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collected money from them for repairing the temple. It may also be inferred from the IXth chapter of the Int book of Chronicles (c), where we find the Israelites distinguished from the Jews, and mention made of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, that several persons belonging to the ten tribes fled into Judea, when the rest of their countrymen were carried away captive. The prophet Jeremiah (d) when he foretold the return from the Babylonish captivity, declared likewise, that at that time, the children of Israel should come, they and the children of Judah together, and seek the Lord their God. The same thing is further evident from the gospel. Anne the daughter of Phanuel, mentioned by St. Luke (e) was of the tribe of Afer. St. Matthew fays (f) that Jesus Christ went and preached in the borders of Zabulon and Nepthalim, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nepthalim bath feen great light. It may indeed be said that the tribe of Judah and the remains of that of Benjamin took possession of these countries after their return from the captivity. But this opinion cannot well be reconciled with the contemptuous manner with which the Jews treated the Galileans and their extreme aversion of the least mixture with the Gentiles. It is manifest from the whole tenour of the gospel, and the testimony of Josephus (g), that though the Galileans professed the Jewish religion, and had some dealings with the Jews, yet that they were looked upon by the latter as persons of a quite different character from themselves. It is moreover evident from the fame authors, that Galilee was a very populous country, which could not posfibly have been if it had been peopled only by colonies fent thither from the tribe of Judah, whose country was large enough to hold them all. It is then very.probable, that the cities of Galilee were peopled with such of the ten tribes, as remained in the land, or had returned thither from several parts, upon different occafions. The Captivity of
The tribe of Judah did not continue more faithful the tribe of Judab.
to God, than Samarin, the metropolis of the kingdom
of Ifracl had done. Accordingly they were alike severely punished for their disobedience, by being (1) often delivered into the hands of their enemies, and at last carried all captive away by Nebuchadnezzar in the 19th year of his reign. Nebuzaradan, the captain of his guard, having taken and destroyed the city and temple of Jeru. Jalem, carried away Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, captive to Babylon, with such as survived their unhappy country, excepting some of the poorest, whom he left to dress and till the ground. Their number must notwithstanding have been pretty contiderable. For they are stiled a people; they inhabited several towns; and Nebuchadnezzar appointed a very famous man for their governor, since all the Jews, who had fled for refuge among the Moabites, Ainmonites, Idumeans, and other neighbouring nations, came and implored his protection. As soon indeed as this president had been barbarously murdered by the treachery
(c) < Chron. ix. 3. (d) Jer, l. 4. () Luke ij. 36. (f) Matt, iv. 13. 15. 16. (8) Jofeph. de Bell. Jud, I. iii. C, 2. (1) 2 Chron. xxxiii. 2. xxxvi. 6. 17. a Kings xxiv. xxv. Jer. liia,
of Ishmael, the greatest part of them being afraid of falling into the hands of the Chaldæans, went down into Egypt; though God had given them an express prohibition to the contrary by his Prophet Jeremiah (i), because he was desirous of keeping together these remains of Judah.
However this be, after the captivity of Babylon had lasted seventy years, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah (k), it ended with the empire of the Chaldeans, which was destroyed by Cyrus the founder of the Persian monarchy. This prince, being moved thereto by God, in a special manner, fignalized the firit year of his reign over the Babylosiians, by his edict in favour of the Jews; fulfilling thereby the prophecy of Isaiah (!), which, as Josephus pretends (mn), Cyrus himself had read. Thus much is plain from firipture (n), that he acknowledges, it was by God's order he set the Jews at liberty, and caused the city and temple of Jerusalem to be rebuilt. However, this work was but just begun during the life-time of Cyrus, wholly taken up with his war against the Messageta, wherein he fell
. It was afterwards interrupted and stopped (0) for several years, under the reigns of some of Cyrus's successors, by the treachery and calumnies of the Samaritans or Cuthæans, the professed and perpetual enemies of the Jews. So that the temple could not be finished till the reign of Darius the son of Hyftespes (P), nor Jerusalem rebuilt till the time of Artaxerxes his fuccessor, according to the opinion of the most famous Chronologers. About these times prophesied Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi the last of the prophets, with whole writings the Jewish canon ends. This is necessary to observe in relation to the New Testament, because neither the sacred authors, nor Jesus Christ, have quoted any other books but what were in that
The Jews after their return from the Babylonish captivity, remained in subjection to the kings of Perfia, till the time of Alexander the Great: : Though they were tributary to them, yet they enjoyed the free exercise of their religion, and were governed by kings of their own nation. For Sephus relates (9) that Alexander the Great being highly incensed against the Jerus, because they had refused him alliitance, had resolved to go and lay fiege to Jerusalem ; but that as he was marching towards it, his anger was immediately turned into a reverend awe at the fight of Faddus the high-prielt, who came out to meet him in his pontifical robes, and that he granted the Jews all the privileges they required of him. We are not indeed obliged to give credit to all the fine things Josephus hath advanced in this part of his history. But thus much is certain, that from that time the Jews began to hellenize (r); that the Greek tongue, spoken by the Macedonians, became more common among them; and that they also embraced some of the opinions of the Greek philosophers,
(i) Jer. xli. xlii. xlii.
(k) Jer. xxix. 10. (1) Isa. xliv. 28. xlv, 13.
(m) Jos. Ant. Jud. I. xi. c. 1. in) 2 Chron. xxxvi. 22, 23. Ezra i. 1, 2.
(0) Ezra iv, (P) Ezra vi, vii. Eufeb. Chron. () Josephus Antiq. Jud. l. xi. c. 8. (7) See Eufeb. Chron. & Præpar. Evang. vii, 14. & viii. 10.
as the transmigration of souls, for instance. We find some steps of this notion even in the New Testament, as in St. Luke xvi. 23. where there is an account of the abode of departed souls, conformable to the Grecian Philosophy, and in St. John ix. 2. where we find an allufion to the præexisterce, and transmigration of souls. It is moreover evident from the apocryphal writings (s), from Philo (t), Josephus (u), and the Thalmue dists, that the Jews, especially the Pharisees, had learned and followed the Grecian Philosophy, ever since their conversing with the Greeks under Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies and Seleucida his successors, who reigned in Egypt and Syria. After the death of this illustrious monarch, the administration of the common-wealth of Israel came into the hands of the high-priests, and was sometimes protected, and at other times opprefled by the kings of Egypt, and Syria its neighbours, who became successively masters of it. Ptolemy Lagus (*) king of Egypt and fucceffor of Alexander the Great, surprised ferufalem, and carried several thousands of Jews with him prisoners into Egypt, where they were followed by several others, who were induced to go thither, upon account of the great trust which Ptolemy reposed in them. Ptolemy Philadelphus had a great kindness for them, and gave several thousands leave to return into their own country. They underwent very great hardships, during the long and continual wars between the kings of Egypt and Syria. But their religion and state never were in so great danger, after their return from the Babylonish captivity, as under Antiochus Epiphanes. What a terrible persecution that cruel and impious prince raised against them, is so well known, that we need not give an account of it here ; nor of the valour nor heroic zeal of the Maccabees, who then freed them from iti · A few years after, the regal authority and the priesthood were united in Ariftobulus, the son of Hyrcanus (y), who had shaken off the yoke of the Macedonians, destroyed the temple of Gerizim, facked several towns in Syria, and forced the Idumeans to be circumcised, for which Teason they were thenceforward looked upon as fews. We may
observe by the by, that it came likewise to pass about the same time that Onias, exasperated at seeing the high-priesthood given to Alcimus, who was not of the facerdotal race, went into Egypt, and got Ptolemy
Philometor's leave to build a temple there upon the model of that at Ferufalem. Thus the Jerus came to have three temples, that rivalled one another, one at Jerufalem, another at Gerizim in Samaria, built by the permillion of Darius, and afterward of Alexander the Great and that of Onias in Egypt.
The Jewish state remained in this condition till the time of Pompey the Great, whe deprived Hyrcanus of his crown, leaving him however in possession of the priesthood, and invested with princely power, and made the Jews tributary to the Romans (z). Thus did the Jews forfeit their liberty, by means of the factions
(s) Wisdom vii. 17.
(c) Philo paflim.
of those very Afmoneans, whose valour had procured it for them before (a).
JULIUS CÆSAR haring defeated' Pompey, he Concerning the Hecontinued Hyrcanus high-priest, and gave the go-, rods, and first of vernment of Judea to Antipater, an Idumaan by Herod the Great. birth, but a Jewish Profelyte, and the father of Herod, firnamed the Great (b), who was afterwards king of the Jews. Antipater divided Judea between his two sons, bestowing upon Phafael, who was the eldest, the government of Jerufalem; and that of Galilee, upon Herod, his fecond fon : who, being naturally bold and active, was not long without fhewing the greatness of his mind; for he cleared his country of the robbers it was infested with, and fignalized his courage against Antigonas the competitor cf Hyrcanus in the priesthood, who was set up by the Tyrians. Mark Anthony ratified these regulations of Antipater, and gave his two sons the name of Tetrarchs, or Princes (r). .. In the mean time, the Parthians having invaded Judea, carried away captive Hyrcanus, and Phafael, Herod's brother (d). Whereupon Herod, giving up all for lost, fled to Mark Anthony at Rome, who, with the consent of the Senate, bestowed upon him the title of King of Judea (e), which he designed to beg for Ariftobulus the brother of Mariamne, and grandson of Hyrcanus, of the Afmonean family. He kept himself in possession of this dignity by the help of the Roman arms, notwithstanding the faction of Antigonnt, who had the greatest part of the Jewish nation on his fide (f ). The intestine war that happened upon this occasion, and lasted for about three years, brought Judea to the very brink of destruction: Jerusalem was taken, the temple plundered and ravaged, and a dreadful flaughter ensued on both sides. Though Herod got the better, yet he was not well fettled on his throne, fo long as he had the displeasure of Augustus to fear, after the overthrow of Ninrk Anthony, with whom he had fided. However he was continued by Auguftus in his government of Judea.
If this prince may be said to have had any good qualities, his vaft magnificence in buildings must be reckoned as one. This manifeftly appeared in his founding or repairing of several cities (g), to which he gave the names of Augustus Cæfar, and Agrippa ; as for instance, Samaria which he called Sebasłe (), that is Augusta ; Turris Stratonis (i) which he named Cæfarea, different from that other Cæsarea which Philip the Tetrarch honoured with that name out of respect to Tiberius Cæfar, and which for that reason is stiled in the New Testament Cæfarea Philippi (k). But the greatest glory and ornament of Herod's reign, in this refpect, was the building of the temple of Jerusalem anew, which had been rebuilt about five hundred years before by Zerubbabel
. The reason he alledged for this undertaking, was, that the second temple was fixty
(a) Jos. de Bello Jud. l. i. c. 5.
16) Jos. Antiq. xiv. 2, 12.
fe) Id. ibid. c. 26.
(8) Jof. de Bell. Jud. 1. i. c. 16. () Id. Antiq. I. xv. C. II.
() Id. ibid. & c. 13. (k) Matt, xvi. 13.
cubits lower than o Salomon's (1). When he acquainted the Jews with his design, they were alarmed at it, thinking that it would be both difficult and dangerous to put fuch a thing in execution, and moreover judging' it unlawful to meddle with a temple which God had restored to them in so wonderful a manner. Besides, they were afraid that the divine service would have been interrupted for a considerable time, while this new temple was a building. But Herod removed their fears, by
affuring them that the old temple fhould remain untouched, till all the -materials of the new one were got' realy. And accordingly it appcars from hiftory, that the divine service was performed all the time the new one was building, or rather the old one repairing: fofephus observes (1), that Herod." durst not presume to enter into the holy place himself be
: cause not being a prieft, he stood prohibited by the law ; but that he “ committed the care of this part of the work to the priests themselves:" from whence it plainly appears, that place was not pulled down, but only some alterations made in it. The same is further evident from the gospel (22) wherein it is said, that Fliph and Mary went to Jerusalem -every year at the fenst of the possover, which was celebrated in the temple, cand that they went thither with Jesus Christ, according to custom (); Had there been any interruption in that natter, the Evangelist could not have used that expreffion. And therefore the Jews never make mention of any more than two temples, looking upon Herodos, only as Zerubbabel's repaired, though it might justly have been reckoned a new temple, both upon the account of the magnificent buildings he added to it, and the rich materials he used; which whilft the disciples of Jesus Christ were once admiring (0), he took an occasion from thence of foretelling the ruinr' of that tempie. This magnificence the prophet Haggai (p) had an eye to, when he declared that the glory of this latter house was to be greater than that of the former. But, notwithstanding all the beauty and sumptuousness of Herod's temple, this prophecy was not fulfilled but by Jesus Christ's coming into it; He, who was the true temple of God, and of whom that of Jerusalem was no more than a very imperfect figure, as St. Paul (?) and Jefus Chriß? himself (**) do intimate. How noble foever the descriptions are (s) which the fows have given us of Herod's temple, yet they unanimoully agree (t) that there were several things wanting in it, as well as in that of Zerubbabel, which were the chief glory of the first temple ; that is, the Ark of the covenant, wherein were put the two tables of the law, with the pot of mannn, and Aaron's rod that budded; the Urim and Thummim; the cloud, or Shecinah, which was a token of the divine Presence; the spirit of prophecy; and the holy anointing oil. Of all these there were but faint representations, and imperfect copies in the second temple, as is owned by the Rabbins themselves. And therefore Haggai's prophecy was applied to the Messiah .by the ancient Jewib doctors (u), who say, that the glory of the second
(1) Jof. Antiq. 1. xv. C. 14.
(m) Id. ibid.
(n). Luke ii. 41, 42 (0) Matt. xxiv. Mark xiii. 1. Luke xxi. 5.
6) Hag.ii.g. (9) Colof. ii.
(r) John ii, 21, (s) Jof. Antiq. Jud. I. XV. C. 14. ) Thalmud. ap. Lightfoot, Tom. ii. Opp. p. 275. (2) Aben-Esra ap. Deyling Obf. facr. Part. iii. Obí. 20.