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lonitis and Peræa; where Jesus Christ did some miracles (??. As also Pella, where the Christians retired after the destruclion of Jeruze lem. This last was a bishop's see.
. It is very probable that Bethabara (k), where John bastalde tized, stood on the other side Jordan. At leait St. Len seems to place it therc (?). Some authors are indeed of opinion, that the Greek word (*), which is commonly rendered beyond, fignities ajis along, which makes it doubtful whether bethabara was on this, or tre other, fide Jordan. We shall leave the matter undecided, becaule it is of no consequence (+).
There are several other places in that part of Palestine lying on the other side Jordan, which we shall take no notice of, because they are no where mentioned in the gospel. For this reason we shall say nothing of Batanæa, Ituræa, otherwise called Auranitis, nor of Trachonitis, a province on the north of Peræa, which was the most considerable of all. There will be no occasion neither for !peaking of the several ccltries, where the Apostles preached the gospel, because they are sufficio ently described in our notes and prefaces, on the Gospels, Acts, ard Er tles, and besides are known by every body. Here therefore we i conclude this article (1). Of the distance
na As there is frequent mention of the distance of places, of places.
both in the New Testament, and also in our notes an
this Introduction, it will be proper to give a genera retion of them here. The Greeks commonly reckoned the ditance br. tween places by stadia (II), as did afterwards the Romans; and the Hebrews (m) since their intercourse with the Greeks. The stadium was 125 paces, eight of which made a Roman mile.
The miles were so called, because they contained a thousand paces, five feet each. The Romans used to mark them by setting itone-pii.zis at every mile's end; hence this expression in their authors, “ at the first, second, or third stone (12).” The miles are mentioned but once in the gospels 10). One Roman, which is the same as one of our English miles, was 1003
(1) Mark v. 1. Luke viii. 26.
(k) Lethabara signifies the boufe of passage, because here was a ford over the river Jordan. (1) Jobo i. 28. x. 40.
(*) Iligang (*) It is however very probable, that in St. John's gospel the Greek word (Tecav) fignifics beyond, on the other side; since Peræa, which is certains og the other lide Jordan, tuuk its name from that word, and that the other prin vinces which are beyond, and not along the river, went alio under the nante os Peraa.
() As geographers are not always agreed about the situation of some places, we have followed Josephus, Eufebius, and especially Mr, Reland's Pais tira Sacra, wherein this whole matter is fully handled.
(11) The stadium was a space of 125 paces in length, where people exers'ad themselves in running. i Cor.ix. 24 () Luke xxiv. 13. Joho vi. In
(1) Ad primur, fecundum, tertium lapiderr, &c.i. e. mile, (») Mai. V. 41.
paces. The land of Israel might be near 220 miles in length, and about 120 in breadth.
The cubit, which was used in measuring buildings, consisted of 1 foot and a half. And therefore 2000 cubits, which was the space the Jews were allowed to walk on the fabbath-day (P), amounted to about 8 stadia, or one of our miles.
It cannot be unexceptionable to the reader to have here all these measures comprised in five Latin verses, which we have borrowed from a late learned author (9).
« Quatuor ex granis digitus componitur unus.
..Of the Hebrew Money.
THEY were formerly wont in their commerce and payments, not
1 to tell the money, as we now do, but to weigh it, and the same pieces served them both for weights and money. They were made of one of these three sorts of metals, brass, silver, or gold (a). But the word brass was used to denote any kind of money, of what metal foever (b); the reason of which is, that the weight of brass was the standard whereby money was valued.
One of the least pieces of money mentioned in the New Testament is the lepton, or mite, which is by St. jerom called minuta. St. Mark tells us (c), that two of these pieces made one quadrans. It is probable that the word lepton was used to specify any small piece of money, since what St. Matthew calls quadrans, is by St. Luke (dl) named lepton. The lepton was worth (ol. os. od: 09. 17.)
The quadrans was a piece of brass money weighing three ounces, which makes the fourth part of the Roman as, or penny. This word, as well as lepton was used to denote any small piece of money. The quadrans was the fee of the bath-keepers at Rome. (ol. os. od. 09. 1.)
The as, or penny, was a brass piece, which weighed seven ounces and a half, at least, in the time of our Saviour Jesus CHRIST (e). For it is to be observed, that at first the Roman as or penny weighed one pound, that is, twelve Roman ounces. Afterwards it was reduced to ten ounces, then to nine, and at last to feven and a half, as it was in
Augustus's (p) Ads i. 12. (9) Leuiden ap. Pritium Introd. ad Lect. Nov. Teft. p. 609. (a) Mat. x. 9. (6) Mark vi. 8. (c) Mark xii. 42. (d) Matth. v. 26. Luke xii. 59. xxi. 2. (e) The feftertius was worth two-pence half-penny.
more than ans (8). It ong the Greete
Augustus's time (f). There is no mention in the Evangelists of thes, but only of a piece of less value, which is by them termed afsarios . The as, as is supposed, was worth 8 lepta, (or 39. to.)
The drachma was a silver coin, in use among the Greeks, and ette. wards among the Jews and Romans (8). It was somewhat less thane Roman denarius, and more than the as, since it weighed eight ounce. The didrachma was two drachmas, which made half a fhekel. Ez Ifraelite, when he was arrived at the age of twenty, was obliged to yearly this tribute for the use of the temple (b). It is commcnlris. posed that the Roman Emperors, upon their becoming masters of Juda exacted the fame sum (i), and that so the Jews came to pay it twicz, once to the temple, and once to the Emperor. If this conjecture 3 well grounded, it may give a great light to these words of jest: CHRIST; “ Render to Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's, and to Gx the things that are God's (k).” But CHRIST is not there speaking of tribute of the didrachma, which is mentioned elsewhere (1), but of that ; a denarius. Thus much is certain, that after the destruction of the tesple, Vespasian ordered aļl the Jews to pay yearly those two drachm23 : the capitol (mn). (The drachma was 7d. 39. of our money.)
The Roman denarius was a silver piece weighing ten ounces, w: was worth at first ten as's (n). After the war with Annibal, it mount to fixteen, and afterwards was reduced to twelve. It is frequently notioned in the gospels; being one of those Latin words to which Evangelists have given a Greek sound and termination. The denarias was worth 7d. 39. of our money.
The statera ) was also a piece of silver money worth about frer drachmas or denarii. It was the same with the shekel, which mac : 25. 3d. 19. 1. The Rabbins infer from Exod. xxx. 13. and Lev. w 25. where there is mention of the shekel of the sanctuary, that there were two sorts of shekels, the one facred, and the other profane, ani that the sacred was worth double the profane. But several learned 23thors (0) rejecting this distinction, understood by “ the fhekel of the sanctuary,” a shekel of just weight and good silver, such as was kept in the sanctuary, for a standard ; in imitation of the Egyptians, who ker in their temples standards of their weights and measures. However it be, it is commonly supposed that it was some of these pieces the priests gave Judas to betray Jesus 69). And indeed when the ancients spoke of a piece of silver in general, they meant the shekel. There are Hebrew thekels still to be seen in the cabinets of the curious. They have on one side a vessel, which is supposed to be the pot wherein the manna was laid up, or else Aaron's censer, with this inscription in Samaritan cha
(7) Pitisc. Lexic. Antiq. Rom. (*) Matt. X. 29. Luke xii. 6, (3) Luke xv. 8.
(1) Exod. xxx. 13. Matt. xvii. 24. (7) Hoffmm. Lexic. (k) Matt. xxii. 21. (1) Matt. xvii. 24. (m) Joseph, de Bell. Jud. I. vii. c. 26.
(n) For which reason it was named denarius, i, e, the tenth. There is the number X marked on one side. (0) Matth. xvii. 27.
(0) Cleric. in Exod. &c, Matth, xxvi. 15.
Leters, « The shekel of Israel .” and on the other, a blown flower, which eems to be Aaron's rod that budded, with these words round it, “ Jeusalem the Holy.”
The mina (r), or silver mark, weighed sixty shekels, and according to others, fifty (*): which might make about 6l. 16s. 7d. 19. 4. There were also minas of gold that weighed 100 shekels.
Some learned authors infer from Exod. xxxviii. 25, 28, that the filver talent weighed three thousand shekels. But it must be observed that the talent was not the same every where. The Hebrew one weighed more than that of the Greeks, and amounted to 3411. 105. 4d. 19. 4. The common Attick talent might be worth about 1931. 155. It is very probable that the Jews made use of it in their commerce. We have given but a general defcription of these matters, thinking it both needless and impoifible to pretend to give an exact account of them, since authors are so very much divided about them.
We may say the same concerning the measures, and it will also be fufficient to have only a general notion of them. There are two sorts of measures; some are used in taking the dimensions, as the length or breadth of any thing; others are veslels for measuring corn, and the like, or liquors, as wine and oil, &c. The long measures of the Hebrews were as follows: The digit or finger's breadth is something less than an inch, ,
hy The long [o foot. o inch. ] The lefser palm is four fingers, or three meali
measures. inches; the great palın is the length between the top of the thumb, and the top of the middle finger when the hand is stretched out. The common cubit is one foot and a half. The royal cubit (*) is longer than the last by three digits. The geometrical cubit consists of six common cubits. The dimensions of Noah's ark are supposed to have been made according to this. Reeds, or lines, were used in measuring land (s). Hence this expression in the Psalms (t), “ The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places.” The reed or line was fix cubits and one palm long (11). The chenix, mentioned in the Revelations (x), was one new
e Of dry and lia of the least of the dry measures. It held as much as a
quid measures. temperate man can eat in a day. But it was not of the que fame bigness every where. It is supposed that that which is mentioned in the Revelations was one of the least of those that went under that
name, and held about two pounds. This measure was used in distriTo
buting to the soldiers their allowance of food. There There is mention in St. Matthew (y) of a measure called fatum (+),
(r) Luke xix. .
(*) The passage in Ezek. xlv. 12. where the mina is mentioned, is obscure. In some copies of the septuagint the inina is said to be 50 shekels, in others 6o, &c.
(*) The Chaldee paraphraft hath rendered by a royal cubit, what is called "the cubit of a man." Deut. iii. 11.
(s) Josh. xvii, 14. (1) Pial. xvi. 6. (22) Rev. xxi, 15.
() Matt. xiii. 33.
we think itt, fince they ace Hcbrews hadis supposed
which was very much in use in Palestine. The learned are not agree: about its bigness, fome making it bigger, and others smaller. It is not generally supposed, that it was the third part of an ephab, which was a Hebrew measure containing 447 cubick inches, that held i gallon, 2-3 3 pints. The ephah was otherwise named bath. The corus is the farce measure as the Hebrew chomer (*), as is manifest from Ezekiel, brcos. paring the original Hebrew with the seventy (Z). The chomer was the largest measure the Hebrews had. It held 10 ephahs, [or 24 pecks, ad contained 13410 inches. . It was also a liquid measure (a). Tte modius, mentioned in St. Matthew (b), is supposed to be the same as the fatum or feah. The Hcbrews had several other kinds of CT measure, but since they are not mentioned in the New Testament, we think it needless to give an account of them here, and therefore defire the reader to consult those that have fully treated of this matter,
The least measure that is mentioned in the gospel (c) is the fex's rius (†), which is supposed to be the same as the log (d) of the Hebrew), that held about one pound of oil. . Authors are very much divided in their opinions about the bigneis of the measure which is by St. John named metretes (e); some fancy , that it was the same as the cphah. Others taking the dimenfions of the vefsels or cisterns mentioned in that place, (which are said to contain two or three metretze apiece) according to those of the amphora, co Attick urn, which contained, it is supposed, 100 pounds of liqucr, imagine that the metretes held 200, or 300 pounds of water. Others, in short, imagine that it answered to twelve Roman congii (1). It is of no manner of consequence, after all, to know the bigness of those cisterns, because though JESUS CHRIST had changed but one drop of water into wine, the miracle would have been as large as if he had changed a great quan tity. The miracle would not have been indeed so conspicuous, but it couid not upon any account have been the less certain or unquestionable.
(*) We must take care not to confound the chomer with the gomer, which held 3 pints. The corus is mentioned Luke xvi. 7. . (z) Ezek, xlv. 14. (a) 1 Kings v. ii. Luke xvi. 7.
(b) Matt. y. 15. Grot. in loc. The modius is one of thote Latin words 20 which the Evangelists have given a Greek found and termination.
(c) Mark vii. 4.
1) The word sextarius is also a Latin word, to which the Evangeliils hare given a Greek termination ; it was so called, because it was the fixth part of the Roman congius, which was a vessel containing ten Roman pounds of water.
(i) Lev, xiv. 12.
(e) John ii. 6. It is a Greek word which signifies measure. It was is lie among the Greeks and Romans. (It held 7 pints.)
(1) The congius was a Roman measure, which held fix fextarii, and was the cighth part of the amphora,