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Hle that preaches the gospel


should live by the gospel.

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A. M. 4060. brethren of the Lord, and . Ce 8 Say I these things as a man? or

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Anno Inp.Ne 6 Or I only and Barnabas, have 9 For it is written in the law of ronis Cas. 3. not we power to forbear working ?

Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of 7 Who goeth a warfare any time at his own the ox that treadeth out the corn. Doth God charges ? who planteth a vineyard, and eateth take care for oxen? not of the fruit thereof ? or who e feedeth 10 Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? a Alock, and eateth not of the milk of the For our sakes, no doubt, this is written : that flock ?

5 he that ploweth should plow in hope ; and that

a Matt, 8. 14.

Lb 2 Thess. 3. 8, 9,2 Cor. 10. 4. 1 Tim. 1. 18. &

6. 12. 2 Tim. 2. 3. & 4.7.

d Deut. 20.6. Prov. 27. 18. ch. 3. 6, 7, 8.- John 21. 15.- Deut.

25. 4. 1 Tim. 5. 10. $ 2 Tim. 9. 6.

ly all ministers of the gospel, had a right to marry. For it and propriety of the cases, to be answered in the affirmative, appears that our Lord's brethren James and Jude were mar- tend more forcibly to point out that the common sense of man ried; and we have infallible evidence that Peter was a mar- | joins with the providence of God, in shewing the propriety ried man, not only from this verse, but from Matt. viii. 14. of every man living by the fruits of his labour. The first where his mother-in-law is mentioned, as being cured by our question applies particularly to the case of the apostle, tis Lord of a ferer.

τρατευεται ιδιοις οψωνίοις· Does a soldier provide his own And, secondly, we find that their wives were persons of || victuals ? Ouwvior, is used to express the military pay or the same faith ; for less can never be implied in the word wages, by the Greek writers; for the Roman soldiers were sister. This is a decisive proof against the papistical celi- | paid not only in money but in victuals ; and hence corn was bacy of the clergy; and as to their attempts to evade the usually distributed among them. See on Luke iii. 14. force of this text by saying that the apostles had holy women

Verse 8. Say I these things as a man?] Is this only who attended them, and ministered to them in their peregri-human reasoning? or does not God say in effect the same nations, there is no proof of it ; nor could they have suf- things ? See Note on Rom. vi. 19. fered either young women, or other men's wives, to have Verse 9. Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ow] accompanied them in this way, without giving the most pal- See this largely explained in the Note on Deut. xxv. 4. pable occasion of scandal.. And Clemens Alexandrinus has Doth God take care for oxen?] This question is to be particularly remarked that the apostles carried their wives understood thus : Is it likely that God should be solicitous about with them, “not as wives, but as sisters, that they for the comfort of oxen, and be regardless of the welfare of might minister to those who were mistresses of families; that man? In this divine precept, the kindness and providenso the doctrine of the Lord might, without reprehension ortial care of God are very forcibly pointed out. He takes evil suspicion, enter into the apartments of the women.” care of oxen; he wills them all that happiness of which their And in giving his finished picture of his Gnostic, or perfect | nature is susceptible; and can we suppose that he is unChristian, he says; eblet XQ1 TIIVEL, X21 ya ji & I-E xo vas || willing that the human soul shall have that happiness which 281 TOUS ATOSOROUS, He eats, and drinks, and marries— is suited to its spiritual and eternal nature ? He could not having the apostles for his example. Vid. Clem. Aler. Strom. reprobate an ox, because the Lord careth for oren; and lib. vii. c. 12.

surely he cannot reprobate a man. It may be said, the man On the propriety and excellence of marriage, and its su- | has sinned, but the ox cannot. I answer; the decree of re. periority to celibacy, see the notes on chap. vii.

probation is supposed to be from all eternity; and certainly Verse 6. Or I only and Barnabas] Have we alone, of a man can no more sin before he exists, than an ox can when all the apostles, no right to be supported by our converts ? || he exists. It appears from this, 1. That the apostles did not generally Verse 10. And he that thresheth in hope, should be partaker support themselves by their own labour. 2. That Paul and of his hope.] Instead of ó anowe tys eXTri@Os auto" jete qelv, er" Barnabas did thus support themselves. Some of the others | ATTidi, many of the best MSS. and Versions read the passage probably had not a business at which they could conve- thus ó adowv ET' ea Tide TOU LETEXEir And he who thresheth, niently work; but Paul and Barnabas had a trade at which || in hope of partaking. “ The words ons entidos, which are they could conveniently labour, wherever they came. omitted by the above, are,” says Bp. Pearce, “ superfluous,

Verse 7. Who goeth a warfare-at his own charges?] || if not wrong; for men do not live in hope to partake of These questions, which are all supposed from the necessity || their hope, but to partake of what was the object and end of

They who minister in holy things,


live of the temple.

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A M..4960. he that thresheth in hope should be which preach the gospel should live
Anno Imp. Ne partaker of his hope.

of the gospel. 11 'If we have sown unto you spiri- 15 But "I have used none of these ronis Cës, s. tual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap things: neither have I written these things, your carnal things ?

that it should be so done unto me: for it were 12 If others be partakers of this power over better for me to die, than that any man should you, are not we rather ?

• Nevertheless we make my glorying void. have not used this power ; but suffer all things, 16 For though I preach the gospel, I have ° lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ. nothing to glory of: for knecessity is laid upon

13 ^ Do ye not know that they which minister me : yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the about holy things, live of the things of the gospel ! temple ? and they which wait at the altar, are 17 For if I do this thing willingly, 'I have a partakers with the altar?

reward; but if against my will, "a dispensation 14 Even so 'hath the Lord ordained that they of the gospel is committed unto me.

a Rom. 15. 97. Gal. 6. 6. - Acts 20. 33. ver. 15, 18. 2 Cor. 11.7, 9. & 12. 13. 1 Thess. 2. 6. .c 2 Cor. 11. 12. Lev. 6. 16, 26. & 7.6, &c. Numb. 5. 9, 10. & 18. 8-20. Deut. 10. 9. & 18. 1. Or, feed.

p Matt. 10. 10. Luke 10.7.-- Gal. 6. 6. 1 Tim. 5. 17.- ver. 19. Acts 18. 3. & 20. 34. ch. 4. 12. 1 Thess. 2.9. 2 Thess. 3.8.2 Cor. 11. 10. - Rom. 1. 14.4 ch.3.8, 14. mch.4.1. Gal. 2.7. Phil. 1.17. Col.1.25.

their hope. When these words are left out, the former and Verse 14. Even so hath the Lord ordained] This is latter sentence will be both of a piece, and more resembling evidently a reference to our Lord's ordination, Matt. 1. 10. each other; for Peteyety may be understood after the first | The workman is worthy of his meat. And Luke x. 7. For ET'ENTbos, as well as after the last.” Griesbach has left the the labourer is worthy of his hire. And in both places it is words in question, out of the text.

the preacher of the gospel, of whom he is speaking. It was Verse 11. If we have sown unto you spiritwal things] If a maxim among the Jews, “that the inhabitants of a town we have been the means of bringing you into a state of sal where a wise man had made his abode, should support him ; vation, by the divine doctrines which we have preached unto because he had forsaken the world and its pleasures, to study you : is it too much for us to expect a temporal support, those things by which he might please God, and be useful when we give ourselves up entirely to this work ? Every to men.” See an ordinance to this effect, in the tract man who preaches the gospel, has a right to his own support Shabbath, fol. 114. and that of his family, while thus employed.

Verse 15. Neither have I written, &c.] Though I might Verse 12. If others be partakers of this power] If plead the authority of God in the law, of Christ in the gosthose who in any matter serve you, have a right to a recom pel, the common consent of our own doctors, and the pense for that service; surely we, who have served you in usages of civil society, yet I have not availed myself of my the most essential matters, have a right to our support while privileges; nor do I now write with the intention to lay is thus employed in your service.

We have not used this power] Though we had this right, Verse 16. For though I preach the gospel] I have cause we have not availed ourselves of it; but have worked with of glorying that I preach the gospel free of all charges to our hands to bear our own charges, lest any of you should you; but I cannot glory in being a preacher of the gospel; think that we preached the gospel merely to procure a tem- because I am not such either by my own skill or power : I poral support, and so be prejudiced against us; and thus have received both the office, and the grace by which I execute prevent our success in the salvation of your souls.

the office, from God. I have not only his authority to Verse 13. They which minister about holy things] All preach, but that authority obliges me to preach ; and if I the officers about the temple, whether priests, Levites, Ne- did not, I should endanger my salvation: yea, woe is ento thinim, &c. had a right to their support while employed in me, if I preach not the gospel. As every genuine preacher its service. The priests partook of the sacrifices; the others receives his commission from God alone; it is God alone who had their maintenance from tythes, first-fruits, and offerings can take it away. Woe to that man who runs when God made to the temple ; for it was not lawful for them to live has not sent him; and woe to him who refuses to run, or who on the sacrifices. Hence the apostle makes the distinction ceases to run, when God has sent him.. between those who minister about holy things, and those who Verse 17. For if I do this thing willingly] If I be a ze ait at the altar.

cordial co-operator with God, I have a reward, ao iacere

my claims.

St. Paul accommodates himself


to all, for their edification.

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18 What is my reward then? Verily 20 And unto the Jews I became as A.L.C.80% that, when I preach the gospel, Ia Jew, that I might gain the Jews; Anno Imp.

may make the gospel of Christ with to them that are under the law, as out charge, that I abuse not my power in the under the law, that I might gain them that are gospel

under the law; 19 For though I be free from all men, yet

21 6 To "them that are without law, as have " I made myself servant unto all, e that I without law, (' being not without law to God, might gain the more.

but under the law to Christ,) that I might

« Ch. 10. 33. 2 Cor. 4.5. & 7. 31.-ver. 1.- Gal. Acts 16. 3. & 18. 18. & 21. 23, &c. - Gal. 3. 2. Rom. 2. 12, 14.5. 18. Le Matt. 18. 15. 1 Pet. 3. 1.

Ich. 7. 22.

ruptible crown, ver. 25. Or, if I freely preach this gospel Verse 19. For though I be free] Although I am under no without being burthensome to any, I have a special reward ; || obligation to any man; yet I act as if every individual had but, if I do not, I have simply an office to fulfil, into which || a particular property in me; and as if I were the slave of God has put me ; and may fulfil it conscientiously, and claim the public. my privileges at the same time; but then I lose that special Verse 20. Unto the Jews I became as a Jew] In Acts reward, which I have in view by preaching the gospel without xvi. 3. we find that, for the sake of the unconverted Jews, charge to any.

he circumcised Timothy. See the Note there. This, and the 18th verse, have been variously translated : To them that are under the law] To those who considered Sir Norton Knatchbull, and after him Mr. Wakefield, trans- themselves still under obligation to observe its rites and cerelate the two passages thus : For, if I do this willingly, I monies, though they had, in the main, embraced the gospel, have a reward; but if I am entrusted with an office without he became as if under the same obligations; and therefore my consent, what is my reward then ? to make the gospel or purified himself in the temple, as we find related Acts xx. Christ, whilst I preach it, without charge, in not using to the 21-26. where, also, see the Notes. utmost, my privileges in the gospel.

After the first clause, To them that are under the luw, as Others render the passage thus: But if I do it merely be- under the law; the following words ur wy airos UTÒ YOULOY cause I am obliged to it, I only discharge an office that is com- not being myself under the laze, are added by ABCDEFG. mitted to me, ver. 18. For what then shall I be rewarded? several others; the later Syriuc, Sahidic, Armenian, VulIt is for this, that preaching the gospel of Christ, I preach gate, and all the Itala : Cyril, Chrysostom, Damascenus, it freely, and do not insist on a claim which the gospel itself and others : and on this evidence Griesbach has received gives me.

them into the text. Verse 18. That I abuse not my power] I am inclined to think Verse 21. To them that are without law] The Genthat tatayiyooofas is to be understood here, not in the sense tiles who had no written law; though they had the law writof abusing, but of using to the uttermost ; exacting every ten in their hearts : see on Rom. ii. 15. thing that a man can claim by law. How many proofs have Being not without law to God] Instead of Ew to God, we of this in preachers of different denominations, who in- and Xp15w to Christ; the most important MSS. and Versions sist so strongly, and so frequently, on their privileges, as they have sou of God, and Xp1500 of Christ : being not without term them; that the people are tempted to believe they seek the law of God, but under the law of Christ. not their souls' interests, but their secular goods. Such Them that are without law.] Dr. Lightfoot thinks the preachers can do the people no good. But the people who Sadducees may be meant; and that, in certain cases, as far are most liable to think thus of their ministers, are those as the rites and ceremonies of the Jewish religion were conwho are unwilling to grant the common necessaries of life to concerned, he might conform himself to them, not observing those who watch over them in the Lord. For, there are such rites and ceremonies, as it is well known that they disa such people even in the Christian church! If the preachers regarded them: for the Dr. cannot see how the apostle could of the gospel were as parsimonious of the bread of life, as conform himself in any thing to them that were without law, some congregations and Christian societies are of the bread i. e. the heathen. But, 1st, it is not likely that the apostle that perisheth; and if the preacher gave them a spiritual would conform himself to the Sadducees; for, what success nourishment, as base, as mean, and as scanty as the temporal could he expect among a people who denied the resurrection ; support which they afford him, their souls must, without and, consequently, a future world, a day of judgment, and doubt, have nearly a famine of the bread of life.

all rewards and punishments ? 2. He might among the

Al must run in the Christian race


in order to be saved.

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without law. I might be partaker thereof with AA.0.350.
22 * To the weak became I as weak, you.
ronis Cæs. 3. that I might gain the weak: "I am 24 Know ye not that they which ronis Cēs, 3.
made all things to all men, that I might by all run in a race run all, but one receiveth the

prize ? So

"So run, that ye may obtain.
23 And this I do for the gospel's sake, that 25 And every man that striveth for the mas.

means save some.

2 Rom. 15. 1. 2 Cor. 11. 29,vb ch. 10. 33.--- Rom. ll. 14. ch.

7. 16.

• Gal. 2. 2. & 5.7. Phil. 2. 16. & 3. 14. 2 Tim. 4.7. Hebr. 12. 1.-

Eph. 6. 12. 1 Tim. 6. 12. 2 Tim. 2. 5. & 4. 7.

heathen, appear as if he were not a Jew, and discourse with of TGŪTO this, Tavta all things, (I do all things for the gose
them on the great principles of that eternal law, the out- pel's sake,) is the reading of ABCDEFG. several others,
lines of which had been written in their hearts; in order to the Coptic, Æthiopic, Vulgate, Itala, Armenian, and Sa-
shew them the necessity of embracing that gospel, which was hidic: the two latter reading TAUTA TAYTA, all these things.
the power of God unto salvation, to every one that be Several of the Fathers have the same reading ; and there

is much reason to believe it to be genuine.
Verse 22. To the weak became I as weak] Those who That I might be partaker thereof with you.] That I might
were conscientiously scrupulous, even in respect to lawful attain to the reward of eternal life, which it sets before me;

and this is in all probability the meaning of To EvaYYENO,
I am made all things to all men] I assumed every shape which we translate the gospel ; and which should be ren.
and form consistent with innocency and perfect integrity ; || dered here, prize or reward: this is a frequent meaning of the
giving up my own will, my own way, my own ease, my own original word, as may be seen in my Preface to St. Mat-
pleasure, and my own profit, that I might save the souls of thew : I do all this for the sake of the prize, that I may pare
all. Let those who plead for the system of accommodation, take of it with you.
on the example of St. Paul, attend to the end he had in Verse 24. They which run in a race, run all It is suf.
view ; and the manner in which he pursued that end. It | ficiently evident that the apostle alludes to the athletic
was not to get money, influence or honour, but to save exercises in the games, which were celebrated every fifth
SOULS! It was not to get ease, but to increase his labours. I year on the isthmus, narrow neck of land, which joins
It was not to save his life, but rather that it should be a the Peloponnesus, or Morea, to the main land; and were
sacrifice for the good of immortal souls !

thence termed the Isthmian Games. The exercises were
A parallel saying to this of St. Paul, has been quoted from running, wrestling, boxing, throwing the discus, or quoit,
Achilles Tatius, lib. v. cap. xix. where Clitophon says, on 8c. to the three first of these the apostle especially alludes.
having received a letter from Leucippe, TOUTOIS EYTUXW7, But one receiveth the prize.?] The apostle places the
παντα εγινομην, όμου, ανεφλεγομην, ωχριων, εθαυμαζον, Christian race in contrast to the Isthmian games; in theum,
naosovv, Eyalpov, nx fou. que “When I read the contents, I only one received the prize, though all ran: in this, if
decame all things at once : I was inflamed; I grew pale; 1 || all run, all will receive the prize : therefore, be says, so
was struck with wonder ; I doubted; I rejoiced ; I became run that ye may oblain. Be as much in earnest to get to
gad.” The same form of speech is frequent among Greek heaven as the others are to gain their prize : and, although
writers. I think this casts some light on the apostle's only one of them can win, all of you may obtain.

Verse 25. Is temperate in all things. All those who
That I might by all means save some.

ne.] On this clause contended in these exercises, went through a long state and
there are some very important readings found in the MSS. series of painful preparations. To this exact discipline
and Versions. Instead of TaytWS T1905 Owow, that I might | Epictetus refers, cap. 35. E NELS OAutio vixy601 ;
by all means save some ; παντας σωσω that I might save all, | ευτακτειν, αναγκοτροφειν, απεχεσθαι πεμματων, γυμναζεσθαι
is the reading of DEFG. Syriac, Vulgate, Æthiopie, all Tipos avxyany ex wą tetayuern, sy nouuatı, ey you get lux
the Hala, and several of the Fathers. This reading Bishop lux por Tiveiv, per os voy WS ETUYEYaraws, ws sampo, façais-
Pearce prefers, because it is more agreeable to St. Paul's δωκεναι σεαυτον το επιςατη ειτα εις τον αγωνα παρερχεσθαι
meaning here, and exactly agrees with what he says chap. x. x•T•A• “Do you wish to gain the prize at the Olympic
33. and makes his design more extensive and noble. Wake- Games ?--Consider the requisite preparations, and the con-
field also prefers this reading.

sequences: You must observe a striet regimen ; must live ou
And this I do for the gospel's sake] Instead food which you dislike; you must abstain from all delicacies;

As c'

Qualifications of those who contend


in the Isthmian games.


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26 I therefore so run, not as unALUSOO they do it to obtain a corruptible i certainly; so fight I, not as one that Ano, o SP: Anno Imp.

Anno Imp. Necrown; but we 'an incorruptible. beateth the air:

ronis Cæs. 9.

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• 2 Tim. 4. 8. James 1.12. 1 Pet. 1. 4. & 5. 4. Rev. 2. 10. & 3. 11.

1 2 Tim. 2.5.

must exercise yourself at the necessary and prescribed timestators were fixed on those who ran in these races; and to both in heat and in cold; you must drink nothing cooling; gain the applause of the multitude, they stretched every take no wine as fornierly : in a word, you must put yourself nerve : the apostle knew that the eyes of all were fixed upon under the directions of a pugilist, as you would under those him-1. His false brethren waited for his halting-2. The of a physician; and afterwards enter the lists. Here you persecuting Jews and Gentiles longed for his downfall-may get your arm broken, your foot put out of joint, be 3. The church of Christ looked on him with anxiety-4. And obliged to swallow mouthfuls of dust, to receive many he acted in all things as under the immediate eye of God. stripes; and, after all, be conquered.” Thus we find, that Not as one that beateth the air] Kypke observes, that these suffered much hardships in order to conquer ; and yet there are three ways in which persons were said aspa debelv, were uncertain of the victory.

to beat the air. 1. When in practising for the combat, they'

threw their arms and legs about in different ways, thus pracHorace speaks of it in nearly the same way

tising the attitudes of offence and defence. This was termed Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam,

Guia payta fighting with a shadow. To this Virgil alludes Multa tulit fecitque puer : sudavit et alsit,

when representing Dures swinging bis arms about, when he Abstinuit Venere et Baccho. De Arte Poet. ver.412. rose to challenge a competitor in the boxing match :

A youth who hopes the Olympic prize to gain,
All arts must try, and every

toil sustain;
Th' extremes of heat and cold must often prove;
And shun the weakening joys of wine and love.


Talis prima Dares caput altum in prælia tollit,
Ostenditque humeros latos, alternaque jactat
Brachia protendens, et verberat ictibus auras.

Æn. v. ver. 375.

These quotations shew the propriety of the apostle's words: Thus, glorying in his strength, in open view Every man that striveth for the mastery, TAYTA EYUPATEUETAI His arms around the towering Dares threw; is temperate, or continent, in all things.

Stalk'd high, and laid his brawny shoulders bare, They do it to obtain a corruptible crown] The crown won And dealt his whistling blows in empty air. Pitt. by the victor in the Olympian games, was made of the wild olide; in the Pythiun games, of laurel; in the Nemean2. Sometimes boxers were to aim blows at their adversaries games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian games, of the pine. which they did not intend to take place; and which the These were all corruptible, for they began to wither as soon others were obliged to exert themselves to prevent as much as they were separated from the trees, or plucked out of the as if they had been really intended; and, by these means, earth. In opposition to these, the apostle says, he contended some dexterous pugilists vanquished their adversaries by mere for an incorruptible crown; the heavenly inheritance. He fatigue, without giving them a single blow. 3. Pugilists sought not worldly honour; but that honour which comes were said to beat the air when having to contend with a from God.

nimble adversary, who, by running from side to side, stoopVerse 26. I therefore so run, not as uncertainly] In the ing, and various contortions of the body, eluded the blows foot-course in those games, how many soever ran, only one of his antagonist; who spent his strength on the air, fre. could have the prize, however strenuously they might exert quently missing his aim, and sometimes overturning himself, themselves; therefore, all ran uncertainly; but it was in attempting to hit his adversary, when this, by his agility, widely different in the Christian course ; if every one ran as had been able to elude the blow. We have an example of he ought, each would receive the prize.

this in Virgil's account of the boxing match between Entellus The word arnaws, which we translate uncertainly, has and Dares, so well told Æneid. v. ver. 426, &c. and which other meanings. 1. It signifies ignorantly; I do not run will give us a proper view of the subject to which the like one ignorant of what he is about; or of the laws of apostle alludes :-riz. boxing at the Isthmian games. the course: I know that there is an eternal life ; I know the way that leads to it; and I know and feel the power of it. Constitit in digitos extemplo arrectus uterque, 2. It signifies without observation; the eyes of all the spec Brachiaque ad superas interritus extulit auras.

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