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371. Acts xiii. 39. “ And by him all that believe are justified [acquitted, delivered] from all Things, from which ye could not be justia fied [acquitted, delivered] by the Law of Moses.”

372. Rom. vi. 7, “ For he that is dead is freed [in the Greek it is justified, dcdixantar, delivered] from Sin.”

373. James ii. 25. “Likewise was not Rahab the Harlot justified [delivered, or saved from the destruction in which Jericho was involved] by Works, when she had received the Messengers, and had sent them out another Way.”

,374. From all this it is apparent, that Righteousness, or Justification, and to be justified, or made righteous, have Relation to any Grant of Favour, any Instance of Mercy and Goodness, whereby God delivers, or exempts from any kind of Danger, Suffering or Calamity; or confers any Favour, Blessing or Privilege. Thus Rahab was justified, when the escaped the common Carnage of Jericho; Noah was justified, when saved from the Deluge; for he was then “ made Heir of the Justification which is by Faith,” Heb. xi. 7. David was justified, when delivered from his Enemies ; Phineas, when he had the Honour of perpetual Priesthood entailed upon his Family; and Abraham was juitified, when his Idolatry was pardoned, and he and his Posterity were taken into God's peculiar Covenant *.

375. Now this being duly considered, it will not appear at all strange if the Apostle applies the Terms Righteousness, or Juftification,


Chap. ix. 12.-" They shall not go unpunished into their Grave." ¡Gr. Ew; ose ou un dinasubwon,] they shall not be justified, (or escape Punishment) unto their Grave.

Chap. X. 29. “Who will justify [save] him that finneth against his own Soul ?is

Chap. xxiii. u, “ If he swear in vain he shall not be justified, [preserved,] but his House Ball be full of Calamities."

This book is Apocryphal ; but wrote ty a Jew, in the Hellenistic Greek; and therefore of Authority sufficient to establish the Sense of a Word in that Language.

** This Enquiry into the Sense of Righteousness, &c. may serve to thew wherein the true Learning of a Christian, and especially of a Divine, conlilts ; namely, in understanding the Language of the Spirit of God in the sacred Writings; for which we have all desirable Advantages, and without which the Knowledge of Chriftian Doctrine can never be revived. For how should we know what is the Sense of the Spirit, if we do not understand the Language of the Spirit ? But the common Way of Education in Chriftian Schools leads the Mind quite out of this Track of Knowledge. The firit Years of our Learning are employed chiefly in profane or heathen Authors, whose Language and Sentiments are quite remote from that of the lacred Writings, and of true Religion. And then our Academic Studies are almost wholly exercised in a fpurious, fi&titious Learning, and in a Language invented by Men to explain, but which indeed serves only to obscure, Theology ; and to draw away our Thoughts from true Knowledge and Undertianding in. to the Pursuit of Spectres and delusive Shadows. Christian Scholars should be brought up principally in Christian Learning; or the most accurate know: ledge of the Greek and Hebrew Scriptures, to which classical Learning, and the Study of the Ancients (which is indeed a valuable Branch of Literature) fhould be made subfervient.

and being justified, to the important Affair of our Deliverance from the Power of Heathenish Darkness, and our being admitted into the Church and Covenant of God. As we were idolatrous Gentiles, and Enemies through wicked Works, God might have executed Wrath in our Destruction. But in his Mercy and Goodness, for ever to be adored, he pardoned our Sins, and prepared a great Salvation for us by his Son from Heaven, Jesus Christ our Lord. In whom we are justified freely by the Grace of God, as we are delivered from the Wrath we deserved, aod are admitted to all the Honours, Privileges, Grants, and Donations belonging to the peculiar People of God. This is our first Justification. Which, if duly improved, will issue in our full and final Justification, or the Possession of eternal Life.


That the Apostle argues about the first, and not the final Justification, in the

Epistle to the Romans demonstrated.

376. THAT the Apostle might apply the Terms, “Righteousness,"

T or Justification, and “ being justified,” to our first Justification, or the general Pardon which God granted to the Heathen World, and their Calling and Admission into his peculiar Covenans, upon their professed Faith in Christ, is sufficiently clear from what has been advanced in the foregoing Chapter. And that he actually thus applies those Terms I shall demonstrate by the following Arguments.

377. I. It cannot be full and final Justification, or that Justification which gives an - unalterable Right to eternal Life ; because, in order to that, the Scriptures always, and positively and clearly in filt upon Works, doing the Will of God, or Obedience. Whereas, the Justification the Apostle argues for, he expressly declares is of Grace without Works, moral Works, or Works of Righteousness. - True indeed, our full and final Justification is of Grace, 2 Tim. i. 18. Jude 21. And therefore St. Paul was in the Right (Phil. iii. 9.) in seeking to be “ found in Christ, not having for his Righteousness (or Salvation that which is of the Law *, (which results from legal Privileges and Dependencies, (See Ver. 4, 5, 6.) on which the Jew rested for Salvation, and which excluded the Grace of the Gospel : as appears from what follows, 7 but that which is by Faith of Christ, the Salvation which is of God by Faith;" that is, the Gospel Salvation. Our full and final Justification is of brace. But yet fo of Grace, that it will be given only to them that overcome the Temptations of the World, and “ by patient Continuance A well-doing seek for Glory, Honour and Immortality.” Whereas, with


Ver. 4, 5, 6.) on Wof the Gospel, asalario

* So it should be read; for it is in the Greek ; (NX 16XW

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Regard to the Justification, for which the Apoftle contends in the Fpiltle to the Romans, he affirms, that we are justified “ without Law," Rom. iii. 21, and (Ver. 28.) “ that a Man is justified by Faith Calone without Works of Law;" Rom. iv. 5. That“Faith is counted for Righte ousness to him that worketh not." Now these Expressions plainly figoify, that the Apostle is speaking of a justification which is not only of Grace, but which also wholly excludes Works of Law; not only Ceremonial Works ; not only finless, perfect Obedience, but univerfally all Works of Law, all Works of Righieousness, as they ftand opposed to the wicked Works of Jews and Gentiles, mentioned Chapters 1, 2, 3; and from which wicked Works he concludes Chap. iii. 20, “ That by the Deeds of Law there shall be no Fleth justified in the Sight of God." This proves the Apostle doth not speak of our full and final Justification. Therefore, he must speak of our first Juftification : For besides these two we know of no other.

378. II. The Apostle evidently distinguishes two Sorts of Justification, or Salvation. The one of Free Grace, and by Faith without Works, Chap. iii. 20- 25; the other, according to which God would “give eternal Life to them only who by patient Continuance in Well-doing teck for Glory, and Honour and Immortality. Glory, Honour and Peace to every Man that worketh Good,” Chap. ii. 7,10. By the first Justification, he tells us, “God declared his Righteousness," or saving Goodness, EN TS NYN KAIPS2, "in the Now Time," the then present Time, Chap. iii. 26; and that it had Relation to the Sios that were past at that Time, “ through the Forbearance of God,” Ver. 25. The other Juliification, he tells us, will be “in the Day of the Revelation of the righteous Judgment of God," Chap. ii. 5; and again, Ver. 16, “In the Day when God shall judge the Secrets of Men by Jesus Christ according to my Gospel.” This clearly establimes two Justifications. And as the latter, upon which he dite courseth Chap. ij.

1 1 7, is undoubtedly the full and final; fo the former, about which he argues Chap. iji. Ver. 20, to the End, must be the first Justification, or that according to which God pardoned the past Sins of the Hearlen Worki, for which he might have destroyed them, and, upon their Faith, admitted them into his Kingdom and Covenant. But the Justification, about which the Apostle argues Chap. ii. 20, to the End, is that Justification about which he argues in the five firft Chapters of the Epiftle. Consequently, the Justification about which be argues in the five firft Chapters, must be the first Justification.

379. III. The Apostle is arguing fc: the Gentiles being admitted to that State, which was oppofed to the Jewish Peculiarily. For when he had argued, that the Gentile had as good a Right as the Jew, the few replies, “what Advantage then hath the Jew, and what Profit is there of Circumcision ?" Chap. vi. 1: And again, Ver. 9, “ Are we (jew's] berter than they [Gentiles?]” He is arguing for the Gentiles being admitted to that Stare, which was opposed to the Jewisn Peculiarity, and which the Jews opposed. Now the State, opposed to the Jewith Peculiarity, was the Being of the believing Gentiles in the Church and Kingdom of God, as his Covenant People, and it was this the Jew strenuoutly opposed. Therefore the Justification, for which he pleads, is that which intro;


duced the Genciles into the Church and Kingdom of God, or the first Justification.

380. IV. The Query, Chap. vi. 1, “Shall we [Gentiles] continue in Sin?” and the Answer to it, have evident Reference to the State of Christian Gentiles, after they had believed, and were ingrasıed into Chrift, Ver. 5; after they were baptized and admitted into the Church. Therefore, the preceding Arguments relate to their State prior to their Faith, and to their being taken into the Church. For it is plain, the five firkt Chapters refer to one State, and the sixth Chapa ter to another, and very different State. Consequently, in the five first Chapters he considers Works antecedently to Faith; in the sixth Chapter he cooliders Works as consequent to Faith. The five first Chapters speak of something conferred upon them by Grace and Faith alone, without Works of Law, or of Righteousness : The sixth Chapter speaks of. a State wherein they were indispensably obliged to do Works of Righteousness. But had the Apostle spoke of the fame Kind of Justification or Salvation in the fixth Chapter, as in the foregoing Chipiers, then the Justification in the sixth Chapter must also have been without Works, as well as that in the five Chapters foregoing. Therefore, in those different Places, he certainly {peaks of two differens Kinds of Justification. And, as that in the fixch Chapter clearly refers 10, their Christian State; the other, in the five first Chapters, must refer to their Hearben State; and must be that Righteousness, Justi, fication, or Salvation, by which they were delivered from the Power of Darkness, and tran!lated into the Kingdom of Jesus Christ.

381. V. The Election of God, Chap. ix. 11, and the Election of i Grace, Chap. xi. 5, certainly refer to the original Çause of that Juftifi,

cation, which the Apostle is arguing about, in the five first Chapters, For as that Election was “ not of Works, but of Grace, and of him that calls, of God that shows Mercy,” Chap. ix. 11, 16, xi. 5, 6: So also is that Justification, which the Apostle argies for in the five first Chapters. But the Purpose or Election of God, in the gih, 10th, and with Chapters refers to their being admitted to the Privileges of God's Kingdom and Covenant in this present World : Therefore the Justifica. tion in the five first Chapters refers to the fame ; or is the first Justi. fication.

382. VI. Again ; The Righteousness the Apostle speaks of Rom. ix. 30, is the same he is arguing for in the five first Chapters. For that there is “ of Faith, and not of the Works of the Law, Chap. i. 17. iii. 20, 28. And so is this here Chap. ix. 30, " The Gentiles, which fol. Jowed not Righteousness, have attained Righteousness, the Righteousness which is of Faith. But Ifrael, which followed the Law of Righteousness, has not attained to the Law of Righteousness;" Ver. 32, * Wherefore? Because they fought it not by Faith, but as it were by the Works of the Law.And he is also in both Parts of the Epiftle Speaking of the same fubjects, Gentiles and Jews; and with Reference to the Righteousness of God, which the Jews rejected, and the believing Gentiles embraced. Chap. X. 3; “ For they (the Jews] being igno• tant of God's Righteousness, and going about to establimh their own Kighteousness, have not submitte to the Righteousness of God." Ff2


howed not Righteousne! But Ifrael, whiaw of Righteo but as it were

Compare Chap. i. 17 ; "For therein [in the Gospel) is the Righteousness of God revealed.” iji. 12; “ But now (by the Gospel] the Righteousness of God is—manifested ;-even the Righteousness of God by Faith.” There. fore, the Righteousness the Apostle is arguing for Chap. ix. 30. X. 3, is the very fame he argues for in the five first Chapters; and his Arguments relate to the same Persons. But the Righteousness, Rom. ix. 30, refers to the preceding Discourse, concerning God's rejecting the Jews and calling the Gentiles. For [toegeu ey] “ what shall we say then??" evidently connects this 3oth Verse with what goes before. But in the Discourse which goes before, he argues about being called to be the People, and Children of God in this World ; and being admitted to the Privileges of the visible Church. Therefore he certainly argues about the same Subject in the five firft Chapters ; and consequently, the Righteousness, and being justified, he pleads for, is the first Justification; and relates to our Admission into the Church and Kingdom of God in this World. Compare also Chap. x. 3- 14, with Chap. i. 16. ïü. 29, and Chap. xi. 7. with Chap. ix. 30, 31. ---383. VII. The Justification, the Apostle argues about, in the five first Chapters, is such as may be applied to collective Bodies of Meo, as well as particular Persons; as appears from Chap. iii. 9 : “ Are we [Jews] better than they (Gentiles? ]” And Ver. 29: “ Is he the God of the Jews only ?” Doth he confine his Favours only to Jews ? “ Is he not also the God of the Gentiles? Yes of the Gentiles ?” This is one Argument he advances to prove the Justification of Gentile Believers. But it is evident, he here considers them in a general, collective Capacity. Consequently, the Justification, he is arguing for, is such as suits this collective Sense; though no Doubt but ii is intended for the Benefit of Individuals: But primarily, and in the Apostle's Argument, it is to be considered as affecting the whole Body of believing Gentiles, as contra-distinguished from the Nation of the Jews. Therefore, it is the first Justification he is arguing about. For full and final Justification is applicable only to good Men, iu Opposition to the Wicked ; not to any Body of Men, whatever they believe or profess, in Opposition to the Jewish Nation. • 384. VIII. Full and final Justification is not compleated till the End of our Course. Mat. X. 22, “ He that endures unto the End Thall be saved. So run that ye may obrain. I have fought the good Fighe, I have finished my Course,---benceforth there is laid up for me a Crown of Righteousness, which Christ, the righteous Judge, hall give me at that Day. To him that overcomes will I give,” &c: But the Justification, the Apostle pleads for, was then complear, by the free Gift and Grace of God. Therefore it is the first Justification *

385. From

* But the Justification which the Apostle James discourses about, Chap. II. 14, to the End, is full and final Justification. Which I prove chus. St. James evidently speaks of Works confequent to Faith ; or such Works as are the Fruit and Product of Faith. For he faith, Ver. 17, “Faith without Works is dead being alone.” Which evidently supposes Faith to have a Being with but Works, though it is but a dead Faith. Again ; Ver. 22, “ Seelt thou how Faith wrought with his [Abraham's] Works, and by Works was Faith made per: ject.” If Faith was made rerfect by Works, then those Works must be addicunal

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