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ich Pho were indis into Econ, and carrigue and fibecame
as the transmigration of souls, for instance. We find some steps of this notion even in the New Testament, as in St. Luke xvi. 23. where there is an account of the abode of departed souls, conformable to the Grecian Philosophy, and in St. John ix. 2. where we find an allusion to the præexistence, and transmigration of souls. It is moreover evident from the apocryphal writings (s), from Philo (t), Josephus (u), and the Thalmudists, that the Jews, especially the Pharisees, had learned and followed the Grecian Philosophy, ever since their conversing vith the Greeks under Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies and Seleucida his fucceffors, who reigned in Egypt and Syria. After the death of this illustrious monarch, the administration of the common-wealth of Israel came into the hands of the high-priests, and was sometimes protected, and at other times opprefsed by the kings of Egypt, and Syria its neighbours, who became successively masters of it. Ptolemy Lagus (x) king of Egypt and fucceffor of Alexander the Great, surprised Jerusalem, and carried several thousands of Jews with him prisoners into Egypt, where they were followed by several others, who were induced to go thither, upon account of the great trust which Ptolemy reposed in them. Ptolemy Philadelphus had a great kindness for them, and gave several thousands leave to return into their own country. They underwent very great hardships, during the long and continual wars between the kings of Egypt and Syria. But their religion and state never were in so great danger, after their return from the Babylonish captivity, as under Antiochus Epiphanes. What a terrible persecution that cruel and impious prince raised against them, is so well known, that we need not give an account of it here ; nor of the valour nor heroic zeal of the Maccabees, who then freed them from iti. A few years after, the regal authority and the priesthood were united in Ariftobulus, the son of Hyrcanus (y), who had shaken off the yoke of the Macedonians, destroyed the temple of Gerizim, facked several towns in Syria, and forced the Idumeans to be circumcised, for which reason they were thenceforward looked upon as Fews. We may observe by the by, that it came likewise to pass about the fame time that Onias, exasperated at seeing the high-priesthood given to Alcimus, who was not of the sacerdotal race, went into Egypt, and got Ptolemy Philometor's leave to build a temple there upon the model of that at Ferusalem. Thus the Jews came to have three temples, that rivalled one another, one at Jerusalem, another at Gerizim in Sainaria, built by the permission of Darius, and afterward of alexander the Great; and that of Onias in Egypt.
The Jewish state remained in this condition till the time of Pompey the Great, who deprived Hyrcanus of his crown, leaving him however in possession of the priesthood, and invested with princely power, and made the Jews tributary to the Romans (2). Thus did the Jews forfeit their liberty, by means of the factions
(s) Wisdom vii. 17.
(t) Philo paflim.
of thofe very 'Afmonæans, whose valour had procured it for them before (a). - JULIUS CESAR haring defeated' Pompey, he Concerning the Hrcontinued Hyrcanus high-priest, and gave the go- rods, and first of vernment of Judea to Antipater, an Idumaan by Herod the Great. birth, but a fewill Profelyte, and the father of Herod, sirnamed the Great (6), who was afterwards king of the Jews. Antipater divided
Judea between his two sons, beltowing upon Phafael, who was the eldest, the government of Jerusalem ; and that of Galilee, upon Herod, his fe"cond fon : who, being naturally bold and active, was not long without
fhewing the greatness of his mind; for he cleared his country of the robbers it was infested with, and fignalized his courage against Antigonus the competitor cf Hyrcanus in the priesthood, who was set up by the Tyrians. Mark Anthony ratified these regulations of Antipater, and gave his two sons the name of Tetrarchs, or Princes (r). . In the mean time, the Parthians having invaded Judea, carried away captive Hyrcanus, and Phafael, Herod's brother (d). Whereupon Herod, giving up all for lost, fled to Mark Anthony at Rome, who, with the consent of the Senate, bestowed upon him the title of King of Judea (c), which he designed to beg for Ariftobulus the brother of Mariamne, and grandson of Hyrcanus, of the Apmonean family. He kept himself in poffefsion of this dignity by the help of the Roman arms, notwithstanding the faction of Antigonnt, who had the greatest part of the Jewish nation on his side (f). The intestine war that happened upon this occasion, and lasted for about three years, brought Judea to the very brink of destruction: Jerusalem was taken, the temple plundered and ravaged, and a dreadful flaughter ensued on both sides. Though Herod got the better, yet he was not well fettled on his throne, so long as he had the displeasure of Augustus to fear, after the overthrow of Mark Anthony, with whom he had fided. However he was continued by Auguftus in his government of Judea.
If this prince may be said to have had any good qualities, his vaft magnificence in buildings must be reckoned as one. This manifeftly appeared in his founding or repairing of several cities (g), to which he gave the names of Augustus Cæfar, and Agrippa ; as for instance, Samária which he called Seballe (h), that is Augusta ; Turris Stratonis (i) which he named Cæfarea, different from that other Cæsarea which Philip the Tetrarch honoured with that name out of respect to Tiberius Cæfar, and which for that reason is stiled in the New Testament Cæfarea Philippi (k). But the greatest glory and ornament of ‘Herod's reign, in this refpect, was the building of the temple of Jerusalem anew, which had been rebuilt about five hundred years before by Zerubbabel. The reason he alledged for this undertaking, was, that the second temple was fixty
(a) Jof, de Bello Jud. I. i. c. 5. . 16) Jos. Antiq. xiv. 2, 12.
fe) Id. ibid. c. 26.
(s) Jof. de Bell. Jud. l. i. c. 16. (b) Id. Antiq. I. xv. c. 11.
) Id. ibid. & c. 13. ik) Matt, xvi. 13.
scubits. lower than o Salomon's 1). When he acquainted the Jews with his design, they were alarmed at it, thinking that it would be both difficult and dangerous to put such a thing in execution, and moreover judging it unlawful to meddle with a temple which God had reftored to them in so wonderful a manner. Besides, they were afraid that the <divine service would have been interrupted for a considerable time, while this new temple was a building. But Herod removed their fears, by affuring them that the old temple should remain untouched, till all the - materials of the new one were got' recy. And accordingly it appears from hiftory, that the divine service was performed all the time the new one was building, or rather the old one repairing. fofephus observes (172), that Herod." durst not presume to enter into the holy place himself be“cause not being a priest, he stood prohibited by the law ; but that he .« committed the care of this part of the work to the priests themselves :" from whence it plainly appears, that place was not pulled down, but only some alterations made in it. The fame is further evident from the gospel (12) wherein it is said, that "Foseph and Mary went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the pullover, which was celebrated in the temple, (and that they went thither with Jesus Christ, according to cultom (0). Had there been any interruption in that matter, tlie Evangelist could not have used that expression. And therefore the Jews never make mention of any more than two temples, looking upon Herods, only as Zerubbabel's repaired; though it might justly have been reckoned a new temple, both upon the account of the magnificent buildings he added to it, and the rich materials he used; which whilst the disciples of Jesus Christ were once.admiring (6), he took an occasion from thence of foretelling the ruin of that tempie. This maguificence the prophet Haggai (o) had an eye to, when he declared that the glory of this latter house was to be greater than that of the former. But, notwithstanding all the beauty and sumptuousiefs of Herod's temple, this prophecy was not fulfilled but by Jeliis Christ's coming into it; He, who was the true temple of God, and of whom that of ferusalem was no more than a very imperfect figure, as St. Paul(a) and Jefus Chrif? himself (**) do intimate. How noble foever the descriptions are (s) which the Jows have given us of Herod's temple, yet they unanimoully agree (t) that there were several things wanting in it, as well as in that of Zerubbabel, which were the chief glory of the first temple ; that is, the Ark of the covenant, wherein were put the two tables of the law, with the pot of manna, and
Aaron's rod that budded; the Urim and Thummine; the cloud, or Shocinah, , which was a token of the divine Prefence; the spirit of prophecy; and the holy anointing oil. Of all these there were but faint representations, and imperfect copies in the second temple, as is owned by the Robbins themselves. And therefore Haggai's prophecy was applied to the Messiah by the ancient Jewijh doctors (1), who lay, that the glory of the second
temple (1) Jof. Antiq. I. xv. C. 14. (m) Id. ibid. - («)Luke ii. 41, 42. (0) Matt. xxiv. Mark xiji, . Luke xxi. 5.
(0) Hag. ii. 9. (9) Coloi. ii. 9. (v) John ii. 21. (s) Jof. Antiq. Jud. l. xv.c. 14. . (t) Thalmud. ap. Lightfoot, Tom. ii. Opp. p. 275.
(2) Aben-Efra ap. Deyling Obs. facr, Part, iii. Obl. 20.
temple consisted in this, that it was honoured with the Meffiah's presence. Josephus tells us (x), that Herod set about this work in the cighteenth year of his reign ; and finished it in the space of nine years and a half. Which must neceflarily be understood of the walls and main body of the building, and not of all its parts and oruments, since the same historian relates in another place, that it was not quite finished till the time of Agrippa.the Younger, the grandson of Herod, that is about fixty years after the birth of Jesus Chrijl. We have no reason therefore, to be surprised at what the Fows told Jesus CHRIST (y), that this temple was forty and six years' in duilding, since if we reckon from the eighteenth year of the reign of Herod, (when he undertook to rebuild the temple, to the thirtieth year of gefus Christ, [in which this dispute happened between him and the Jews] we shall find just forty-six years, It is more natural to put this. fe:ffe upon the words of the Jews, than, as others have done, to compute those forty-six years from the order given by Cyrus for rebuilding the temple, to the finishing of it; because by this last calculation those years cannot well be made out.
Jofephus relates that the people were overjoyed to see the work compleated, and that they offered numberless facrifices upon that occasion, How great a shew foever there might be of religion in this undertaking, yet it could by no means make amends for the miseries which that unhappy people suffered from the impieties, and above all from the cruelties of Herod. If he built a temple in honour of the true God, he crected several, on the other hand, to faise deities, in order to ingratiate himself with Augustus and the Romans (z). But his prevail. ing character was an extreme inhumanity, and the most enormous cruelty.
Though Josephus hath extolled, as much as possible, the good qualities of Herod, yet he could not conceal his crimes and vices, and above all his horrid cruelty. He imbrued his hands in the blood of his wife, of his children, and of the greatest part of his family : Of fo restless and jealous a temper was he, that he spared neither his people, nor the richest and most powerful of his subjects, nor even his very friends («). He was naturally so suspicious, that he put the innocent to the torture for fear the guilty should escape (b). It is justly wondered at that Fosephus should make no mention of the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem (c), which was done by Herod's order, not long after our Saviour's birth. To account for this omission, some learned men have imagined, that this massacre having been done privately from house to house by a few foldiers, it made no great noise, or else was not let to Herod's account (d). But it is molt probable that Josephus knew nothing of it, since he found it not in the memoirs of Nicolaus Damafcenus, an historian of those times; whom he himself charges with having palliated and dis
guised (x) Jof. Antiq. I. xv. c. 14.
(y) John ii. 20. (z) Joseph. Ant. 1. xv, c. 12, 13.
Jof. Ant. b. xicap. 11. & de Bell, Jud. I. i. p. 17. (6) Id. ibid. p. 19.
(c) Matth, ii. 16, (d) Lami Harm, Evang. p. 541
quised the most notorious and extravagant cruelties of Herod (e). Je teeins however not to have been unknown to a heathen author (f), who speaks of it (though confusedly,) in the following manner : “ Augustus " having been informned, that among foine children, which Herod had ordered “ to be killed in Syria, (he should have said Judea) he did not spare one of “ his own fons, faid, That it was much better to be Herod's swine, than his " for,” alluding to the Jewith custom of not eating swine's fesh. However this be, as Herod was a Jew, he could not be the author of so barbarous á cruelty without making himself guilty of the utinoit impiety, fince he did it with a design to cut off thé Mesrab, being fully satisfied by the answer which he received from the chief priests and elders (3), that the new-born infant was the promised Chrifi.
His end, and a very difinal one, being a visible punishment of his wickedness, clotely followed this horrid butchery. He died as he had lived, contriving nothing but mischief, and framing the most bloody and inhuman designs (1). His death was looked upon as a very happy deliverance, and the tidings of it received with the utmost joy and satisfaction, which that vile monster well foreseeing, he had ordered all the chief men of the city to be barbaroully murdered before he died, that there might be a general mourning at his death (i). A Jewish doctor, supposed to be pretty ancient, affirms that the day of his death was kept by the Jews, as a festival (k). The leårned are not agreed about the year of his death ; but thus much is certain, that he died 34 years after the expulsion of Antigonus, and in the 37th year from his being declared king of the Jews by the Romans (1). We shall have occasion to examine this more particularly hereafter, when we come to treat of the chronology of the New Testament.
. After having spoken of Herod the Great, it is proper Of the polterity that we should next give an account of his fons and of Herod.
grondfons, as far as is requisite for the understanding the New Testament. We find three of his fons mentioned there, between whom, by his last will and testament, he divided his dominions ; viz. ARCHELAUS, to whom he gave the kingdom of Fredea, together with Idumea, and Samaric ; HEROD Antipas, or Antipater, whom he appointed Tetrarch or governor of Galilee and Per&a ; and PHILIP, whom he made likewise Tetrarch of Ituræa, Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and some other countries. It was necessary that Herod's will should be ratified by Auguftus Cæfar, and it was accordingly done, excepting this, that he
(e) Jof. Ant, l. xvi. p. 11.
(f) Macrob. Saturn. ii. 4. (5) Matt. ii. 4, 5, 6.
b) Jof. Ant. L. xvii. cap. 8. He was parched up with a faint, inward fever, that almost burnt his heart out, and yet scarce sensible to the touch. He was tormented with an insatiable appetite, ulcers and cholicks in his bowels ; pblege matick tumors in his feet and groin ; afthmas, cramps ; &c.
(i) Id. ibid.
in) Megillath Taanith ap. Uffer. Ann. p. 535. Lami Appar. Chron. p. 73.
(7) Jofephus ubi supr,