; or the then state of the Jews, who had made the a teacher who is come from God, who has taught the most word of God of no effect by their traditions, which con- glorious truths which it is possible for the soul of man to tained a sort of learning of which they were very fond and conceive; and has promised to lead all the followers of his very proud ; yet, by this Græcian and Jewish wisdom, no crucified master, to that state of glory which is ineffable and soul ever could have arrived at any such knowledge or wis- eternal. dom as that communicated by the revelation of Christ. This Verse 9. But as it is written] The quotation is taken was perfect wisdom; and they who were thoroughly in- from Isai. Ixiv. 4. The sense is continued here from verse structed in it, and had received the grace of the gospel, were the seventh, and nanowusy we speak, is understood, We do
The Spirit of God can alone
reveal the things of God.
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nor ear heard, neither have entered 11 For what man knoweth the A.U.C. 509 into the heart of man, the things things of a man, "save the spirit of Anu 10.8%. ronis lies. 3. which God hath prepared for them man which is in him ? even so the ronis Cæs. 3. that love him.
things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit 10 But a God hath revealed them unto us by of God. liis Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, | 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the yea, the deep things of God.
world, but the Spirit which is of God; that
* Matt. 13. 11. & 16. 17. John 14. 26. & 16. 13. 1 John 2. 27.
_ Prov. 20. 27. & 27. 19. Jer. 17.9. Rom. 11. 33, 31.
. Rom. 8. 15.
66 I leave
not speak or preach the wisdom of this world ; but that mys- seal them as attributes and works of God for ever. The terious wisdom of God, of which the prophet said, Eye hath apostles were as truly conscious of their own inspiration, not seen, nor ear heard, neilher have entered into the hcart of as they were that they had consciousness at all : and what man the things which God has prepared for them that love they spoke, they spoke as they were moved by the Iloly him. These words have been applied to the state of glory in Ghost. a future world; but they certainly belong to the present state ; Verse 11. For what man knoweth the things of a man] and express merely the wondrous light, life, and liberty The word arbpumuy in the first clause, is omitted by the which the gospel communicates to thein that beliere in the Codex Alexandrinus, and one other; and by Athunasius, Lord Jesus Christ, in that way which the gospel itself re- Cyril, and Vigil of Tapsum. Bishop Pearce contends quires. To this the prophet himself refers; and, it is evi- strongly against the authenticity of the word, and reads the dent, from the following verse, that the apostle also refers to passage thus: “For what is there that knoweth the things of the same thing. Such a scheme of salvation, in which God's a man, except the spirit of a man that is in him ?” glory, and man's felicity, should be equally secured, had out,” says the learned Bishop, “ axb5w Toy, with the Alexnever been seen, never heard of, nor could any mind but | andrian MS. and read 715 yap ouder TA TOU arīgwtov; because that of God, have conceived the idea of so vast a pro-|I conceive that the common reading is wide of St. Paul's ject; nor could any power, but his own, have brought it to meaning; for to say, What man except the spirit of a man, is effect.
(I think,) to speak improperly; and to suppose that the Verse 10. But God hath revealed them unto us] A mani- spirit of a man, is a man: but it is very proper to say, What fest proof that the apostle speaks here of the glories of the except the spirit of a man : Tis is feminine as well as masgospel, and not of the glories of the future world.
culine, and therefore may be supplied with overly or some For the Spirit searcheth all things] This is the Spirit of such word, as well as with ar9pWtos.” Though the authoGod, which spoke by the prophets ; and has now given to the rity for omitting this word, is comparatively slender, yet it apostles the fulness of that heavenly truth, of which he gave must be owned that its omission renders the text much more to the former only the outlines.
intelligible. But even one MS. may preserve the true reading. Yea, the deep things of God.] It is only the Spirit of God The spirit of a man knows the things of a man : that is, which can reveal the councils of God; these are the pur- a man is conscious of all the schemes, plans and purposes, poses which have existed in his infinite wisdom and goodness that pass in his own mind; and no man can know these from eternity; and particularly what refers to creation, pro- things but himself. So, the Spirit of God, He whom we vidence, redemption, and eternal glory; as far as men and call the third person of the glorious Trinity, knows all the angels are concerned in these purposes. The apostles were counsels and determinations of the Supreme Being. As the so folly convinced that the scheme of redemption proclaimed Spirit is here represented to live in God, as the soul lives in by the gospel was divine, that they boldly asserted that these the body of a man; and as this Spirit knows all the things of things infinitely surpassed the wisdom and comprehension of God, and had revealed those to the apostles, which concern man. God was now, in a certain way, become manifest ; | the salvation of the world; therefore, what they spoke and many attributes of his, which to the heathen world would preached was true, and men may implicitly depend upon it. have for ever lain in obscurity, (for the world by wisdom The miracles which they did, in the name of Christ, was the knew not God,) were now, not only brought to light, as ex. proof that they had that Spirit, and spoke the truth of God. isting in him ; but illustrated by the gracious displays which Verse 12. Now we have received, not the spirit of the he had made of himself. It was the Spirit of God alone | world] We, who are the genuine apostles of Christ, hare that could reveal these things ; and it was the energy of that received this Spirit of God, by which we know the deep Spirit alone that could bring them all into effect; stamp and I things of God; and, through the teaching of that Spirit, we
The natural man cannot
apprehend spiritual things.
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we might know the things that are 14 But the natural man receiveth A. M. 4060. Anno Imp.Ne. freely given to us of God.
not the things of the Spirit of God: A.U. C. 809. 13 · Which things also we speak, * for they are foolishness unto him: ronis Cas. 3. not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, neither can he know them, because they are but which the Holy Ghost teacheth ; comparing spiritually discerned. spiritual things with spiritual.
15 Buc he that is spiritual judgeth all
1 2 Pet. 1. 16. See ch. 1. 17. ver. 4.- Matt. 16. 23.- ch. 1. 18,
23. Rom. 8. 5, 6, 7. Jude 19.
• Prov. 28. 5. 1 Thes. 5. 21. 1 John 4.1.- Or, discerneth.
preach Christ crucified. We have not, therefore, reccived the sensitive part of man, in opposition to yous, the understandspirit of the world, of the Jewish teachers, who are all look | ing, or rational part. The Latins use anima, to signify these ing for a worldly kingdom, and a worldly Messiah ; and in- | lower passions ; and animus to signify the higher. The perterpret all the scriptures of the Old Testament, which relate son in question, is not only one who either has had no spiri. to him, in a carnal and worldly sense.
tual teaching, or has not profited by it; but one who lives That we might know the things] We receive this teaching for the present world, having no respect to spiritual oreterual that we may know what those supereminently excellent things. This Yuxixos or animal man, is opposed to the syeuthings are which God has purposed freely to give to mankind. Matixos or spiritual man: and, as this latter is one who is It is evident that, as the apostle means by princes of the under the influence of the Spirit of God; so the former is world, the rulers of the Jews, ver. 6–8. so, by spirit of the
one who is without that influence. world, he here means Jewish wisdom, or their carnal mode of The apostle did speak of those high and sublime spiritual interpreting the sacred oracles; and their carnal expectation things to these animal men; but he explained them to those of a worldly kingdom under the Messiah.
which were spiritual. He uses this word in this sense, Verse 13. Which things also we speak] We dare no chap. iii. 1. ix. 11. and particularly in ver. 15. of the premore use the language of the Jews and the Gentiles, in sent chapter: He that is spiritual judgeth all things. speaking of those glorious things, than we can indulge their
But the natural man-The apostle appears to give this spirit. The Greek orators affected a high and florid lan as a reason why he explained those deep spiritual things guage, full of tropes and figures which dazzled more than to spiritual men; because the animal man, the man who it enlightened. The rabbins affected obscurity, and were is in a state of nature, without the regenerating grace of studious to find out cabalistical meanings, which had no ten- the Spirit of God; receiveth not the things of the Spirit ; dency to make the people wise unto salvation. The apostles neither apprehends nor comprehends them : he has no relish could not follow any of these ; they spoke the things of for them; he considers it the highest wisdom to live for this God in the words of God: every thing is plain and intelli- world. Therefore, these spiritual things are foolishness to gible ; every word well placed, clear, and nervous. He him ; for, while he is in his animal state, he cannot see their who has a spiritual mind, will easily comprehend an apostle's excellency, because they are spiritually discerned; and he preaching.
has no spiritual mind. Comparing spiritual things with spiritual] This is com Verse 15. But he that is spiritual judgeth all things] He monly understood to mean, comparing the spiritual things who has the mind of Christ, discerns and judges of all things under the Old Testament, with the spiritual things under the spiritual; yet he himself is not discerned by the mere animal New: but this does not appear to be the apostle's meaning. man. Some suppose that the word avanpivetai should be unThe word ouYXpivovTES, which we translate comparing, rather derstood thus: he examines, scrutinizes, convinces, reproves, signifies conferring, discussing, or explaining : and the word which it appears to have in chap. xiv. 24. and they read the TTVEU FIQTIX015, should be rendered to spiritual men, and not verse thus : the spiritual man, the well taught Christian, conbe referred to spiritual things. The passage, therefore, vinces, i. e. can easily convict all men, (Tarta accus. sing.) should be thus translated; explaining spiritual things to spi- every animal man, of error and vice. Yet he himself is conritual persons. And this sense the following verse absolutely | victed of no man; his mind is enlightened, and his life is requires.
holy; and therefore the animal man cannot convict him of Verse 14. But the natural man] Vuxixos the animal sin. This is a good sense, but the first appears the most naman; the man who is in a mere state of nature, and lives tural. See Pearce and Rosenmüller. under the influence of his animal passions : for the word Verse 16. For who hath known the mind of the Lord] Huxn, which we often translate soul, means the lower and | Who that is still an animal man, can know the mind of God,
Those only who know the mind
of God can teach his truth.
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Anno Imp. Ne 16 For who hath known the mind of Christ.
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a Or, discerned. Job 15. 8. Isai. 40. 13. Jer, 23. 18.
Wisd. 9. 13. Rom. 11. 34.
_c Gr. shall. John 15, 15.
so as to instruct him, viz. the spiritual man, the same that is The enticing words of men's wisdom, are seldom accompanied spoken of ver. 15. But the words may be better understood by the demonstration and power of the Holy Spirit. thus : How can the animal man know the mind of the Lord ; 2. One justly remarks, that “the foolishness of preachand how can any man communicate that knowledge which ing has its wisdom, loftiness, and eloquence; but this conhe has never acquired; and which is foolishness to him, be- sists in the sublimity of its truths, the depths of its mystecause it is spiritual, and he is animal? This quotation is, ries, and the ardour of the Spirit of God.” In this respect, made from Isai. xl. 13.
Paul may be said to have preached wisdom among those which But we have the mind of Christ.] He has endowed us were perfect. The wisest, and most learned men in the with the same disposition, being born again by his Spirit; world, who have seriously read the Bible, have acknowledged therefore, we are capable of knowing his mind, and receiv- that there is a depth and height of wisdom and knowledge ing the teachings of his Spirit. These teachings we do re in that book of God, which are sought in vain any where else : ceive, and therefore are well qualified to convey them to others. and indeed it would not be a revelation from God were it
The words that he may instruct him, os ouu 66X1EL AUTOY, not so. The men who can despise and ridicule this sacred should be translated that he may teach it: that is, the mind book, are those who are too blind to discover the objects of God; not instruct God, but teach his mind to others. ' presented to them by this brilliant light; and are too sensual And this interpretation the Hebrew will also bear.
to feel and relish spiritual things. They, above all others, Bishop Pearce observes, “the principal questions here, are incapable of judging; and should be no more regarded, are, what our state signifies; and what autor is relative to? | when employed in talking against the sacred writings, The Hebrew word, which the Septuagint translate by these than an ignorant peasant should be, who, not knowing his two, is gratis yodiênnu : now, since my yodia signifies as well alphabet, pretends to decry mathematical learning. to make known as to know, (and indeed this is the most fre 3. A new mode of preaching has been diligently recomquent sense of it in the Old Testament,) the suffix (postfix) 13. mended—“ Scriptural phraseology should be generally nu, may relate to a thing, as well as to a person; and therefore avoided where it is antiquated, or conveys ideas inconsistent it may be rendered not by him, but by it, i. e. the mind of the with modern delicacy.” St. Paul did not preach in the Lord. And in this sense the apostle seems to have used the words which man's wisdom teacheth ; such words are too words of the Seventy; for if we understand autov here to be mean and too low for a religion so divine. That wbich the the relative to kupiou, Lord, this verse contains no reason Holy Spirit alone can discover, he alone can explain. Let for what went before; whereas, if it be a relative to your no man dare to speak of God in any other way than he mind, it affords a reason for what had been said before, speaks of himself in his word. Let us take care pot to prover. 14.” The true translation of the passage, as used by fane his truths and mysteries, either by such low and abject
, the apostle, appears to be tẶis : For who hath known the ideas as are merely human; or by new and worldly expresy mind of the Lord, that he should reach 17.? And this sions altogether unworthy of the Spirit of God. translation agrees
with every part of the context, and parti 4. It is the glory of God, and ought to be ours, not to be cularly with what follows.
acceptable to carnal men. The natural man always finds some,
pretence to excuse himself from believing, by looking on the 1. This chapter might be considered a good model for a mysteries of religion, as being either too much above man, or Christian minister to regulate his conduct by, or his public too much below God: the spiritual man judges them to be ministry ; because it points out the mode of preaching used so much the more credible, the less credible they are to the by St. Paul and the apostles in general. This great apostle natural man. came not to the people with excellency of speech and of wis The opposition, contempt, and blindness of the world, dom, when he declared unto them the counsel of God. They with regard to the things of God, render all its judgments know little either of the spirit of St. Paul, or the design of concerning them, liable to exception: this blindness in spithe gospel, who makes the chief excellence of their preach- ritual things is the just punishment of a carnal life. The ing consist in the eloquence of language, or depth of human principal part of the above is extracted from the reflections reasoning. That may be their testimony ; but it is not God's. ll of the pious Quesnel.
The very imperfect state
of the church at Corinth.
CHAPTER III. Because of the carnal, divided state, of the people at Corinth, the apostle was obliged to treat them as children, in
the knowledge of sacred things, 1–3. Some were for setting up Paul, others Apollos, as their sole teachers, 4. The apostle shews that himself, and fellow-apostles, were only instruments which God used to bring them to the knowledge of the truth; and even their sowing and watering the seed, was of no use, unless God gare the increase, 5-8. The church represented as God's husbandry; und as God's building, the foundation of which is Christ Jesus, 9-11. Ministers must beware how and what they build on this foundation, 12–15. The church of God is his temple, and he that defiles it shall be destroyed, 16, 17. No man should depend on his own wisdom ; for the wisdom of the world is foolishness with God, 18—20. None should glory in man as his teacher ; God gives his followers every good, both for time and clernity, 21–23.
ND I, brethren, could not it, neither yet now are
Anno Imp. Ne rital, but as unto carnal, even as as there is among you en vying, and ronis Cæs. 3. unto babes in Christ.
strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and 2 I lave fed you with 4 milk, and not with walk "as men ? meat: €for hitherto ye were not able to bear 4 For while one saith 'I am of Paul; and
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a Ch. 2. 15. - ch. 2. 14. - Heb, 5. 13. L! Heb. 5. 12, 13. 1 Pet.
2. 2. Le John 16. 12.
f Ch. 1. 11. & 11. 18. Gal. 5. 20, 21, Jain. 3. 16. --- Or, factions.“
Gr. according to man.- ch. 1. 12.
NOTES ON CHAP. III.
visions] Ζηλος και εις και διχοςασιαι· There are three Verse 1. I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto things here worthy of note; these people were wrong in spiritual] This is a continuation of the preceding discourse. thought, word, and deed. 2720s enrying, refers to the state See the Notes there.
of their souls; they had inward grudgings and disaffection Bui us unto curnal] Eapuixols, persons under the in- | towards each other.
towards each other. Esis strife, or contention, refers to fluence of fleshly appetites; coveting and living for the things their words; they were continually disputing and contending of this life.
whose party was the best; each endeavouring to prove that he Babes in Christ.] Just beginning to acquire some notion and his party were alone in the right. Aiyosariz divisions, of the Christian religion ; but, as yet, very incapable of refers to their conduct; as they could not agree, they conjudging what is most suitable to yourselves; and, conse tended till they separated from each other; and thus rent the quently, utterly unqualified to discern between one teacher church of Christ. Thus the envying and grudging led to and another : so that your making the distinctions which you strife and evil SPEAKING ; and this led to divisions and fixed do make, so far from being a proof of mature judgment, is, | parties. In this state well might the apostle say, Are ya on the contrary, a proof that you have no right judgment | not carnal, and walk as men? Ye act just as the people at all: and this springs from your want of knowledge in of the world, and have no more of the spirit of religioa divine things.
than they Verse 2. I have fed you with milk] I have instructed Verse 4. For rehile one saith, I am of Paul, &c.] It you in the elements of Christianity ; in its simplest and was notorious that both Paul and Apollos held the saint easiest truths: because, from the low state of your minds in creed ; between them there was not the slightest difference: religious knowledge, you were incapable of comprehending when, therefore, the dissentients began to prefer the one to the higher truths of the gospel : and in this state you still the other, it was the fullest proof of their carnality ; be. continue. The apostle thus exposes to them the absurdity of cause, in the doctrines of these apostles there was no distheir conduct, in pretending to judge between preacher and ference; so that what the people were captivated by, must be preacher; while they had but a very partial acquaintance something in their outward manner, Apollos being probably even with the first principles of Christianity.
more cloquent than Paul. Their preferring one to another, Verse 3. There is among you envying, and strife, and di on such an account, proved that they were carnal, led by