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who is also whichdi nottomance; to the
tion, is the father of us all. Rom. iv. 16, 17, “ Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end that the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, [the Jews] but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, [the believing Gentiles] who is the father of us all, (as it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations) before him whom he believed,"—that is to say, in the account and purpose of God, whom he believed, he is the father of us all. Abraham, when he stood before God and received the promise, did not, in the account of God, appear as a private person, but as the father of us all; as the head and father of the whole future church of God, from whom we were all, believing Jews and Gentiles, to descend, as we were to be accepted, and interested in the divine blessing and covenant after the same manner as he was; namely, by faith, Gal. iii. 6, &c. “Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. Know ye therefore, that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. For the Scripture foreseeing that God would justify,” would take into his church and covenant, “ the Heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed. So then they which be of faith (of what country soever they are, Heathens as well as Jews) are blessed (justified, taken into the kingdom and covenant of God] together with believing Abraham” (and into that very covenant which was made with him and his feed.] In this covenant were the Jews during the whole period of their dispensation, from Abraham to Moses, and from Moses to Christ. For the covenant with Abraham was with him, and with his "seed after him," Gen. xvii. 7. “ To Abraham and his feed were the promises made," Gal. iii. 16. And the Apostle in the next verse tells us, that [the promises or] “ the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was [given by Mofes] four hundred and thirty years after, could not disanul, that it thould make the promise (or covenant with Abraham) of none effect.” Consequently, the Jews, during the whole period of the law, or Mosaical dispensation, were under the covenant with Abraham : and into that same covenant the apostle argues, Rom. 1v. and Gal. iii, that the believing Gentiles are taken. For which reason he affirms, that they are “ no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the saints,” that is, the patriarchs, &c. And that the great mystery not understood in other ages, was this; “ that the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs, and of the same body" with his church and children the Jews, Eph. ii. 19. iii. 5, 6. ... 82. Secondly. Agreeably to this sentiment, the believing Gentiles are said to partake of all the spiritual privileges which the Jews enjoyed, and from which the unbelieving Jews fell; and to be taken into that kingdom and church of God out of which they were
ant, that was four hundred ife (or covenae whole
reat muuta be fellow-heid. 19. iii. 57. fentiment, thes which the Jewebe
, 83. Mat. xx. 1-16. In this parable the vineyard is the kingdom of heaven, into which God, the housholder, hired the Jews early in the morning; and into the same vineyard he hired the Gentiles at the eleventh hour, or an hour before sun-set.
84. Matt. xxi. 33–34. The husbandman, to whom the vineyard was first let, were the Jews; to whom God first sent his servants, Y 4
the prophets, Ver. 34-36. And at last he sent his Son, whom they flew, Ver. 37-39. And then the vineyard was let out to other hus. bandmen. Which our Saviour clearly explains, Ver. 43, “Therefore I say unto you, [Jews | the kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation (the believing Gentiles] bringing forth the fruits thereof."-Hence it appears; that the very same kingdom of God, which the Jews once pofTefied, and in which the ancient prophets exercited their ministry one after another, is now in our poffeilion : for it was taken from them and given to us.
85. Rom. xi. 17–24. The church or kingdom of God, is compared to an olive-tree, and the members of it to the branches. 
And if some of the branches, (the unbelieving Jews] be broken off, and thou,” Gentile Christian, “wert grafied in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive-tree ;” that is, the Jewith church and covenant. Ver. 24, “ For if thou,” Gentile Christian, "were cut out of the olive-tree, which is wild by nature, and were graffed, colltrary to nature, into the good olive-tree;" &c.
86. 1 Pet. ii. 7, 8, 9, 10, “ Unto you, Gentiles, who believe, he [Chrift] is an honour: but unto them which be disobedient, (the unbelieving Jews] the stone which the builders disallowed, the fame is made the head of the corner, and also a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence (*). They stumble at the word being disobedient, whereunto also they were appointed : [they are falien from their privileges and honour, as God appointed they should, in case of their unbelief :] but ge, [Gentiles, are raised to the high degree from which they are fallen, and fo] are a chosen generation,  a royal priesthood,  an holy nation,  a peculiar people (51]; that ye thould few forth the pranes of him who hath called you out of heathenish darkness into his marvellous light."
87. Thirdly. The Jews vehemently opposed the admission of the uncircumcised Gentiles into the kingdom and covenant of God, at the first preaching of the gospel. But if the Gentiles were not taken into the fame church and covenant, in which the Jewith nation had so long gloried, why hould they so zealoufly oppose their being admitted into it? or why so itrenuously infilt, that they ought to be circumcited in order to their being admitted ? For what was it to them, if the
(*) We render this passage thus, a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence, even to them which diuinble at the word, being disobedient,” &c. as if it were one continued sentence. But thus violence is done to the text, and the apostle's fenfe is thrown into obícurity and disorder, which is restored by putting a period after, offence, and beginning a new tentence, thus; "they Itumbie ar the word,” &c. For oblerve; the apofile runs a double antithelis between the unbelieving Jews, and believing Gentiles. Ver. 7, TMIN ** Tun TOUS TIISTUOVO ANTEIOOYEI .i, rogov cv, &c. Ver. 8, OI Teacxo77vJI TWA &c. Ver. 9. TMEIE O: ;,- exacmoy, &c. The particles ó and ós are frequently put for be and thry, and are so translated. Take a few instances out of the many too numerous to be quoted Mait, xii. 3, 11, 19, &c. xii, 20, 22. xiv. 17, 18. xvi. 7, 14. xviii. 30. XX. 5, 31. xxi. 25. xxij. 5, 19. xxvi, 15,70. XTVT. 21, 66. xxviii. 15. 17. Mark viii. 28. ix. 32. X. 26. xii. ro. xiv. 46. LAC XXU121, 22. Acis v. 33. viii. 25. xii. 15. XV. 3, 30. xvii. 18. xxiii. 18. XA Ville 5, 6. Heb. xi. 14. xii, 10. And in the last line of the Iliad. 2; as n ape pole 563 ταιν Εκτορος ιπποδαμοιο.
Gentiles were called, and taken into another kingdom and covenant, diftinct, and quite different from that which they would have confined wholly to themselves, or to such only as were circumcised ? It is plain the Gentiles might have been admitted into another kingdom and covenant, without any offence to the Jews, as they would still have been left in the fole poilellion of their ancient privileges. And the apoltles could not have failed of using this as an argument to pacify their incensed brethren, had they so underitood it. But seeing they never give the least intimation of this, it shews they understood the affair as the unbelieving Jews did ; namely, that the Gentiles, without being circumcised, were taken into that kingdom of God, in which they and their forefathers had fo long stood. And,
88. Fourthly. It is upon this foundation, (namely, that the believing Gentiles are taken into that church and kingilom in which the Jews once stood) that the apostles draw parallels, for caution and instruction, between the state of the ancient Jews, and that of the Christians. 1 Cor. x. 1-13, “Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and were all baptized into Mofes,--and did all eat of the fame spiritual meat, and did all drink of the same spiritual drink. But with many of them God was not well pleased : for they were overthrown in the wilderness. Now those things were our examples, to the intent we should not luft after evil things as they also luited. Neither be je idolaters, as were some of them ,- neither let us provoke Christ as some of them provoked,” &c. Heb. ii. 7, to the end,““ Wherefore as the Holy Ghoit faith, To-day (*), when," or while, "you hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in-the day of temptation in the wilderness; when your fathers tempted me,_Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and--sware in my wrath, they shall not enter into my reít. Take heed, brethren, left there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief.” Chap. iv. I, “Let us therefore fear, lest a promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it.” Ver. 2,. “ For unto us hath the gospel been preached as well as to them,” that is, we have the joyful promise of a happy Itate, or of entering into reft, as well as the Jews of old. Ver. 11, “Let us labour therefore to enter into that reft, left any man fall after the same example of unbelief.”
89. Fifthly. Hence also the Scriptures of the Old Testament are represented as being written for our use and instruction, and to explain our dispensation as well as theirs. Mat. v. 17, “.Think not that
am come to destroy the law and the prophets : I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” And when our Saviour taught his disciples the things pertaining to his kingdom, he “opened to them the Scriptures," which were then no other than the Old Teltament, Luke iv. 17–22. xviii. 31.
xxiv. (*) Σημερον ΕΑΝ της φωνης αυλα ακύσηλε. ΕΑΝ [if] Πιould here have been rendered when; as it is rendered i John ii. 2; and as it should have been rendered Tohn xii. 32. xiv, 3. xvi. 7. 2 Cor. v. 1. In like manner the paricle ON Psal. xcv. 7, (whence the place is quoted) Mould have been trans. lated when or while. For it is translated when, 1 Sam. xv, 17. Prov. iii. 24. IV, 12. Job vii. 4. xvii, 16. Pfal. 1. 18; and might have been fo translated in
xxiv. 27, “And beginning at Moses, and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.” Ver. 45, “ Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures." Thus the apostles were instructed in the things pertaining to the gospel dispensation. And always in their sermons in the Acts, they confirm their doctrine from the Scriptures of the Old Testament. And in their Epistles they not only do the same, but also expressly declare, that those Scriptures were written as well for the benefit of the Chriftian as the Jewish church. Rom. xv. 4. After a quotation out of the Old Testament the apostle adds; “ For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning ; that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope." I Cor. ix. 9, “ It is written in the law of Moses, thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn.”—Ver. 10,4" For our sakes no doubt this is written." I. Cor. x. 11, “Now all these things, [namely, the before-mentioned privileges, sins, and punishments of the ancient Jews] happened unto them for ensamples; and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the earth are come.” 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17, “ All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness : that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.” . 90. Sixthly. Agreeably to this notion, that the believing Gentiles are taken into that church or kingdom, out of which the unbelieving Jews are cast, the Christian church, considered in a body, is called by the same general names, as the church under the Old Testament, Ifrael was the general name of the Jewish church; so also of the Christian ; Gal. vi. 16, “ As many as walk according to this rule peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God." Rev. vii. 3, 4, speaking of the Christian church the angel said, “Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads. And I heard the number of them that were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty-four thousand, of all the tribes of the children of Israel." Rev. xxi. 10-13, “ He thewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, [the Christian church, 115) having the glory of God; and had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of Israel,” (as comprehending the whole church.] Ver. 14, “ And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb."-Jews, was another running title of the church in our Saviour's time; and this also is applied to Christians. Rev. ü. 8, 9, “ And unto the angel of the (Christian) church in Smyrna, write, I know thy works and tribulation, and poverty; and I know the blafphemy of them who say they are Jews (members of the church of Christ) and are not, but, are the ly. nagogue of Satan." And again, Chap. iii. 9.
CH A P.
c H A P. VI.
The particular Honours and Privileges of Christians, or of those in any Nam
tion, who profess Faith in the Son of God, and the Terms fignifying those
Honours explained. 01. SEVENTHLY. In conformity to this sentiment, (namely, that
o the believing Gentiles are taken into that church, covenant and kingdom, out of which the unbelieving Jews were cast) the state, membership, privileges, honours and relations of professed Christians, particularly of believing Gentiles, are expressed by the same phrases with those of the ancient Jewish church; and therefore, unless we admit a very strange abuse of words, muft convey the same general ideas of our present state, membership, privileges, honours and relations to God, as we are professed Christians. For instance;
92. I. As God chose his ancient people the Jews, and they were his chosen and elect; so now the whole body of Christians, Gentiles as well as Jews, are admitted to the same honour; as they are selected from the rest of the world, and taken into the kingdom of God, for the knowledge, worship and obedience of God, in hopes of eternal life.  Rom. viii. 33, “Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elecz ?" &c. Eph. i. 4, “ According as he hath cholen us [Gentiles, Chap. ii. 11.] in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy, and without blame before him in love." Col. iii. 12, “ Put on therefore (as the elect of God, holy and beloved) bowels of mercies," &c. 2 Thef.ji. 13, “ But we are bound to give thanks to God always for you, . brethren, beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation; through sanctification of the spirit, and belief of the truth.” Tit. i. 1, “Paul a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the acknowledging of the truth, which is after godliness.” 2 Tim. ii. 10, “ Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory." 1 Pet.'i. 1, 2, “ Peter—to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience.” ii. 9, “ Ye (Gentiles] are a cholen generation,” &c. v. 13, “ The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, faluteth you.”
93. II. The first step the goodness of God took in execution of his purpose of election, with regard to the Gentile world, was to rescue them from their wretched ftuation in the sin and idolatry of their Heathen state, and to bring them into the light and privileges of the gospel. With regard to which the language of Scripture is, 1. That he delivered, 2. saved, 3. bought, or purchased, 4. redeemed them.  Gal. i. 4, “Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world,” the vices and lusts in which the world is involved. Col. i. 12, 13, “Giving thanks to the Fa