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them, that the believing Gentiles food in the church of God upon as juit and sure a ground as themselves; and to induce them to a free and peaceable communion with them, upon the common profelfion of faith alone. And therefore, he sometimes addresses the belier. ing Jews directly, as Chap. vii. 1, “ Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law), &c.”
306. It is evident enough the epistles to the Romans and Galatians have relation to different sorts of Jews. But as the principles of thoie Jews did in some things coincide, and their sentiments were the same with regard to the perpetual obligation of the law of Moses; fo there may be an affinity and agreement in the arguments, which the apoitie advances in confutation of the one and the other *.
307. Now, against the mistakes of the infidel Jews, the apostle thus argues in the epistle to the Romans. Jews, as well as Gentiles, have corrupted themselres, and are become obnoxious to divine wrath; and, if they reform not, will certainly fall under the wrath of God in the last day. Consequently, as both are obnoxious to wrath, both must be indebted tó grace and mercy for any favour shewn them. The continuance of the Jews in the church, as well as the admittance of the Gentiles into it, is wholly of grace, mere grace, or favour. Upon which foot, the Gentiles must have as goed a right to the bleslings of God's covenant, as the Jews themselves. And why not? Is not God the creator and governour of the Gentile, as well as of the Jews ? and, if both Jews and Gentiles have corrupted themselves by wicked works, it is imsofiible either should have a night to the privileges of God's church and people on account of works, or obedience to the law of God, whether natural or revealed. It mult be pure mercy, accepted by faith, or a persuasion of that mercy, en their part, which gives that right. All must be indebted to grace. The works of law never gave the Jews themselves a right to the privileges and promises of the covenant. Even Abraham himself, (the head of the nation, who was first taken into God's covenant, and from whom the Jews derive all their peculiar blessings and advan. tages) was not justified by works of the law. It was free grace, or favour, which at once admitted him, and his posterity, into the covenant and church of God. And that the grace of the gospel actually extends to all mankind, appears from the universality of the resurrec. tion; which is the effect of God's grace, or favour, in a Redeemer; and is the first and fundamental part of the new dispensation, with ri gard to the gift of eternal liie. For as all were involved in death, in consequence of Adam's sin, so all shall be restored to life at the last day, in consequence of Chrfti's obedience. And therefore it is certain that all nen actually have a thare in the mercy of God in Chrilt Jefus. Thus the apoille argues.
308. And we ought particulariy to observe; How he combats the ingrossing temper of the Jews in his arguments. They could not
the blerings which fool, to it, is w
it is imposa
beslience to the of God's
* Had Mr. Locke considered these things, he would hardly have said in his preface to the Galatians, that “ the lubject and delgu of this Epistle 15 d. the lame with that of the Epistle to the Romans.”
Et in tot ce ingross all Virtue to themselves; for they were as bad as other People. Tes; and on. They could not ingross God and his Favour to themselves, for he F, CPA en was the Governour and Creator of Gentiles, as well as Tews. They Fun, it could not ingross Abraham, and the Promise made t) him, to them. cu te mire felves; for he is the Father of many Nations; and the believing Gentiles
are his Seed, as well as the Jews. They could not ingross the Resurthe Riazt rection, the necessary Introduction to eternal Life, to themselves ; be
de cause it is known, and allowed, to be common to all Mankind. cours 309. And he had good Reason to be so large and particular in conhoc futing the Mistakes of the infidel Jews. For had their Principles pre50 vailed, the Gospel could not have maintained it's Ground. For if we - must have performed the Works of Law, before we could have been u k interested in the Blesings of the Covenant, then the Gospel would have Sa lost its Nature and Force. For then it would not have been a Motive
to Obedience, but the Result of Obedience; and we could have had no Hope towards God, prior to Obedience. Therefore, the Apostle has done a singular and eminent Piece of Service to the Church of
God, in asserting and demonstrating the free Grace and Covenant of bo God, as a Foundation to stand upon, prior to any Obedience of ours,
and as the grand Spring and Motive of Obedience. This sets our Interest in the Covenant, or Promise of God, upon a Foundation very clear and solid.
310. To understand rightly the Epistle to the Romans, it is further necessary to observe; Thar the Apostle considers Mankind as obnoxious to the Divine Wrath, and as standing before God the Judge of all. Hence it is, that he uses Forensic, or Law-Terms usual in Jewish Courts; such as the Law, Righteoufness or Juftification, being Fustified, Judgment to Condemnation, Jufiification of Life, being made Sinners, and being made Righteous. These I take to be Forensic, or Court-Terms; and the Apostle, by using them, naturally leads our Thoughts to suppose a Court held, a Judgment-Seat to be erected by the most high Pod, in the several Cases whence he draws his Arguments. For Instance; hap. y. 12-20 he supposes Adam standing in the Court of God, after -had committed the firit Transgression; when the Judgment, passed upon m for his Offence, “came upon all Men to Condemnation;" and when and his Posterity, by the Favour, and in the Purpose of God, were in made righteous, or obtained the Justification of Life. Again; an. iv, he supposes Abraham standing before the Bar of the supreme je: When, as an Idolater, he might have been condemned ; but, ugh the pure Mercy of God, he was justified, pardoned and taken
God's Covenant, on Account of his Faith. He also supposes, 3. iii. 19 2 9, all Mankind standing before the universal Judge, ¿ Christ came into the World. At that Time, neither Jew nor ile could pretend to Justification, upon the foot of their own Es of Righteousness; both having corrupted themselves, and come of the Glory of God. But at that Time, both had a Righteous
or Salvation, prepared for them in a Redeemer; namely, the eousness, which results from the pure Mercy, or Grace of God, wgiver and Judge. And so, both finstead of being deftroyed)
had Admittance into the Church and Covenant of God, by Faith, in order to their external Salvation.
311. But, besides these three instances, in which he supposes a Court to be held by the supreme Judge, there is a fourth to which he 'points, Chap. ii. 1–17; and that is the final Judgment, or the Court which will be held in the Day, when“ God will Judge the Secrets of Men by Jesus Christ.” And it is with Regard to that future Court of Judicature, that he argues Chap. ii. 1- 17. But in the other Cafes, whence he draws his Arguments, he supposes the Courts of Judicature to be already held; and consequently argues in Relation to the cono*my, Constitution, or Dispensation of Things in this present World. This is very evident, with Regard to the Court, which he supposes to be held, when our Lord came into the World, or when the Gospel-Conftitution was erected in its full Glory. For, speaking of the Justification, which Mankind then obtained, through the Grace of God in Christ, he expressly confines that Justification to the present Time, Chap. iii. 26;“ To demonstrate, I say, his Righteousness, [Extw NYN xan) .at the present Time." This plainly diflinguishes the Righteousness, or Salvation, which God then exhibited, from that Righteousness, or Salvation, which he will vouchsafe in the Day of Judgment, to pious and faithful Souls.
CH A P. XVI. The grand Key to the Epiftles. The Scripture Nction of Righteousness,
Juftification, and Justity demonftrated.
.312. T HIS Distinction, between the Salvation, which God ex
T hibited at the first Preaching of the Gospel, and that which he will vouchsafe to good Men in the Day of Judgment, leads us to the grand Key to the Epistles; particularly, to the Romans and Galatians. Which is this; That the Justification, Righteousness, be. ing justified without Works, which the Apostle speaks of, is not final and eternal Justification ; but that firit, antecedent, and abiolute Justification already spoken of ; whereby we Gentiles, wło were Sinners and Idolaters, deserving of Condemnation and Deltruction, were pardoned, and, upon our Faith, delivered from the Power of Darkness, and translated into the Kingdom of the Son of Gods Love.
313. That, I conceive, which has occafioned Mistakes upon this Head, is this; That Righteousness, which sometimes signifies a moral Character in general, or a Person's being just and upright, has always been understood in that Sense, and distinguished into inherent, or pete sonal Righteousness, and imputed Righteousness; which is, as Divines have told us, when the personal Righteousness of another is made ours,
or is put to our account. Whereas righteousness, besides moral rectitude in general, admits of two or three other senses. Likewise justification; justify, being justified, have been applied to one case only; namely, our full and final acceptance with God, or our being totally delivered from condemnation, and accounted worthy of eternal sal vation through Jesus Christ. Whereas these terms are applied to various cafes, or to any instance of deliverance and salvation, through the mercy and goodness of God.
314. To settle this point in a proper manner, let it be observed ; That the apostles, in the New Testament, use the language and spirit of the Old. They were Jews, well versed in the Jewish scriptures, accustomed to their style and sentiments, and inspired with the same spirit of truth and wisdom, which spake in the ancient prophets. Therefore we must explain the phraseology of the apostles by that of Moses and the prophets. And the Greek of the Septuagint 'version, which was commonly read by those Jews who lived in foreign countries, and spake the Greek language, will serve to shew us what words in the Hebrew correspond to the Greek words which the Apoftles use. For the Apostles use the Hellenistick Greek, into which the Old Testament is translated, and which the Jews in their dispersion commonly read. · 315. Now the word, which in the New Testament we render Righteousness, is AIKAIOEYNH. And the word in Hebrew, which answers to the Greek word AIKAIOSYNH righteousness, is 273, or 27%, which is sometimes, but more rarely translated Edenposu'm, kindness to the poor, Eu@gooum, joy, gladness, and Eneas mercy. And when those words, 17275, dixologum, which we translate righteousness, are applied to God, they frequently signify that goodness, kindness, benignity, mercy, favour, by which he saves and delivers from any enemy, danger, evil or suffering. And hence they are used to signify the salvation and deliverance itself, which the goodness and favour of God vouchfafes. Conformable to this, to be justified (durciso fas) is to be delivered, saved, rescued from any danger, enemy, evil or suffering. I say, these terms refer to any case of deliverance and salvation whatsoever : as will appear from the following collection of texts.
316. Judges v. 11. “ They that are delivered from the noise of archers in the places of drawing water; there shall they rehearse the Righteousness [171778 the gracious deliverances] of the Lord, even the Righteousness [doucnog uvas gracious deliverances] of his villages in Israel." Here it is applied to a national deliverance from the oppressions of a foreign power.
317. Pfalm iv. 1. “ Hear me when I call, O God of my Righteoulress, (p 73 Auranos uyms uo, of my salvation, juftification] thou haft enlarged me 'when I was in [temporal] distress, have mercy upon me, and hear my prayer.”
318. Pfalm xxii. 31. “ They shall come and shall declare his Righteoulnefs [his justification, his faving mercy to the Gentile world inpis Aixalogumi) unto a people that shall be born, that he hath done this." 319. Pfalm xxiv. 5. “He shall receive the blessing from the Lord, and
Righteousnels (preserving goodness, or deliverance np 73 Ensuconi] from the God of his salvation.”
320. Psalm xxxi. 1. “ In thee, O Lord, do I put my trust, let me never be ashamed: deliver me in thy Righteousness," [in thy goodness, 900732 : nôralocum cov.]
321. Psalm xxxv. 28. “ And my tongue shall speak of thy Righteoul kes, [thy justification, goodness, saving mercy, 7273 tizzasin) and of thy praise all the day long."
322. Psalm xxxvi. 10. “ò continue thy loving kindness to them that know thee; and thy Righteousness [99273) ng tar dirasoon sev, thy justification, goodness, saving mercy] to the upright in heart.”
323. Psalm xl. 10. “ I have not hid thy Righteousness (juftification, mercy, goodness, 707) OsXQ10 gumy 500] within my heart, (but] I have declared thy faithfulness, and thy falvation; I have not concealed thy loving kindness.”
324. Psalm xlviii. 10. “ According to thy name, O God, so is the praise und the ends of the earth: thy right-hand is full of Rigbtesufneg" [justification, salvation, saving goodness, 278 d. 219V37.]
325. Psalm li. 14. “ Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O God, thou God of my salvation : and my tongue shall fing aloud of thy Righteouf xefs" (justification, forgiving, saving mercy, 702738.65 oumy ce.]
326. Psalm lxix. 27.“ Add iniquity [luffering, punishment] to their iniquity: and let them not come into thy Righteousness” [justification, saving mercy, 7p73) » dox zbogum 78.]
327. Psalm * Agreeably to this sense the adjectives 2973 doxosos, righteous, just, fignity good, kind, gracious, &c. 1 Sam. xxiv. 17, Thou art more righteous than I, &c. Ezra ix. 15, O Lord God of Israel, thou art righteous (good), for que te main yet cfcaped. Psal. cxii. 4, Unio the upright there arifeth ligbe in tbe dark wefs; he is gracious, and full of compassion, and righteous (good, kind). Psal. cxvi. 5, Gracious is the Lord and righteous : yea, our God is merciful. Prov. xii. 10, A righteous man regardeth the life of his beaft. xxi. 26, The righteous givet and spareth not. llai. xlv. 21, — Ajut (graci us] God, and a Saviour. lvi. s, be righteous perish, and no man lay's it to beart; and merciful mes are taken away. Zech, ix. 9,- -thy King comes - he is just, and having falva tion. Mat. i. 19,- her husband being a juít (tender and compasionate] man, and not willing to make her a public example. Mat. xxv, 37, 46. The 'rightrous are described as the kind, and beneficent. Rom. iii. 26, that he might be juft (gracious) and the justifier of him that believes in Jesus. Jobo i, 9, He is faithful and jufi (gracious] to forgive us our fins.
In this senie jufius and justitia are sometimes used in Latin, Precor, nequis Aia Rex fit, quam ifte tam juft us (facilis, humanus] boftis, tam mifericors vitter. Q. Curt. Lib. IV. cap. 10. ad finem. Darium at pacem a te peteret, zulla vis subegit: sed juftitia & continentia tua expresfit. Ibid. Lib. IV. Cap. 11. Perfae juftifimum ac mitiffimum dominum invocantes. Ibid. Lib. X. Cap. V. Hanc norem Æneas pietatis irloneus auctor atialit in terras, jufie Latine, tuas Ovid. Fafior. Lib. II. Vir Trojane, quibus coelo, te laudibus aequem? Juftitial ne prius mirer, belline laborum ? Virg. Æneid. XI. 125. Ni Chrome, percavi, 16. teor, vincor. Nunc hoc te obfecro : Quarto tuus eli animus natu gravior, ig*%• centior, ut mcar fi ultitiae in juftitia tua fit aliquid præfidi. Ter. Heauton. Acto 4. Scen. 1. I. 33. Semiper tibi apud me juft. & clemens fuerit Servitus. Andr. I. ). 9. Acreeably to this Injuftitia fignifies ukind, cruel, utage, Eum og binc ejeci miferum injufiita mia. Heauton, Act 1. Scen. .. .. $2.