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The amiable spirit which they


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11 . Even unto this present hour 13 Being defamed, we intreat : fwe At we both hunger, and thirst, and are are made as the filth of the earth, A. 0.C.809 rouis Cas. S. naked, and are buffeted, and have and are the offscouring of all things ronis Cees. 3. no certain dwelling-place ;

unto this day. 12 " And labour, working with our own hands : 14 I write not these things to shame you,

but * being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we as my beloved sons I warn you. suffer it:

15 For though ye have ten thousand in

* 2 Cor. 4.8. & 11. 23—27. Phil. 4. 12. _ Job 99. 6. Rom. 8. 33. I Tim. 4. 10.-_* Matt. 5. 41. Luke 6. 28. & 23. 31. Acts 7.60. Rom. - Acts 23. 2. La Acts 18. 3. & 20. 34. 1 Thess. 2. 9. 9 Thess. 3. 8. | 12. 14, 20. 1 Pet. 2. 23. & 3. 9. Lam. 3. 45.6 1 Thess. 2. 11.

Ye are rise in Christ] Surely all these expressions are &c. Blaspheming against men, is any thing by which they meant ironically: the apostles were neither fools, nor weak, are injured in their persons, characters, or property. nor contemptible ; nor were the Corinthians, morally speak We are made as the filth of the earth--the off'scouring of ing, wise, and strong, and honourable. Change the persons, | all things] The Greek word which we render filth, is and then the epithets will perfectly apply.

TregixZb29u9t2, a purgation, or lustrative sacrifice; that which Verse 11. We both hunger and thirst, &c.] Who would we translate off'scouring, is repurua, a redemption sacrifice. then have been an apostle of Christ, even with all its spiri- To understand the full force of these words, as applied by tual honours and glories, who had not a soul filled with love the apostle in this place, we must observe that he alludes to both to God and man? and the fullest contiction of the certaia customs among the heathens; who, in the time of reality of the doctrine he preached, and of that spiritual some public calamity, chose out some unhappy men of the world in which alone he could expect rest? See the Intro- | most abject and despicable character, to be a public expiaduction, sect. vi.

tion for them : these they maintained a whole year at the llave no certain droelling.] We are mere itinerant preachers; public expense ; and then they led them out, crowned with and when we set out in the morning, know not where, or flowers, as was customary in sacrifices ; and, having heaped whether we shall or not, get a night's lodging.

all the curses of the country upon their heads, and whipped Verse 12. Working with our own hands] They were them seven times, they burned them alive, and afterwards obliged to labour, in order to supply themselves with the ne their ashes were thrown into the sea, while the people said cessaries of life while preaching the gospel to others. This, these words, meciumua ruw yorov; be thou our propitiation. no doubt, was the case in every place where no church had Sometimes the person thus chosen, was thrown into the sea, been as yet formed: afterwards, the people of God supplied as a sacrifice to Neptune ; the people saying the words as betheir ministers, according to their power, with food and fore. Hence Origen says that our Lord, in giving up himself raiment.

as a propitiation for our sins, was much more than his aposBeing reviled, we bless, &c.] What a most amiable pic- tles; nepiradoplata thu xsoucu, Tartwy tre premua, the lusture does this exhibit of the power of the grace of Christ ! |tration of the world, and the peculiar sacrifice for all men. Man is naturally a proud creature; and his pride prompts The apostle, therefore, means that he and his fellows were him always to avenge himself in whatever manner he can; || treated like those wretched beings who were judged to be fit and re-pay insult with insult. It is only the grace of Christ for nothing, but to be expiatory victims to the infernal gods, that can make a man patient in bearing injuries, and to ren for the safety and redemption of others. Our words, filth der blessing for cursing ; beneficence for malevolence, &c. and off scouring, convey no legitimate sense of the original. The apostles suffered all indignities for Christ's sake; for it See several useful remarks upon these terms, in Pearce, was on his account, that they were exposed to persecu- Whilby, and Parkhurst. tions, &c.

Verse 14. I write not these things to shame you] It is Verse 13. Being defumed] Baoqquguerol, being blas- not by way of finding fault with you, for not providing me phemed. I have already remarked, that Chaconuelv, signi- with the necessaries of life, that I write thus; but I do it to fies to speak injuriously, and may have reference either to warn you to act differently for the time to come ; and be God or to man. God is blasphemed when his attributes, not so ready to be drawn aside by every pretender to apostle. doctrines, providence, or grace, are treated contemptuously; ship, to the neglect of those, to whom, under God, you owe or any thing said of Him that is contrary to his holiness, your salvation. justice, goodness, or truth. Man is blasphemed, when any Verse 15. For though ye have ten thousand instructors] thing injurious is spoken of his person, character, conduct, ! Mupious Traslaywysus, myriads of leaders, that is, an indefinite

The church should follow the apostle I. CORINTHIANS.

in doctrine, spirit, and discipline.

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structors in Christ, yet have ye not membrance of my ways which be in 4.4.4060. Annoimpone many fathers : for ‘in Christ Jesus Christ, as I 'teach every where sin

ronis Cíes. 3. I have begotten you through the every church. gospel.

18 Now some are puffed up, as though I 16 Wherefore I beseech you, "be ye followers i would not come to you. of me.

19 ' But I will come to you shortly, if 17 For this cause have I sent unto you o Ti- the Lord will, and will know, not the speech motheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful of them which

are puffed up,

but the in the Lord; who shall bring you into re- power.

• Acts 18. 11. Rom. 15. 20. ch. 3. 6. Gal. 4. 19. Philem. 10. Jam. 1. 18. _b ch, 11. l. Phil. 3. 17. 1 Thess, 1. 6. 2 Thess. 3.9.

e Acts 19. 22. ch. 16. 10. Phil. 2. 19. 1 Thess. 3. 2.

d 1 Tim. 1. 2. 2 Tinn. 1.2. ch. 11. 2. ch. 7. 17.-. ch. 14. 33. ch. 5. 2.- Acts 19. 21. ch. 16. 5. 2 Cor. 1. 15, 23.-Acts 18. 21. Rom. 15. 32. Heb. 6. 3. Jam. 4. 15.

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multitude ; for so the word is often used. The tesdaywyos, signifies an imitator of another person, whether in speech, from which we have our word pædagogue, which we impro- manner, habit, or otherwise. As children should imitate perly apply to a school-master, was among the Greeks, the their parents in preference to all others; he calls on them to person or servant who attended a child, had the general imitate him, as he claims them for his children. He lived for care of him, and who led him to school for the purpose of God and eternity, seeking not his own glory, emolument, or being instructed by the dodatxalos, or teacher. It seems ease: those sowers of sedition among them were actuated by there were many at Corinth who offered their services to in- different motives. Here, then, the apostle compares himself struct this people, and who were not well affected towards with them ; follow and imitate me, as I follow and imitate the apostle.

Christ: do not imitate them who, from their worldly pursuits, Not many fathers] Many offer to instruct you, who have shew themselves to be actuated with a worldly spirit. no parental feeling for you; and how can they? you are not Verse 17. For this cause] That you imitate me, and their spiritual children: you stand in this relation to me know in what this consists : alone; for in Christ Jesus, by the power and unction of his I sent unto you Timotheus] The same person to whom he Spirit, I have begotten you, I was the means of bringing you wrote the two Epistles that are still extant under his name; into a state of salvation, so that you have been born again : and whom he calls here his beloved son, one of his most inye are my children, alone in the gospel. Schoettgen produces timate disciples; and whom he had been the means of bringa a good illustration of this from Shemoth Rabba, sect. 46. ing to God through Christ. fol. 1 10. “ A girl who had lost her parents, was educated My ways which be in Christ] This person will also inform by a guardian who was a good and faithful man, and took you the manner in which I regulate all the churches; and great care of her: when she was grown up, he purposed to shew to you that what I require of you, is no other than bestow her in marriage: the scribe came, and beginning to what I require of all the churches of Christ which I have write the contract, said, What is thy name? The maid an- formed; as I follow the same plan of discipline in every place. swered, N. The scribe proceeded, What is the name of thy See the Introduction, sect. iii. father? The maid was silent. ller guardian said, Why art Verse 18. Some are puffed up] Some of your teachers thou silent? The maid replied, Because I know no other act with great haughtiness, imagining themselves to be safe, futher but thee. For he who educates a child well, is more because they suppose that I shall not revisit Corinth. properly the father, than he who begot it.” This is the same Verse 19. But I will come to you shortly] God being kind of sentiment which I have already quoted froin Terence, my helper, I fully purpose to visit you : and then I shall put Rom. xvi. 13.

those proud men to the proof, not of their speech, eloquence, Nalurá tu illi pater es ; consiliis ego.

or pretensions to great knowledge and influence, but of their ADELPH. Act i. scene 2. ver. 47. power, the authority they profess to have from God, and the

evidences of that authority in the works they have performed. Thou art his father by nature; I, by instruction.

Soe the Introduction, sect. xi. Verse 16. Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of Verse 20. For the kingdom of God] The religion of the me.] It should rather be translated Be ye imitators of me: Lord Jesus is not in word, in human eloquence, excellence Mediterran, from which we have our word mimic; which, of speech, or even in doctrines; but in power, er dorzuch, though now used only in a bad, or ludicrous sense, simply is in the mighty energy of the Holy Spirit; enlightening, quick

The kingdom of God consists


not in doctrine only, but in power.

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a Ch.2. 4. 1 Thess. 1.5.

B 2 Cor. 10. 2. & 13. 10.

ening, converting, and sanctifying believers : and all his ge- man who scarcely ever allows himself to be wrong, is one of nuine apostles are enabled, on all necessary occasions, to de- whom it may be safely said, he is seldom right. It is possimonstrate the truth of their calling by miracles ; for this the ble for a man to mistake his own will for the will of God; original word often means.

and his own obstinacy, for inflexible adherence to his Verse 21. Shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love] duty. With such persons, it is dangerous to have any comHere he alludes to the case of the teacher and father, men merce. Reader, pray to God to save thee from an inflated tioned ver. 15. Shall I come to you with the authority of a mind. teacher, and use the rod of discipline.? or shall I come in the 3. Zeal for God's truth is essentially necessary for every tenderness of a father, and entreat you to do what I have au- | minister; and prudence is not less so. They should be wisely, thority to enforce ? Among the Jews, those who did not tempered together; but this is not always the case. Zeal, amend after being faithfully admonished, were whipped, either without prudence, is like a flambeau in the hands of a blind publicly or privately, in the synagogue. If on this, they man; it may enlighten and warm, but it may also destroy did not amend, they were liable to be stoned. We see from the spiritual building. Human prudence should be avoided the case of Ananias and Sapphira, Elymas the sorcerer, Hy- | as well as intemperute zeal: this kind of prudence consists in menæus and Alexander, &c. that the apostles had sometimes a man's being careful not to bring himself into trouble, and the power to inflict the most awful punishments on transgres- not to hazard his reputation, credit, interest, or fortune, in sors. The Corinthians must have known this, and conse the performance of his duty. Evangelical reisdom consists in quently have dreaded a visit from him in his apostolical au our suffering and losing all things, rather than be wanting in thority. That there were many irregularities in this church, the discharge of our obligations. which required both the presence and authority of the apos 4. From St. Paul's account of himself, we find him often tle, we shall see in the subsequent chapters.

suffering the severest hardships in the prosecution of his

duty. He had for his patrimony, hunger, thirst, nakedness, 1. In the preceding chapter we find the ministers of God stripes, &c. and wandered about testifying the gospel of the compared to STEWARDS, of whom the strictest fidelity is grace of God, without even a cottage that he could claim as required. (1.) Fidelity to God, in publishing his truth with his own. Let those who dwell in their elegant houses, who zeal, defending it with courage, and recommending it with profess to be apostolic in their order, and evangelic in their prudence. (2.) Fidelity to Christ, whose representatives doctrines, think of this. In their state of afluence they they are, in honestly and fully recommending his grace and should have extraordinary degrees of zeal, humility, meek. salvation, on the ground of his passion and death; and preach- ness, and charity, to recommend them to our notice as aposing his maxins in all their force and purity. (3.) Fidelity tolical men. If God, in the course of his Providence, has to the Churchi, in taking heed to keep up a godly discipline, saved them from an apostle's hardships, let them devote their admitting none into it but those who have abandoned their i| lives to the service of that church in which they have their sins; and permitting none to continue in it, that do not con- | emoluments; and labour incessantly to build it up on its tinue to adorn the doctrine of God their Saviour. (4.) Fide- most holy faith. Let them not be masters to govern with lity to their own MINISTRY, walking so as to bring no blame rigour and imperiousness; but tender fathers, who feel every on the gospel : avoiding the extremes of indolent tenderness, member in the church as their own child, and labour to feed on one hand, and austere severity on the other. Considering the heavenly family with the mysteries of God, of which the flock, pot as their lock, but the flock of Jesus Christ ; | they are stewards. watching, ruling, and feeding it according to the order of 5. And while the people require much of their spiritual their Divine Master.

pastors, these pastors have equal right to require much of 2. A minister of God should act with great caution : every their people. The obligation is not all on one side; those man, properly speaking, is placed between the secret judg- who watch for our souls have a right not only to their own ment of God, and the public censure of men. He should support, but to our reverence and confidence. Those who des. do nothing rashly, that he may not justly incur the censure pise their ecclesiastical rulers, will soon despise the church of of men ; and he should do nothing but in the loving fear of Christ itself, neglect its ordinances, lose sight of its docGod, that he may not incar the censure of his Maker. Theltrines, and at last neglect their own salvation.

Of certain grievous evils which


had been tolerated at Corinth.

CHAPTER V. Account of the incestuous person, or of him who hud married his father's wife, 1. The apostle reproves the Co

rinthians for their carelessness in this inaller ; and orders them to excommunicate the transgressor, 2–5. They are reprehended for their glorying, while such scandals were among them, 6. They must purge out the old leaven, that they may properly celebrate the Christian Pass-over, 7–9. They must not associate with any who, professing the Christian religion, was guilty of any scandalous vice ; and must put away from them every eril person, 10—13.

-T is reported commonly that there | 2 a And ye are puffed up, and have 4, M, 4050. is fornication among you, and not rather

not rather mourned, that he that A. O. C. SUS, Anno Imp. Ne

Anno ronis Cæs. 3. such fornication as is not so much as hath done this deed might be taken ronis Cæs. 3. * named among the Gentiles, "that one should away from among you. have his father's wife.

3 'For I verily, as absent in body, but pre.

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. Eph. 5. 3.

Lev. 18. 8. Deut. 22. 33. & 27. 20.- 2 Cor. 7. 12.

« Ch. 4. 18. 2 Cor. 7. 7, 10.-- Col. 2. 5.


stories of this kind in heathen authors; but they reprobate, Verse 1. There is fornication among you] The word not commend it. The word ovou aetas, named, is wanting in Trudveld, which we translate fornication in this place, must be almost every MS. and Version of importance, and certainly understood in its utmost latitude of meaning, as implying all || makes no part of the text. The words should be read, and kinds of impurity: for, that the Corinthians were noto such fornication as is not amongst the Gentiles-i. e. not al. riously guilty of every species of irregularity and debauch, | lowed. Some think that this woman might have been a prowe have already seen : and it is not likely that, in speaking selyte to the Jewish religion from heathenism; and the rabou this subject, in reference to a people so very notorious, bins taught that proselytism annulled all former relationship, he would refer to one only species of impurity, and that not and that a woman was at liberty, in such a case, to de. the most flagitious.

part from an unbelieving husband, and to marry even with That one should have his father's wife.] Commentators a believing son-i. e. of her husband by some former and critics have found great difficulties in this statement. wife. One part of the case is sufficiently clear, that a man who Verse 2. Ye are puffed up] Ye are full of strife and professed Christianity, had illegal connections with his father's contention, relative to your parties and favourite teachers ; wife : but, the principal question is, was his father alire or and neglect the discipline of the church. Had you condead? Most think that the father was alive, and imagine sidered the greatness of this crime, ye would have rather that to this the apostle refers, 2 Cor. vii. 12. where, speak- | mourned, and have put away this flagrant transgressor from ing of the person who did the wrong, he introduces also him

among you. who had suffered the wrong ; which must mean the father ; Taken away from among you.] Ινα εξαρθη εκ μεσου υμων. and the father then alive. After all that has been said on This is supposed by some to refer to the punishment of death; this subject, I think it most natural to conclude that the per- | by others to excommunication. The Christian church was, son in question had married the wise of his deceased father ; || at this time, too young to have those forms of excommuni. not his own mother, but step-mother, then a widowe.

cation which were practised in succeeding centuries. ProThis was a crime which the text says, was not so much as bably no more is meant than a simple disowning of the pero named among the Gentiles : the apostle must only mean that | son, accompanied with the refusal to admit him to the sait was not accredited by them; for it certainly did often oc cred ordinances; or to have any intercourse or connection cur: but by their best writers who notice it, it was branded || with him. as superlatively infamous. Cicero styles it, scelus incredi Verse 3. Absent in body, but present in spirit] Perhaps bile et inauditum ; an incredible and unheard of wickedness ; | St. Paul refers to the gift of the discernment of spirits

, which but it was heard of and practised: and there are several l' it is very likely the apostles in general possessed on extraor

The apostle orders the transgressor


to be excommunicated.

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sent in spirit, have judged already, not that 'a little leaven leaveneth A. N, 4060. Anno Imp. Ne as though I were present, concern- the whole lump? Tonis Cæs. 9. ing him that hath

so done this 7 Purge out therefore the old lea- ronis Cæs. 3.

ven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are un4 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when leavened. For even Christ our "pass-over 'is Je are gathered together, and my spirit, with sacrificed for us : the power of our Lord Jesus Christ,

8 Therefore

us keep the feast, 5 To deliver such an one unto a Satan for the not with old leaven,

m not with old leaveri, neither with the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be leaven of inalice and wickedness; but with saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

the unleavened bread of sincerity and 6. Your glorying is not good. Know ye truth.


à Or, determined. Matt. 16. 19. & 18. 18. John 20. 23. 2 Cor. 2. 10. & 13.9, 10.- Job 2. 6. Ps. 109. 6. 1 Tim. 1. 20.- Acts 26. 18.

ver. 2. ch. 3. 21. & 4. 19. Jam. 4. 16. ch. 15. 33. Gal. 5.9. 2 Tim. 2. 17.

& Isai. 53. 7. John 1. 29. ch. 15. 3. 1 Pet. 1. 19. Rey, 4.5, 12.h John 19. 11.- Or, is slain. Exod. 12. 15. & 13. 6. | Or, holiday.. Deut. lv. 3." Matt. 16. 6, 1%. Mark 8, 35. Luke 12. I.

dinary occasions. He had already seen this matter so clearly, Verse 6. Your glorying is not good] You are triumph. that he had determined on that sort of punishment which ing in your superior knowledge, and busily employed in should be inflicted for this crime.

setting up and supporting your respective teachers, while Verse 4. In the name of our Lord Jesus] Who is the church is left under the most scandalous corruptions ; the Head of the church ; and under whose authority every corruptions which threaten its very existence, if not purged act is to be performed.

away. And my spirit] My apostolical authority derived from Know ye not] With all your boasted wisdom, do you not Him; with the power our, with the miraculous energy | know and acknowledge the truth of a common maxim, a of the Lord Jesus, which is to inflict the punishment that little leuven leaveneth the whole lump? If this leaven, the you pronounce :

incestuous person, be permitted to remain among you ; if Verse 5. To deliver such an one unto Satan] There is no his conduct be not exposed by the most formidable censure, evidence that delivering to Satan was any form of excom- the flood-gates of impurity will be opened on the church, , munication known either among the Jews or the Christians. and the whole state of Christianity ruined in Corinth. Lightfoot, Selden, and Schoettgen, who have searched all the Verse 7. Purge out therefore the old leaven] As it is Jewish records, have found nothing that answers to this: it the custom of the Jews, previously to the pass-over, to was a species of punishment administered in extraordinary search their houses, in the most diligent manner, for the old cases, in which the body and the mind of an incorrigible | leaven, and throw it out, sweeping every part clean ; so act trangressor were delivered by the authority of God, into the with this incestuous person. I have already shewn with power of Satan, to be tortured with diseases and terrors, as what care the Jews purged their houses from all leaven, a warning to all : but, while the body and mind were thus previously to the poss-over. See the Note on Exod. xii. 8-tormented, the immortal spirit was under the influence of the 19. and on the term pass-over, and Christ as represented by Divine mercy; and the affliction, in all probability, was in this ancient Jewish sacrifice, see on Exod. xii. 27. and my beneral only for a season ; though sometimes it was evidently | Discourse on the Nature and Design of the Eucharist. unto death, as the destruction of the flesh seems to imply. Verse 8. Therefore let us keep the feast] It is very But the soul found mercy at the hand of God; for, such a likely that the time of the pass-over was now approaching; most extraordinary interference of God's power and justice, when the church of Christ would be called to extraordinary and of Satan's influence, could not fail to bring the person acts of devotion, in commemorating the passion, death, and to a state of the deepest humiliation and contrition : and resurrection of Christ ; and of this circumstance the apostle thus, while the flesh was destroyed, the spirit was sured in takes advantage, in his exhortation to the Corinthians. See the day of the Lord Jesus. No such power as this now re the Introduction, scet. xii. Bains in the church of God; none such should be assumed, Not with old leaven Vader the Christian dispensation, the pretensions to it are as wicked as they are vain. It was we must be saved, equally from Judaism, Ileathenism, and The same power by which Ananias and Sapphira were struck from sin of every kind; malice and wickedness must be dead; and Elymas, the sorcerer, struck blind. Apostles, | destroyed : and sincerity and truth, inward purity and outalone, were entrusted with it.

Hard holiness, take their place.

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