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were om place; and he loves oothic tablica, when the the fencinicomp of the
from kings and princes, and which were carried away by Antiochors Epiphanes (s). Jofephus and the Rabbins speak of a golden vine in this place, which crept up the pillars of cedar : this vine was the product of the presents made by private persons when they dedicated their first fruits of their grapes. Here stood also a golden table; and a lamp of the fame meral was fixed over the gate which led into the fanctuary : There were given by Helena, queen of Adiabena, when she embraced the Jewife religion. There were two other tables in this porch; a marble one, wherteon were set the loaves of thew-bread, before they were carried into the holy place; and a golden one, on which they were placed, when they were brought back from thence.
. The sanctuary, or holy place, called by the Jews the The holy place. outer boure. (it being such in respect of the Holy of Hohes) was between the porch, and the most holy place ; being twenty cubits broad, and forty in length and height. It had two gates, one whereof was called the leffer; through which they went in order to open the great gate, which had four folding doors. The fancluary was divided from the Holy of Holies neither by a wall nor gate, but only by a double vail (t). This is supposed to have been the vail which was rent in twain at our Saviour's death (u), because it was to be of no further use. Allusion seems to be made to this in the Revelations, where it is said, that the temple of God was opened in heaven, and the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony was opened (x). The altar of
What we are chicfly to consider in the Sanctuary are the - golden candlestick; the table, whereon were put the cakes or
loaves of thew-bread; and (between it and the candlestick) the altar of incenje, fo named from the incense that burnt on it every day, which by St. John is stiled the prayers of the saints (y). This altar · was also called the inner altar, in opposition to the altar of burnt-offerings, already described ; and the altar of gold, because it was overlaid with pure gold (2). It was not placed in the holy of holies, as fome have been induced to believe from a wrong interpretation of some passages of * scriptore (a), but in the sanctuary near the vail, which parted it from the Holy of Holies, and over against the ark of the covenant (6). This is the altar so often mentioned in the Revelations. It was one cubit in length and breadth, and two in height. On the four corners it had four horns like the outer altar. On these horos was the atonement made, once every year, with the blood of the fin offering (c): Round it there was a very thick border, on which they set the coals for burning the incenfe, which was prepared in the court of the priests (d).
ab. ii. 2. 1 all and a vail, Revel. xi. 19. *
(s) 2 Maccab. öi. 2. v. 16.
(c) Exod, XXX. 10.
There is no mention in Exodus of any more than one
The table for table for the use of the taberoacle (e); but we learn from
fhew-bread. the second book of Chrooicles (f), that Solomon made ten *** tables (of gold, as is supposed, and placed them in the terrple, (which he had built) Five on the right side, and five on the left. The table of shewbread having been carried to Babylon, and lost there, they were forced
to make a new one for the second temple. This last Titus rescued from : the flames, (at the taking of Jerusalem) and had it carried to Rome with
the candlefiick, and some other rich spoils, to grace and adorn ihe triumph of his father Vespasian. It was made of wood, and overlaid with gold; and was two cubits long, one broad, and a cubit and a half high. It was placed by the altar at some distance, and against the north wall of the sanctuary. Upon this table were put the twelve loaves of pew bread called in Hebrew the bread of faces (g), because the table being almost over against the ark of the covenant, they might be said to be set before the face of God (b). Thele (welve loaves represented the twelve tribes of Israel, and were offered to God in their name, for a token of an everlast ng covenant. They were oblong, shaped like a brick; ten palms long, and five broad, and might weigh about eight pounds each. They were unleavened, and made of fine flour. After the Levites had
made and baked them, they brought them to the priests, who set theon - upon the table in two rows, fix on a row, on the fabbath day. Frank
incense was put upon each row; and to keep them from moulding, they were separated from one another by a kind of reeds. The following labbath the priest took them away, and put immediately others in their room; so that the table was never without them. The old loaves belonged to the priests that were upon duty, who accordingly parted them among themselves. As this sort of bread was holy, it was not lawful for any but the priests to eat of it, except in a case of necessity (i). Be. lides the loaves, there were some vessels and utensils upon the table ; but the learned are not agreed about the shape or use of them,
It appears from the Ild book of Chronicles that there were teu canulesticks in Solomon's temple, five on che right
Of the golden haod, and five on the left (k). But there was only one in
candlestick. the tabernacle, and the second temple, which stood near the south wall of the sanctuary, over agaioft the table. It was all made of pure gold, of beaten work (l); and had seven branches, three on each side, and one in the middle bigger than the rest. Each branch had three bowls maile after the fafbion of aimonds, three knobs, and three flowers, but the middlemost had four. At the end of each of these branches there was a Jamp; but whether fastened to the candlestick or not, is not well known, it is most probable they were not. The scripture tells us, that these Jamps were to burn continually (mn), which undoubtedly ought to be restrained to the night-time, at least in respect of the candlestick, that
esticks in Toft (k). Butle which tool made of purod one in
The forundoubredly odletick, that
(c) Exod. XXV, 24.
(f) iv. 8,
was in the tabernacle, since it is said (n) that the priests lighted them in the evening, when they burned incense upon the altar, and put them out in the morning. There lamps were filled every day with pure oil; to which custom our Saviour alludes in his parable of the ten virgios (o). Jewish writers find abundance of mysteries in the candlestick, and ascribe 10 it several uses; but there is no need of having recourse to their fictions, since we are assured by St. Paul'that it was one of the types of Christiaoity. St. Joho also makes frequent allusions to it in his Revela
caid with gold it." But in the the other, as
We must now proceed to consider the Holy of Holies, of Holies.
otherwise called the most holy place, and the oracle (). In the
first temple it was divided from the holy place, by a partition of boards overlaid with gold ; in which there was a door-place with the above-mentioned vail over it. But in the second, it was divided by two vails nailed at a cubit's distance one from the other, as is commonly supposed. The Holy of Holies, according to the Jews, was twenty cubits in lengih. Though the holy place was reckoned very sacred, yet it was not to be compared in this respect with the molt holy, which was looked upon as the palace of God. For this reason none but the high. priest was permitted to go into it, and that but once a year, viz, on the great day of expiation (9); on which day the Jews tell us it was lawful for him to go in several times (r). This part of the temple, as well as the whole building, was surrounded with rooms and apartments for different uses (s). The roof of the Holy of Holies was noi Aat, (as in the other parts of the temple, and in the houses of eastern nations in general) but sloping as in our buildings; and according to Josephus (1), " it was covered and armed all over with poinred spikes of gold to “ keep off the birds from nestling upon it." Though the roof was inaccessible to all, yet there was round it a kind of rail or balustrade, according to the law (u), to keep any one from falling down that Mould happen to go there.
The Holy of Holies was at the west end of the temple, and the entrance into it towards the east, contrary to the practice of the heathens. The greatest ornament of the Holy of Holies was wanting in the second temple (x),
“ (n) Exod. xxx. 7, 8. Levit. xxiv. 2; 3. 1 Sam. iii. 3. 2 Chron. xiii. 11.
(0) Matth. XXV.
(p)“ It was so called, because God here gave his answers to the high “ priest, when he consulted him.” Lamy p. 92.
(7) Exod. xxx. 10. Levit. xvi. 2. 15. 34. Heb. ix. 7. (7) Philon. Legat. ad Caium.
Ps) “ Thefe ferved to support the height, and were, as it were, so many " buttresses, and a great ornament to it at the same time there were “ three ranges of them one above another.” Lamy p. 92. (1) Jofeph. de Bell. Jud. I. vi. c. 6.
(u) Deut. xxii. 8. (x) " The defect was supplied, as to the outward Form. For in the fe. • cond temple there was also an ark made of the fame shape and dimenfions “ with the first, and put in the same place. But it had none of its “ prerogatives or bonours. For there were no tables of the law,- ro 6. appearance of the divine glory over it, &c." Dr. Prideaux Cong P. I. B. III. under the year 534.
.amely, the ark of the covenant or testimony so called, because the law, which contained the terms and conditions of the covenant God had made with the Israelites, was kept in it; and because it was moreover a pledge or testimony of his gracious presence ainong them. Some Jewish authors tell us, that they put a stone in the room of it three inches thick (y); which, as they pretend, worked abundance of miracles. This same stone, (as some imagine) is still in being, and laid up in the mosque, which the Mahometans have built in the place where the tem. ple of. Jerusalem stood, which for that reason is called the temple of the fion', As we meet in the New Testament with frequent allusions The art of the
S The ark of the to the ark of the covenant, it will be proper to say some
covenant. thing of it here. It was a chest or coffer, of bittim wood or cedar, över-laid with pure gold within and without ; which Bezaleel made by Moses's order, according to God's direction (2). As its dimensions were a cubit and a half in height and depth, and two in length, we may from thence judge. it was pretty Jarge. Round the edges was a ledge of gold, on which refted the cover of it, known by the pame of the mercy-leat, or propitiatory; so called, because on the day of expiation the bigh-priest standing between the staves, wherewith it was carried upon the shoulders of the Levites, made atonement and propitiation for the sins of the people, and for his own, by sprinkling lome of the blood of the sacrifices before it (a). This mercy-feat, which was all made of solid gold (*), ought to be looked upon as the chief part of the ark. For here it was that the voice of God, from between the Cherubims over the cover, was heard, and here he declared to the priests the pardon of the people's offences. Hence in scripture to cover Jins, and forgive then, mean the same thing (6). What shape these Cherthbims were of, is not well known. All that can be said of them, is, that they were represented with wings, faces, feet and hands; that they looked inward towards each other, and that their faces were turned towards the mercy-seat, (so that they were in the posture of figures worshipping) (c). Their wings were expanded, and embracing the whole circumference of the mercy-fcat, met on each side in the middle; and over them did the pillar of the cloud appear, which was a token of the Shechinah, or divine presence (d). In Solomon's time there was nothing in the ark, belides the iwo tables of stone, containing the ten commandments, which Mofes put there by the command of God.(e). But before that time as some suppose, the pot of manna (f ), and Aaron's rod that budded (), had been laid in it. And indeed this opinion leems to be countenanced by these words of the Apostle, That within the
the ark. ver the cover, was Fences. Hease. What make them, is, they
\) i, e. The stone on which the ark food in the first temple. . Dr. Pridiaux ibid.
(z) Exod. xxv.
(a) According to Buxtorf (Lexic. p. 373.) it was so called Quod illic Dominus fe propitium oftenderet.
(*) Of the thickness of an hand's breadth. Dr. Prideaux ubi fupra; (6) Psal. xxxii, I.
(c) Dr. Prideaux ubi fupra.
(f) Exod. xvi. 33.
(8) Num. xvii. 6-10.
ark were the golden pot, that contained the manna, Aaron's rad, and the tables of the covenant (h). But the Greek particle is in doth also sigoify with, or near, as we have observed in our commentary on this place. It is very probable, that those facred monuments were laid up on the side of the ark, in the Holy of Holies, as well as the golden cenfer, mentioned ia this place. There stood also near the ark some boxes, wherein were put vessels and utensils of gold (i), and the original and authentick copy of the law, as written by Moses (k). It caonot be questioned but that the ark had some typical uses, bot ic is not safe to carry types further than the holy fcriptures, and the epifle to the Hebrews have done.
Thus have we given an account of the temple of Jerusalem, as far as is pecessary for our present purpose. It is well known what was the unhappy eod of that noble building, and how God was pleased to permit that it should be laid waste, because it had been polluted and pro. faned, but especially because it was to make room for that spiritual templa which God was to raise upon its ruins. We learn from hiftory, that Julian the apostate, out of hatred to Jesus CHRIST aod the Christians, ufed all his endeavours to have it rebuilt; but God rendered this rash and impious attempt of his ineffectual, and put a stop to it by very wonderful and supernatural means (1).
. Before we leave Jerusalem, it will be necessary Of the neighbouring,
• to lay something of the places about it, especially
warciso those which our blesed Saviour was pleased to honour with his presence. The first remarkable place, on the east side of the city, was the Mount of Olives, from whence Jesus Christ was taken up into Heaven. It was by the Jew's called the mount of anointing, because abundance of olive trees (m) grew there, of which oil for anointing the priests, and other uses, was made. St. Mark tells us, that this mount was over against the temple (n); and St. Luke, that it was a fabbath day's journey from Jerusalem (o), that is, two thousand cubits, which muft undoubtedly be understood of the bottom of the mountain, and not of the top of it, lince Bethany, which was built upon it, was fifteen furlongs from Jerusalem (p). This hill had three rifings or eminences; from the middlemost of which it is supposed (but withoat any good grounds) that JESUS CHRIST was taken up into Heaven; that on the fouth was called the Hill of reprooch or corruption, because Solomon boilt thereon high places in honour of falle derties (9); the third lay to the north, and is in St. Matthew called Galilee (r), but for what reason is unknown: here it was that Jesus CHRIST appoiated his disciples to mcet him after his resurrection. The ceremony of burning the red heiser, mentioned in Heb. ix. 13. was performed upon this mount of olives; and upon one of its risings was placed the light, which was to give notice of the new moon.
after his refurre tis. 13. was perfoudhehe light, which
one of its
(5) Heb. ix. 4. (i) 1 Sam. vi. 15. (k) Deut. xxxi. 26.
(2) Socrat. Hift. Eccl. I, iji. c. 20. Sozomen. I v. c. 22. Chryfoftoms Orat. 101. contra Jud.
(m) Mark xiii. 3.. (n) Mark xiii. 3. (0) Aas i. 12.