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each of the (*) shoulder-straps of this ephod, was fastened a precious Atone (an onyx or a Sardonian) in which were engraven the names of the twelve tribes of Israel (s). 3. The high-priest wore moreover upon his breast, a piece of cloth doubled, of a span square (t), which was termed the breast-plate, otherwise the rationale or oracle. It was wove and worked like the ephod, and in it were set in fockets of gold, twelve precious stones, which had the names of the twelve patriarchs engraven on them. The Urim and Thummim were also put in it. (The former of these words signifies light; and the latter truth, or perfection.) These were consulted upon important occafions, and especially in time of war (u). The learned are not agreed about the foron or figure of them, nor about the manner in which the oracle or answer was given by God, when consulted by the high-priest, nor even whether the Urim and Thummim had different uses (x). There is no mention of this oracle in scripture, after the succession was settled on the family of David, and the Theocracy was ceased, because as some pretend, it was by this God revealed his will, and gave his orders to the Israelites, as their king. G). The Urim and Thummim did entirely cease under the fecond temple. 4. The fourth ornament peculiar to the high-priest, was a plate of gold, which he wore upon his forehead, which was tied upon the lower part of his tiara or mitre, with purple or blue ribbons. On it were engraved these two Hebrew words, Kodefch lajehova, that is, Holiness to the Lord, whereby was denoted the holiness belonging to the high-priest. This plate was also called the crown (z). All these clothes and ornaments the highpriest was obliged to have on, when he ministered in the temple, but at other times he wore the same clothes as the rest of the priests. And this according to some learned writers, was the reason why St. Paul knew not that Ananias was the high-priest, when he appeared before him in the Sanhedrim (a).

III. Another ceremony practised at the consecration of the high-priest, was, anointing with oil (b). The Rabbins tell us that the holy oil, which Moses had made by God's direction (c), having been loft during the cap tivity, they observed only the other ceremonies, without anointing the high-priest at all.

IV. The last ceremony performed at the consecration of the higlipriest, was a sacrifice, of which a full account may be seen in Exodus (dl), and Leviticus (e).


(*) Exod. xxvjji. 6, 7. Joseph, Antig. I. 3. chap. 8.

(s) In that on the right shoulder were the names of the fix eldeft, and in that on the left, those of the fix youngest. Lamy, p. 161. () Exod. xxviii. 15,&c.

(u) 1 Sam. xxviii. 6. XXX. 7, 8. (*) Conceroing the Urim and Thummim, See Dr. Prideaux Corn. P. I. Book III. under the year 534.

(y) This is the opinion of Dr. Spencer. (2) Exod. xxix. 6, and xxxix. 30.

(a) Acts xxiii. 5. (b) Exod. XXX. 30. &c. The oil was poured upon the prielt's forchead, and this unction was made in the form of the letter X. Lamy, p. 160. (c) Exod. xxx. 22, &c.

(d) Exod. xxix, 1, Ci. (e) Levit, viii. 14, Gc.

The high-priest might execute the functions of the other prieits whenever he pleased. Those that peculiarly belonged to him, were to make expiation for the people; and to ask counsel of God by the urim and thummin. This he did standing in the sanctuary with his prieitly garments on, and his face turned towards the ark.

The high-priesi being looked upon as the most sacred person in the whole land of Israel, nothing was omitted that could any way terd to procure him honour and relpect. For, 1. as hath been already observa ed, He was to be of the family of Aaron, which this dignity was so hrmly annexed to, and so strictly entailed upon, that all the rest of the Israelites were as much excluded from it, as if they had been perfect strangers of). The law was so very Itrict in this particular, that if any one out of another tribe presunied to execute the office of high-prieit, he was put to death without mercy. 2. It was necessary that he should be of an honourable and creditable family, and also that he should himself be without blemish (g). And therefore the officers of the fanhedrim were very exact in enquiring into the genesingy of every high priest and examining his body (b). When they found any one ungualified, according to the law, they put on him a black garment, and a vail of the same colour, and excluded him from the fanctuary; whereas they gave a white garment to hin that was found blameless, and every way duly qualified for it, and sent him back to minister among his brethren. Some allusion seems to be made to this custom in the Revelations of St. John. (i). 3. As of all the legal pollutions none was greater than that which was contracted by the touching of a dead body, the high-priest was consequently commanded not to be at the funeral even of his onen: father (k). And therefore he never broke off the divine fervice upon such an occafion, as the ciher priests were obliged to do, when being upon duty, they heard of the death of a near relation, Philo (1) prelly fays, that the high-priest was to put off all natural affection, eren for father and mother, for chiidren, brothers, C. whenever it came in competition with the tervice of God. Jesus Christ had undoubtedly an eye to these maxims, when he said to the multitudes that followed him, If any mail come to me, and hate not his father and mother, and wife and children, and bretiren and lifiers, he cannot be my difciple (m). The high-priest was moreover forbidden to use those outward marks of forrow, which were generally practised among the Jews, as uncovering the head, and rending one's clothes (:1). But this prohibition must undoubtedly be restrained to the high-priest's garments (©), and the times of mourning; fince we find in fcripture (P), that on other occanons they were wont sometimes to rend their clothes, as when bleiprema, either real or pretended, was uttered in their prefence. 4. The highpriest was ordered to abstain from wine and other strong liquors at the


(8) Num. ii. 10. (8) Levit. xxi. 18. (?) Ezra ii. 6:, 62. i) Revelat. iij. 4, 5. 18.

(k) Levit. xxi. 11, (1) Philo de monarch. p. 639. (m) Luke xiv, 26.

in) Levit. xxi. 10. The Jews were wont in time of ailliction to uncover their heads, and put duft or ashes upon them.

(o) Philo de monarch. p. 639. (p) Matth. xxvi. 65. Mark xiv. 63.

time of the celebration of divine service (q). The fame injunction was, also laid upon the rest of the prieits. To these particulars, the Rabbins have added several others, which excluded men from the high-priesthood, but there is very little certainty in all they have advanced upon this head.. 5. The high-pricít was not allowed to marry a widow, or a divorceel woman, or even a virgin, of whofe virtue there was the least fufpicion. According to Philo (r', she was to be of the sacerdotal race. As for the rest of the priests, they might marry widows, and women of other families (s). If the high-priest had contracted an unlawful marriage, he was obliged either to divorce his wife, or quit the priesthood. His whole family, in short, was to be of so inviolable a chastity, that if any one of his daughters prostituted herself, she was burnt alive.

When the high-priest had happened to pollute himself, before the celebration of divine service, there was a sort of a vicar, named Sagen, appointed to supply his place. We meet with some footReps of such an officer as this, in Jeremiah lii. 4. He was also sometimes stiled high-priest, which gives some light to Luke iii. 2. where we find Annas and Caiaphas both honoured with that title. This Sagan had the precedence before all the other prieits. He is thought to be the same as the captain of the temple, mentioned in the New Testament (t).

There were also among the priests, several degrees of os distinction and subordination. 1. The Thalmudists, for

Of the prieits. instance, authorized by Deuter. xx. 2, 3. speak of a priest of the camp, otherwise called the anointed for the wars, whose business was to exhort the army to fight valiantly. Some place him above the Sagan. 2. The priests were also distinguished otherwise (u). There were usually two, called Cathclicks, who were fet apart to supply the Sagan's place, when there was occasion. Besides there, there were seven that kept the keys of the court of the priests. 4. Others had the super-intendency of times, places, ollicers, wc. Such a regulation as this, was absolutely necessary for the maintaining of order in a service of fo great length, and so full of variety

The common priests were of the family of Eleazar, and of Ithamar, the sons of Aaron. They were by David divided into four and twenty courses, or families (x}; who performed the divine service weekly by turns, and according to their rank. That of Abia, mentioned Luke i. 5. was the eighth (v). But whereas at the return of the children of Ifrael, from the Babylonith captivity, no more than four of these courses could be found ; Ezra therefore (Z), either to keep up the institution of David, or to follow his example, divided those four courses into twenty-four. The offices which the course upon duty was to perform every day, were appointed to the priests by lot (u); but on the solemn feaits, several


calion. Be priefis. As a regulation

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(9). Lev. X. 9. See Philo de monarch. p. 637.
(r) Philo ue monarch. p. 639.
(-) Levit. xxi. 7. Jofeph. Antiq. l. 3. 10.
(1) Acts v. 24. coinp. with 2 Maccab. ii. 4. (u) Neherr.. xiii. 13.
(*) i Chron. xxiii. 6.-

(y) i Chron. xxiv. 10.
(z) Ezra ii. 36- 39.

(a) Luke i. g. .

courses joined in the service. Each course had its father, head, or president, who were also stiled high-priests; and this is the reason, why in the gold pel, we find the high-priefis so often mentioned.

The people of Israel were also divided into twenty-four calles, each of which had a head. One person out of each of these clafes, was appointed to attend upon the divine service on the folemn feafts ; and to be, as it were, the representatives of the whole nation, because all the people could not possibly be assembled in the court, nor be present at the sacrifices. These were called the stationary men (6).

The same precautions and ceremonies that were used in the choice of a high-priest, were also observed in the election of the common priests. We have already observed, the difference between their quality and habits, which were plainer than the high-priest's, except when he entered into the Holy of Holies. They might keep on their habits as long as they staid in the temple, even after sacrificing was over ; except. ing the belt, which they were not allowed by the law to wear, but only in time of divine service; because it was made of linen and woollen woven together (c).

The functions of the priests were of two forts. Some were daily performed, and consisted in general, 1. In offering the morning and evening sacrifices (d). On the fabbath day they offered three. 2. In lighiing the lamps. 3. In burning the incense. 4. In guarding the temple, properly so called. And 5. In sounding the trumpet at the itated hours. These offices were subdivided into several others, which were appointed unto the priests by lot, four times a day. The other functions belonging to the priests were not daily : they consisted, 1. In judging of the Leprosy, (which was a distemper that seems to have been peculiar to the jews) and of other legal uncleannesses. This last business was the moit troublesome by far, because of the numberless rules and restrictions that were to be observed in it. They were not all indeed prescribed by the law; but yet fome of them were of a very ancient date. It was undoubtedly upon their accoumt, that St. Peter Said (e), The law ww a yoke, which neither they, nor their fathers, were cole to bear. 2. In judaing also of the things and perfons devoted to God, and to appoint the price of their redemption. 3. In making the woman that was suspected of adultery drink the bitter water (f). 4. In striking off the head of the keifer; that was offered as an expiation for murder, the author of which was not known (8). 5. In setting the few-bread on the golden table every fabbath day, and in eating the stale loaves. 6. In burning the red beifer (b), the ashes of which being mixed with water, served to purify thote that had defiled tiemselves by touching a dead body. To this, as some imagine, St. Paul alludes, when he speaks of thote


(3) See Cunæus de Repub. Heb. I. ï. c. 12. (c) Levit. xix. 19.

(d) The morning facrifice was offered, as soon as the day began to break; and the evening one as soon as darkness began to overspread the earth. Lamy, p. 147. (e) Acts xv. 10.

(f) Numb. v. 15, &'c. (8) Deut. xxi. 5:

(b) Numb. xix.

that are baptized, that is, washed for, or because of the dead (i). This mystical interpretation is agreeable to St. Paul's method. He, in another place (k) alludes to this ceremony, which was most commonly performed by the high-priest. 7. Lastly, the priest's business was to infruct the people, to bring up the children of the Levites, and to an{wer the doubts and scruples that might be raised about any part of the law.

The Levites were so named, because they were the poste- the rity of Levi, one of the sons of Jacob. In point of dignity, they were of a middle rank, between the priests and the people. They were, properly speaking, the ministers and assistants of the priests, dure ing the whole divine service (1). At first they were divided into three branches, according to the number of the sons of Levi; that is, the Gershonites, the Kohathites, and the Merarites (m). Their business at the time of their first inftitution, was to carry the most holy place, the ark, the tabernacle, with the boards and utensils belonging to it; they did not enter then upon their office, 'till they were thirty years old (n); but after the building of the temple, they were admitted to serve at the age of twenty (0). In process of time they were like the priests, divided into twenty-four classes, over every one of which was set a head or president; and each of these classes was again subdivided into seven others that were to attend every week upon the divine service by turns. King David assigned them other employments (). To some he committed the care of the treasury and holy vessels. Some he made door-keepers, mufcians, &c. And others were appointed officers and judges. After the building of the temple (q), they kept the several apartments of it; and their business was likewise to instruct the people. The manner of their consecration was as follows (r); after they had been purified with water, they were set apart for the service of God by imposition of hands; after which two young bullocks were sacrificed; the one for a fin-offering, and the other for a whole burnt-facrifice. Their clothes were made of linen, but somewhat different from those of the priests. They had under them some persons called Nethinim, that is, given; because they were given to them as servants. Their bufiness was to carry the water and food, and whatever else was wanted in the temple. The Gibeonites were at first employed in this drud. gery (s); as a punishment for the cheat they put upon the children of Ifrael. These Nethinim were always to be strangers (t), and, according to the Rabbins, were never allowed to marry one of the daughters of the Hebrews.

The Levites had forty-eight cities assigned them (u); but thirteen of them belonged to the priests. The Jews tell us, that all these cities were so many fanctuaries, or places of refuge for those that happened to

kill (i) 1 Cor. xv. 29.

(k) Heb. ix. 13 (1) Núm. iv. 15. i Chron. xv.2 (m) Numb. iii. 17. (n) Numb. iv. 3. (0) Ezra ii. 8. 1 Chron. xxiii. 24. 27. (5) Ibid, ver. 4. and 5. and xxvi. 20. 2 Chron. xix. 11. (9) 2 Chron. (r) Numb. viii. 6. 14. . ' (s) Josh. ix. 23. (c) Deut. xxix. 11. (u) Numb. XXXY: 2, 3, 4, s. 14. Josh. xxi. 4. Vol. III.


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