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then head-quarters of idolatry, with a design they should there increare into a nation ; and there, notwithstanding the cruel oppression they long groaned under, they inultiplied to a surprising number. At length God delivered them from the servitude of Egypt, by the most dreadful displays of his almighty power ; whereby he demonstrated himself to be the one true God, in a signal and compleat triumph over idols, even in their metropolis, and in a country of fame and eminence among all the nations round about. Thus freed from the vilelt bondage, God formed them into a kingdom, of which he him. self was king; gave them a revelation of his nature and will; infti. tuted sundry ordinances of worship; taught them the way of truth and life; set before them various motives to duty, promising singular blessings to their obedience and fidelity, and threatning disobedience and apostacy, or revolt from his government, with very heavy judgments; especially that of being expelled from the land of Canaan, and « scattered among all people, from the one end of the earth unto the other,” in a wretched, persecuted state. Deut. xxviii. 63-68. Lov. xxvi. 3, 4, &c. 33. Having fetiled their constitution, he led them through the wilderness, where he disciplined them for forty years together; made all opposition fall before them ; and at last brought thern to the promised land.

7. Here I may observe, that God did not choose the Israelites out of any partial regard to that vation; nor because they were better than Qiher people, (Deut. ix. 4, 5.) and would always observe his laws. It is plain he knew the contrary. (Deut. xxxi. 29. xxxii. 5, 6, 15.) I was indeed with great propriety, that among other advantages he gave them also that, of being descended from progenitors illustrious for piety and virtue ; and that he grounded the extraordinary favours they enjoyed upon Abraham's faith and obedience, Gen. xxii. 16, 17, 18. But it was not out of regard to the moral character of the Jewish nation that God chose ihem, (57) (*) any other nation would have served as well on that account; but as he thought fit to select one nation of the world, he selected them out of relpect to the piety and virtue of their ancestors, Exod. jii. 15. vi. 3, 4, 5. Deut. iv. 37

8. It Tould also be carefully oblerved ; that God selected the Israelitish nation and manifected himself to them by various displays of his power and goodncís, not principally for their own rakes, to make them a happy and flourishing people ; but to be subservient to his own high and great designs with regard to all mankind. And we lball entertain a very wrong, low, and narrow idea of this select nation, and of the difpensations of God towards it, if we do not conlider it as a beacon, or a light set upon a hill; as raised up to be a public voucher of the being and providence of God, and of the truth of the revela. tion delivered to them, in all ages, and in all parts of the world : and consequently, that the Divine scheme, in relation to the Jewish policy, had reference to other people, and even to us at this day, as well as to

the (*) Wherever any number is included in brackets, thus [17], it refers 10 the paragraph marked with the fame number in this KEY; and to no erber part of the book.

the Jews themselves. [75] And the situation of this nation, lying upon the borders of Asia, Europe, and Africa, waş very convenient for lich à general purpose.

9. It is further observable; that this scheme was wisely calculated to answer great eods under all events. If this nation continued obedient, their visible' prosperity, under the guardianship of an extraordinary Providence, would be a very proper and extensive instruction to the nations of the earth. And, no doubt, so far as they were obedient, and favoured with the signal interpolals of the Divine Power, their case was very useful to their neighbours. On the other hand; if they were disobedient, then their calamities, and especially their dispersions, would nearly answer the same purpose ; by spreading the knowledge of the true God, and of Revelation, in the countries, where before they were not known. And so wisely was this scheme laid at first, with re. gard to the laws of the nation, both civil and religious, and so carefully has it all along been conducted by the Divine Providence, that it Atill holds good, even at this day, full 3600 years from the time when it first took place, and is still of public use for confirming the truch of Revelation. I mean, not only as the Christian profesion, {pread over a great part of the world, has grown out of this scheme, but as the Jews themselves, in virtue thereof, after a dispersion of about 1700 years, over all the face of the earth, every where in a ftate of ignomy and contempo, have, notwithstanding, sublisted in great numbers, distinct and separate: from all other nations. This seeins to me a standing miracle : nor can I afsign it to any other cause but the will and extraordinary interposal of Heaven, when I consider, that, of all the famous nations of the world, who might have been distinguished from others with great advantage, and the most illuftriqus mark of honour and renown; as the Allyrians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, who all in their turns held the empire of the world, and were, with great ambition, the lords of mankind, yet these, even in their own countries, the seat of their ancient glory, are quite diffolved, and link into the body of mankind : nor is there a person upon Garth can boast he is deicended from those renowned, and imperial ancestors. Whereas a small nation, generally despised, and which was, both by Pagans and pretended Christians, for many ages, haraffed, perfecuted, butchered, and distressed, as the most dereftable of all people upon the face of the earth (**); and which, therefore, one would imagine, every foul that belonged to it, fould have gladly difowned, and have been willing the odious name should be entirely extinguished ; yet, I say, this hated nation has continued in a body quite distinct and separate from all other people; even in a state of difpertion, and grievous persecution, for about 1700 years; agreeably to the prediction, Ifai. xlvi. 28, I will make a full end of all the nations whither I have driven thee, but I will not make a full end of thee. This demonstrates, that the Wisdom, which so formed thein into a peculiar body, and the Providence, which has so preserved them, that they have, sia

moft (**) According to the prophecy of Moses, Deut. xxviii, 63, &c. See Dr. Patrick's Commentary upon that place.

most ever since the Deluge, fubfisted in a state divided from the rest of mankind, and are still likely to do so, is not Haman, but Divine. For no human wisdom or power could form, or, however, could execute, such a vast, extensive design. Thus the very being of the Jews, in their pretent circuinstances, is a standing, public proof of the truth of 1 Revelation; at least as far as the call of Abraham : and also is a fait and inanifest pledge of the great event foretold in the Prophetic Writ. I ings; when Babylon shall fall, the fulness of the Gentiles come, and all to Israel be saved, and, I suppose, return to their own land again. For their being so wonderfully prelerved, in a distinct body, I make non question, points to their restoration predicted particularly by St. Paul, Rom. xi. 12, 15, 25, to: 33(*). But to recurn..

CHA P. II.

The particular Honcurs and Privileges of the Jewish Nation, while they were the peculiar People of God, and the Terms fignifying those Honours, &c. explained.

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| 10. THE nature and dignity of the foregoing scheme, and the

1 state and privileges of the Jewish nation, will be better understood, if we carefully observe the particular phrases by which their relation to God, and his favours to them, are exprelled in Scripture. And, .

11. 1. As God, in his infinite wisdom and goodness, was pleased to prefer them be o e any other nation, and to single them out for the purposes of revelation, and preserving the knowledge, worship, and obe. dience of the true God, God is said to choose them, and they are repre. sented as his chosen, or ele&t people : Deut. iv. 37. vii. 6. X. 15, “ The Lord had a delight in thy fathers, and he chose their feed after them, even you above all people.” 1 Kings iii. 8, “ Thy servant is in the midst of thy people which thou hast chosen, a great people that cannot be numbered.” i Chron. xvi. 13, “ O ye feed of Israel his servant, ye children of Jacob his chosen ones." Pfal. cv. 6. xxxiii. 12, “ Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord : and the people whom he hath cholen for his own inheritance.” cv. 43. cvi. 5, “That I may see the good of thý cholen, or elect, that I may rejoice in the gladness of thy nation." cxxxv. 4. Isai. xli. 8, 9. xliii. 20. xliv. 1, 2. xlv. 4, “ For Jacob my servant's fake, and Israel mine elett, I have even called thee by thy name." Ezek. xx. 5, “ Thus faith the Lord, in the day when I chose Israel, and

midt om above all na thy fathers, 3 Deut. iv. 33", a

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(*) Since I wrote ihis there has been published three Discourses, under the title of " The Circumstances of the jewish People an Argument for the Truth of the Christian Religion,” by the learned and judicious Dr. Ņ. Lard. ner, which I think well worth perusing.

lifted my Hand unto the Seed of the House of Jacob, and made myse!f known unto them in the Land of Egypt.”—Hence re-instating them in their former Privileges is expressed by choosing them again, Isa. xiv. I, “ For the Lord will have Mercy on Jacob, and will yeu choose Israel, and set them in their own Land.” Zech. i. 17. ii. 12.

12. II. The first Step he took, in Execution of his Purpose of Election, was, to rescue them from their wretched Situation in the Servitude and Idolatry of Egypt, and to carry them, through all Enemies and Dangers, to the Liberty and happy State, to which he intended to advance them. With regard to which the Language of Scripture is, 1. that he Delivered, 2. Saved, 3. Bought, or Purchased, 4. Redeemed them. Exod. iii. 8, “And I am come down to deliver them out of the Hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them unto a good Land.” So Exod. xviii. 8, 9, 10. Judg. vi. 8, 9.--Exod. vi. 6, “ I am the Lord, and I will bring you from under the Burthens of the Egyptians, and I will rid [deliver] you out of their Bondage.” So Exod. v. 23. 1 Sam. X. 18.

13. Exod. xiv. 30, “ Thus the Lord saved Israel that Day, out of the Hand of the Egyptians.”. Deut. xxxiji. 29, “ Happy art thou, O Israel : Who is like untothee, O People saved by the Lord ?" 1 Sam. x. 19, Thus God was their Saviour and Salvation.Psal. cvi. 21, “ They, (the Ifraelites,] forgot God their Saviour, which had done great Things in Egypt.” Ifai. xliii. 3, “ I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour : I gave Egypt for thy Ransom,” lxii. 8. Exod. xv. 2, “ The Lord is my Strength and Song, and he is become my Salvation." Deut. xxxii. 15.

14. Exod. xv. 16, “Fear and Dread shall fall upon them till thy People pass over, O Lord, till thy People pass over, which thou hast purchased." Deut.xxxii. 6, “ Do ye thus requite the Lord, O foolish People and una wise?-Is he not thy Father, that has bought thee?” Psal. Ixxiv. 2, “Rememberthy Congregation which thou hast purchased, or bought, of old (*).".

15. Exod. (*) In order to understand the Notion of buying and purchasing, as here applied, let it be observed; that buying is often used metaphorically in Scripture, where it is common to meet with buying without Money and withouc Price; or buying with a Price improperly so called. Ifai. lv. I, 6 Ho, every one that thusteth," that is desirous of Life and Salvation, "come ye to the Waters, and he that hath no Money, come ye; buy and eat, yea, come buy Wine and Milk without Money and without Price.Which is explained, Ver. 3, “Incline your Earandcome unto me, hear,” be attentive to my initructions, and your Soul Thall live." In this sensewe buy, when we seriously apply our Minds to Study and receive the Precepts of Divine Wisdom, and the Promises of Divine Grace; and endea. vour to have our Hearts and Lives conformed to them. Thus we buy the Truth, Prov. xxiii. 23. iv. 5,7. “ Get (buy] Wisdom, get (buy) Understanding," fo Chap. xy. 32. xvi. 16. xvii. 16. xix. 8. In all those Places the Word we render, get, might have been translated, buy, and so it is rendered, Deut. xxviii. 68. 2 Sam. xxiv. 21. 2 Chron. xxxiv. 11. Jer, xxxii: 7. Amos viii. 6. Gen, xlvii. 19. Ruth iv. 4, 8, and in several other places. Thus we “buy” of Christ "Gold tried in the Fire, and white Raiment,” (Rev. ill.18.) viz. the most valuable Endowments of Mind. Thus the wile Merchant Man (Mat, xiji. 45, 46.) having found “ the Pearl of great Price," the Virtue and Happi dess of the Gospel, “ went and fold all that he h:d, and bought it.” That

VOL. III.

15. Exod. vi. 6. xv. 13, “ Thou in thy Mercy hast led forth thy People, which thou hast redeemed.” Deut. vii. 8, “Because the Lord loved you,hath he brought you out with a mighty Hand, and redeemed you out of the House of Bondmen,” &c. ix. 26. xxiv. 18. 2 Sam. vii. 23, “ And what one Nation in the Earth is like thy People, even like Israel, whom God went to redeein for a People to himself, and to make him a Name, and to do for you great Things and terrible for thy Land, before thy People, which thou reileemed to Thee from Egypt, from the Nations and their Gods ?"- Hence God is stiled their Redeemer. Pfal. Ixxviii. 35, “ And they remembered that God was their Rock, and the high God their Redeemer.” And in many other places.

16. III. As God fetched them out of Egypt, invited them to the Honours and Happiness of his People, and by many express Declarations, and Acts of Mercy, engaged them to adhere to him as their God, he is faid to call them, and they were his called. Ifai. xli. 8, 9, “ But thou Israel art my fervant,- thou whom I have taken from the Ends of the Earth, and called thce from the chief Men thereof." See Ver. 2. Chap. li. 2. Hof. xi. 1, “When Israel was a Child, then I loved him, and called my Son out of Egypt.” Ifa. Ixviii. 12, “ Hearken unto me, O Jacob, and Ifrael my called.

17. IV. And as he brought them out of the most abject Slavery, and advanced them to a new and happy State of Being, attended with distinguishing Privileges, Enjoyments and Marks of Honour, he is said, 1. To create, make and forin them, 2. To give them life, 3. To have begotten -them. Ifai. xliii. 1, “ But thus faith the Lord that created thee, Q Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, fear not:" Ver. ji

" Fear

is, straitway in his Heart he renounced all temporal Enjoyments, that he might dispose himself for eternal Light. And, in this Sente, we fell, when, through Carelessness, we fall into a Courle of Sin, or, through Obitinacy, continue in it. Thus we may fell the Truth instead of buying it, Prov. xxiii. 23. Thus Ahab did sell himself to work Wickednels, i Kings xxi. 25. And thus the Jew, in the Flesh, was 6 carnal, and fold under Sin," Rom. vii. 15. Thus we buy, when we diligently use proper Means to gain Knowledge, and good Habits ; we fell, when we neglect and abandon ourfelves to ignorance and Vice.

And the most High God is also in Scripture said to buy and sell, with re. spect to his Creatures. He buyeth a People when he interposes in their Favour, and employs all proper Means to free them from Suffering, or any Circumstances of Wretchedness, and to raise them to a happy and prosperous State. So he purchased, or bought the Children of Israel, by bringing the

out of the Slavery of Egypt, to the Liberty and Privileges of Canaan by · his mighty Power, Wisdom and Goodness; which may be considered as the

Price, improperly lo called, for which he bought them. On tbe other hand; he folls a People, when he withdraws his Favour and Bielling, suffers telt Enemies to prevail, or Calamily and Ruin to fall upon them. Deut. XXXII. 30, “How should One chale a Thousand, had not cheir Rock sold thein, and the Lord fut them up.". Judg. ii. 14. “ The Anger of the Lord was hot against Ifrael, and he fold them into the Hands of their Enemies." Ang this Notion of Buyiny, or Purchasing, is in the New Testament very property applied to our Salvation by Jelus Christ ; and therefore fiould be well con dered and understood.

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