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ST, of know when they were the teaft: food, and
We will leave it to the learned to determine exactly the hour when it was done. Josephus, who may justly be looked upon as a competent judge in such matters, says, that the paschal lamb was killed be. between the ninth hour, that is, three in the afternoon, and the eleventh, i. e. about the setting of the sun. And within this space of time also it was, that JESUS CHRIST our true paschal lamb was, crucified (n). 4. The lamb was to be a mule of the first year, and without blemish (0). The apostles often make allusion to ibis last quality, when speaking of JESUS CHRIST, of the Christians, and of the church of Christ (I). It was with a design to know whether the lambs or kids had all the conditions required by the law, that they were enjoined carefully to choose them, and set them aside some days before the feast. 5. The sacrifice was to be offered up in the tabernacle, as long as it stood, and afterwards in the courts of the temple (H). 6. Every particular person flew his own victim (9), and one of the priests received the blood into a vesle), which was handed by the priests or Levites to the high-priest, by whom it was poured at the bottom of the altar. When any person happened to be unqualified for offering this sacrifice, by reason of some uncleanness he had contracted, it was then performed by the Levites (r).
After the lamb was slain, the blood sprinkled, and the fat consumed upon the altar, the lamb was returned to the person by whom it had been offered, who carried it to the place where it was to be eat. It was necessary that it should be thoroughly roasted, and not boiled, or halfdone (s). The occasion of this last institution is not well known; the reasons that are alledged for it, would undoubtedly seem too farfetched to the generality of our readers, we therefore judge it more proper to own our ignorance in this particular, than to advance any thing uncertain about it. St. John assures us, that the prohibition of not breaking a bone of the paschal lamb, was typical of what happened to our saviour (t).
8. After the lamb was thus dressed, it was eaten in every family (*), by all sorts of persons, free men and flaves, men as well as women. Ic was nocellary there ihould be as many persons as could eat the whole lamb (+) (u). And therefore when the family was not large enough,
(n) Matth. xxvii, 46.
(0) Exod. xii. 5. (8) Heb. xi. 14. i Pet, i. 19. Ephef. i. 4. v. 27. Coloff. i. 22. Revel. xiv. 5. in most of the Greek copies of the seventy, there are two epithets, without blemish, and perfect. There is an allusion to this last word, Rom. xii. 1. the perfect will of God, i. e. the sacrifice God requires of us, ought to be perfe&i.
(P) The area of the three courts of the temple (besides the rooms and other places in it, 'where the paschal lamb might be offered up) contained above 435,600 square cubits, so chat there was room enough for above 500,ooo men to be in the temple at the same time. Lamy de Tabernaculo, 1. vii.c.9. Sect. 4, 5. (9) Deut. xvi. 2. 5.
(r) Philo de Vit. Mof. 1. iii. (s) Exod. xii. 9. 2 Chron. xxxv. 13.
(1) John xix. 36. .(*) The strangers that came up to Jerusalem from all parts of the land to
(+) The Thalmudists tell us, that they were not to be linder ten, and might be twenty.
(2) See Joseph. de Bell. Jud. I. vii. c. 17.
the master of the house invited his friends. The assemblies that were invited to this feast, were named brotherhoods, and the guests, companice or friends. The reproof which JESUS CHRIST gave Judas, by calling him friend or companion (x), was both just and cutting, because he betrayed him after having eat the passover with him.
9. It was a very ancient custom among the eastern nations to wah their feet before meals, especially when they returned from a journey (y). There were good reasons for this custom, because they com. monly travelled on foot, without stockings, and their shoes were open at the top. Some imagine with a good deal of probability, that they were also wont to wash their feet before the paschal feast, nothing being a fitter representation of the state and condition of a traveller. Slaves and mean persons were commonly put to that emplojment, but JesUS CHRIST was pleased to perform it to his disciples, to give them an example of humility and charity (z). It is however to be observed, that this was not done during the paschal feast, but the night before.
10. The guests leaned on their left arms upon beds round a table, on which was set the lamb; with bitter herbs, unleavened bread, and a dish full of a kind of sauce or thick mixture, wherein they dipped the bread and herbs (II). This perhaps was the dish in which Judas dipo ped with JESUS CHRIST, of which we read in the gospel (a). It was very common among the eastern nations to lie on beds when they took their meals, as is evident from sacred as well as profane history; but, as the Thalmudists pretend (b), this posture was then absolutely necessary at the eating of the paschal lamb, as being a fit emblem of that rest and freedom, which God had granted the children of Israel, by bringiog them out of Egypt, because a Nave doth not commonly take his meals with so much ease and comfort, and that besides they were obliged. 10 cat it standing in Egypt. This custom of leaning at table over one another's bosom, was a sign of equality and strict union between the guests. Which serves to explain several passages of fcripture, as what is said of Abraham's bofom (C), and of the son's being in the bojom of the father (d). When the guests were thus placed round the table, the master of the family, or some other person of note, took a cup full of wine mixed with water, and after he had given God thanks, drank it up, after which he gave one round to every one there present; who were all obliged to drink thereof. Hence the words of Jesus Christ, drink ye all of it (e). Afterwards they eat of the bitter herbs and ul.
(2) Matth. xxvi. 50.
(0) This the Jews called charosset, in remembrance of the mortar tvhich they had used when making bricks in the land of Egypt. They made it a firit with dates and dryed figs ; but the modern Jews make it with chesnuts, apples, &c. See Bainage Hist. des Juifs, Tom. 3. p. 622.
(a) Matth. xxvi. 23. (6) Maimon de Azymis, 1. vii. (c) Luke xvi. 32.
leavened bread, which they dipped in the mixture before-mentioned Then the master of the family drank another cup, that was accompia nied with several thanksgivings, after which they began eating agara as before. Lastly, they eat the paschal lamb, and drank the child cup, which was called the cup of blessing, or thanksgiving (f). The whoje ceremony ended with the fourth cup, and the singing of some psalms (*'. This is what by St. Mark is termed an hymn (g). It cannot exactly be determined whether JESUS CHRIST observed all these particulars. It is very probable that he did, and we meet with some tracks of it in the Gospel (b). St. Luke speaks only of two cups in the account he gives of the institution of the Lord's fupper (i).
God injoined the Israelites, ander pain of death, not to touch any leavened bread, as long as the passover lasted. Several reasons may be assigned for this institution, but there is only one set down in scripture, viz. that it was to put them in mind of their forefathers coming out of Egypt, in such haste, that they had not time so much as to get their dough leavened (k).. But one may suppose, by the metaphorical sense that is commonly put upon the word leaver, and which is used by JESUS CHRIST and St. Paul (l), that this prohibition had a moral view, and that the divine legislator's design in giving it, was to cleanse their minds from malice, envy, animosity, and hypocrisy; in a word, from the leaven of Egypt (D. However it be, the Hebrews took a very particular care to search for all the leaven that might be in their houses, and to fing it either into the fire or water. Their descendants have carried this point to a superstitious nicety. Though the paflover was to be celebrated at Jerusalem, yet they that were not able to go thither, might eat the unleavened bread in their own houses. As there was no other sort of bread in that city when Jesus Christ instituted his last fupper, it cannot be questioned but that he made use of it. And yet the Greek church, which hath retained leavened bread in the eucharist, imagined that Jesus Christ used it ; and the better to support their opinion, they have alerted, that he celebrated the palsver one day before the Jews. We shall hereafter examine this matter. The Latins have, on the other hand, supposed, that the better to conform themselves with JESUS CHRIST's institution, they ought to celebrate the Lord's supper with unleavened bread. This was one of the occasions of the fihifin between the eastern and western churches; which, after all, was a very Night one, and consequently very scandalous, lince after the abrogaring of the ceremonial law, it ought to be reckoned an indifferent matter,
whether (f) i Cor. x, 16.
(*) During the ceremony, they sung at several times the following psalıns. 1. Pfal. cxiii, cxiv. 2. Pfal. cxvi, cxvii, cxviii, or cxxxvi. This lait finging was terined the hallel, or praise. The master of the family, or the reader, explained and gave an account of every ceremony. (3) Mark xiv. 26.
(b) See Matth, xxvi, &c. (i) Luke xxii. 17. 20. (Ve) Exod. xxii. 34. 39. Deut. xvi. 3. (7) Matth. xvj. 6. 1 Cor. v. 7.
(II) Leavened bread was likewise forbidden the Romans, upon some parti cular occasions. Aulus Gel, l. x. 15.
whether we communicate with leavened or unleavened bread, and since Jesus CHRIST, by giving no directions about it, hath left the church entirely at liberty in this respect.
The next day after the feast of unleavened bread, that is, the sixteenth day of March, they offered up to God, on the altar, the firl. fruits of the corn that was ripe at that time, that is, oats and barley (m). These first-fruits were a Meaf of corn, called in Hebrew Homer, or Gomer, which is the name that was afterwards given to the measure that held the corn, which was threshed out of the meaf. This oblation was performed with a great deal of ceremony (*). Towards the close of the fifteenth day, the Sanhedrim appointed soine grave and sober persons, who, with a great number of people, went with scythes and baskets into the fields that lay nearest Jerusalem, and cut down the sheaf of barley. When they were come thither, the reapers, having got first the owner's leave, put the sickle into the harvest; and after they bad cut down the meaf, they carried ic in a basket to the high-priest, who was to offer it up. The high-priest having beat out the grain, caused it to be dried upon the fire, and had it ground ; then putting some oil and frankincense to it, he presented it to God. After that a lamb was offered up for a whole burnt sacrifice, with several other oblations, that were accompanied with libations. It was unlawful to begin the harvest, till this offering had been first made. There seems to be an allusion to this in the Revelations (n), where the angel orders the sickle to be put into the harvest.
Thus have we explained the several particulars observed in the celebration of the possover. It remains now that we should examine a queltion, which hath esercised the wits of several criticks ; i. e. Whether our Saviour celebrated the pallover the year he was put to death, on the same day as the Jews kept theirs ? We have observed before, that the Greek church maintains JESUS CHRisT celebrated it one day sooner than ordinary; and have thewed at the same time, what reasons they alledge to support their opinion. Some authors have inferred from a tew passages out of St. John's gospel, that for several reasons which they bring, the Jews did not keep the pas over that year on the fourteenth day of the month, as usual, but the day after. The first of these passages is in the thirteenth chapter o), wherein it is said, ihat before the feasi of ihe paljover, when supper was ended, whereby they understand
centesthe Jews of St. Johnsion. Some, fame time it one da
fecond occurs in the eighteenth chapter (); JESUS W:s apprehended by the Jews, had celebrated the pallover, and linstituted the eucharist the night before ; and yet the Evangelist says, that the Jews would not go into the pratorium, or judgment-hail, for fear they thould defile themfelves, and thereby become unfit to eat thc paftover. The third is in
(m) Lev. xxiii. 9- 14. Jof. Antig, 1. iii. c. 10.
(*) It appears from Exodus xvi. 16. that the lower held as much as a man that had a good stomach can eat in a day. According to the Jewish way of reckoning, this measure contained about 43 hen-eggs (i. e. 3 of our pints), It was the tenth part of an Epha, which held 432. () Revel. xiv. 15. (0) Ver.1, 2, 4.
(o) Ver. 28.
the nineteenth chapter (9), where the day on which Christ was crucified is filed the preparation of the pasover.
Notwithstanding which, other writers have asserted and inaint ined, that JESUS CHRIST celebrated the pasover on the same day as the Jews. And indeed there are very good reasons to believe that he did. 1. Supposing the Jews had put it off for any time that year, Jesus CHRIST would, in all probability, have complied with it, else the Jews would never have failed to lay this to his charge, since after publick notice was given of the new moon, people were obliged to keep to it, even though there was a visible mistake in the matter (r). 2. Those that have throughly examined the reasons alledged for this delay, find no manner of weight in them, since they are grounded upon customs that are of a much later date than the time of Jesus CHRIST. There were not then, for instance, two different ways of finding out the newmoon. As it was known only by its appearance, and not its conjunction with the sun, there could be no room for celebrating the passover on two different days. Besides, the Caraïte Thalmudists made but one body with the rest of the Jewish nation, and therefore did celebrate the feast on the same day with them. Moreover, the custom of transferring the passover, when it fell on the day before the fabbath, is not of so ancient a date. 3. It is unquestionably certain, that the lamb was to be sacrificed publickly in the temple, and that it was necessary that the priests Tould pour the blood of it at the bottom of the altar (s). As all these particulars are plainly injoined by the law, Jesus CHRIST would not have omitted any one of them. Besides, is it probable that the priests would have ministered to him in so manifest an innovation as this must have been? 4. The three other Evangelists expressly say (t), that JESUS CHRIST celebrated the pasjover on the same day the Jews were used to do it, which seems entirely to decide the question. It is therefore more proper to put another sense upon St. John's expressions, than to embrace an opinion which manifestly contradicts the rest of the Evangelists. For it may reasonably be supposed, that in the first of the forementicned passages, St. John doth nor speak of the Lord's fupper, or of the paschal feall, but only of a private supper at Bethany, the day before the passe over (u). In the second, there is no necessity of understanding by the palover the paschal lamb, since.the other sacrifices that were offered up during the feast, had also that name given them (x). By the preparation of the passover, in the last place, may be meant the preparation before the fabbath of the pasiover, which is eliewliere called the preparation of the Jews (y).
It was after having celebrated the passover that Jesus CHRIST instituted the eucharist to be a lasting monument of our redemption
(7) Ver. 14.
(r) Maimon. Chad. Hacc. cap, v. sect. 2.
(y) Compare Matt. xxvii. 57. Mark xv. 42. Luke xxxiii. 54. John xix. 14, 31, 42.