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of God by, a tanen bents to charge all Wicar General, within
relylder this Tyndbooks of Mofesome at Ha
field for an Heretick. This is the filt Time the Holy Scriptures were printed in English, (and that was only the New Testament) but written Copies thereof, of Wickliff's Translation, there were long before, and many : This was printed in some Foreign Parts, perhaps at Hamborough or Antwerp, about the Year 1526; for in this Year Cardinal Wolley and the Bishops consulted together for the prohibiting the New Testament of Tyndals Tranllation to be read, and publithed a Prohibition against it in all their Dioceses; alledging, that some of Luther's Followers had erroneously translated the New Testament, and had corrupted the Word of God by a false Translation and Heretical Glosses: therefore they required all incumbents to charge all within their Parishes, that had any of these, to bring them in to the Vicar General, within Thirty Days after that Premonition, under the Pains of Excommunication, and incurring the Suspicion of Heresy. This Year also Tonstal Bishop of London, and Sir Tho. More, bought up almost the whole Impression, and burnt them at Paul's Cross. This first Translation of Tyndals, Garrat (alias Garrard) Curate of Honey-Lane (afterwards burnt for Herely) dispersed in London and Oxford among the Scholars.
After this Tyndal took in hand to translate the Old Testament, and finishing the Five Books of Moses, with Prologues prefixed before every one, and minding to print the same at Hamborough, failed thitherward; but by the Way, on the Coast of Holland suffered Shipwreck, where he lost all his Books, Writings, and Copies, which doubled his Pains. He came in another Ship to Hamborough, where he lighted on the Help of Miles Coverdale, a Yorkshire Man born, who had some time been Fryer of the Order of St. Auflin, but being convinced of the Errors and Superftition of that Church and Fraternity, went into Germany, and for the most Part lived at Tubing, an University belonging to the Duke of Suxony, where he received the Degree of Doctor; but returning into England the first Year of King Edward the 6th, and growing into great Esteem for Piety and diligent Preaching, he was made Bishop of Exeter Anno 1551. In Queen Mary's Time he was taken into Custody, and there remained a considerable Time; but at the Intercession of the King of Denmark, he was set at Liberty, and perinitted to go beyond Sea: Settling at Geneva, he there became so iond of Calvin and his Opinions, that upon his Return under Queen Elizabeth, though he asfifted at the Confecration of Archbishop Parker, yet he refused to conforin to the Liturgy and Ceremonies, and not returning to his Bishop. rick, setiled himself in Lord.n, and there leading a private Life, died a very old Man, and was buried in St. Magnus Church'near London Bridge. This Man afifted Tyndal in tranllaving the whole Five Books of Mofes, from Eulier till December, about the Year 1529, and they went safely through their work.
Tyndal's Translation of the New Teftament had great Authority and Influence, of which the Bishops made great Complaints, and taid it was full of Errors. And Tensial being at Antwerp in The Year 1529, as he reterned from his Erobally at the Treaty of Cambray, fent for one Ausiin Packington, an English Merchant there, and desired him to see how many New Tejlaments of Tyndal's Tranlation he might have for Money. Parkington, who was a secret Favourer of Tyncial, told him what the
Bishop proposed. Tyndal was very glad of it, for being sensible of some Faults in his Work, he was designing a new and nore correct Edition ; but wanting Money, and the former Impression being not sold off, he could not go about it. So he gave Packington all the Copies that lay in his Hands, for which the Bishop paid the Price, brought them over, and burnt them publickly in Cheapside. This Collier calls an odd Story, and makes this Reflection on it: Thus Packington cheated Bishop Tonstal of his Money, and Tyndal received it. Coll. Ecclef. Hift. Vol. 2. p. 22.
The Burning of these Books had such an hateful Appearance in it, being generally called the Burning of the Word of God, that People concluded from thence, that there must be a visible Contrariety between this Book, and the Doctrines of those who so used it; by which both their Prejudice against the Clergy and their Desire of readiog the New Testament were increased.
Upon this Tyndal revised his Translation of the New Testament, corrected it, and caused it again to be printed, Anno 1530. The Books finished, were privately sent over to Tyndals Brother, John Tynlal and Thomas Patmore, Merchants, and another young Man, and were receive ed and dispersed by them ; for which having been taken up by the Bishop of London, they were adjudged in the Star Chamber, Sir Thomas More being then Lord Chancellor, to ride with their faces to the Horse Tail, having Papers on their Heads, and the New Testament and other Books, which they had dispersed, to be hanged about them, and ac the Standard in Cheapside, themselves to throw them into a Fire made for that Purpose, and then to be fined at the King's Plealure, which Penance they' observed; the fine set upon them was heavy enough, 1884.0 Pounds and 10 Pence. :
At the same Time Constantine, one of Tyndal's Associates, being taken in England, the Lord Chancellor More, in a private Examination, promised that no Hurt should be done him, if he would reveal who encouraged and supported them at Antwerp; which he accepted of, and told him that the greatest Encouragement they had, was from the Bishop of London, who had bought up Half the Impression.
When the Clergy condemned Tyndal's Trantlation of the New Testamont, they declared they intended to set out a new Transation of it, which many thought was 'truly never designed, but only pretended, that they might restrain the Curiosity of seeing Tyndal's vi orks, with the Hopes of one that should be authorized. For on the 24th of Niay 1530, there was a Form of a Writing drawn and agreed to by Archbishop Worham, Chancellor More, Bishop Tonftat, and many Canonists and Divines, which every Incumbent was commanded to read co his Parish, as a Warning to prevent the Contagion of Herely; the Contents of which were, (as far as concerns this Business) That the King have ing called together many of the Prelates, with other learned Men out of both Univerlities to exainine fome Books lately set out in the English Tongue, they had agreed to condemn them, as containing several Points of Heresy in them; and it being proposed to them, whether it was necessary, to set forth the Scriptures in the Vulgar Tongue, they were of Opinion, that though it had been sometimes
Annemiah inclusively eath. Probably in the Hebrew this Tranflander
whitmany Faultsealaitle or no Skilline rendered the old day
done, and the Holy Fathers of the Church thought meet and convenient to put them into the common People's Hands, yet at this Time it was not necessary, and that the King and the Prelates, in not suffering the Scriptures to be divulged and communicated to the People in the English Tongue, did well, but that the King would cause the New Teftament to be by learned Men faithfully and purely translated, to the Intent he might have it in his Hands, ready to give to his People, as he might see their Manners ånd Behaviour meet, apt, and convenient to receive the same,
This Year also the Bishops had procured of the King a Proclamation to be set forth for the prohibiting and abolishing of divers Books, ainong which is the New Testament of Tyndal. .
Tyndal having disposed his Business at Hamborough, and returned to Antwerp, proceeded in translating the Old Testament, and did as far as Nehimiah inclusively, but translated none of the Prophets, save Jonch, being prevented by Death. Probably he rendered the Old Testament out of the Latin, having little or no Skill in the Hebrew. None will deny that many Faults needing Amendment are found in this Translation, which is no Wonder to those that consider, if, That such an Under. taking was not a Task for a Man, but Men. 2dly, Tyndal being an Exile, wanted many Accominodations. 3dly, His Skill in Hebrew was not considerable; yea, generally, Learning in Languages was then but in its Infancy. 4thly, Our English Tongue was not improved to that Expressiveneis at which it is now arrived. But yet what he undertook, was to be commended as profitable; wherein be failed, to be excused as pardonable, and to be attributed rather to the Account of that Age, than of the Author himself: His Pains were useful, had his Translation no other Good, but to help towards the making of a better, our last Translators having it in express Charge from King James to consult Tyndals Translation. .
When the Teftainent of Tyndal's Translation came over into Eng. land, the Popish Clergy were extremely incented; some said, It was not posible to transate the Scri:tures into Englidh; Some, That it was not law. ful for the Lay People to have them in their Mother Tongue; Some, That it would make them all Hertticks. And to the Intent to induce the Temporal Rulers also to their Purpose, they said, That the translating thereof would make Men rebel against the King. Moreover they scanned and examined every Tittle and Point in the said Translation in such fort, and so narrowly, that there was not one [i] therein, but if it lacked a Titile over its Head, they did note it, and number it to the ignorant People for an Heresy. But yet some were not so much angry with the Text, as with Tyndal's Cominent, his Preface before, and Notes upon the same. In fine, they did not only procure his Book to be burnt in St. Paul's Church-Yard, (for Stokelly Bishop of London caused all the New Testaments of Tyndal, and many other Books which he had bought up, to be openly burnt) but also iheir Malice contrived and effected the strangling and burning of Tyndal in Flanders, Anno 1536. So that this work inet with great Discouragements; which was not Itrange, especially considering that it happened in such a Time, when many printed Pamphlets did disturb the State (and some of thein of Tyndal's
making) which seemed to tend unto Sedition, and the Change of Government.
The Papal Power being taken out of the Way, and the King's Supremacy settled in Parliament, in November 1534, a Way was opened for Reformation of Errors and Abuses in Religion. Archbishop Crane mer, upon his first Entrance upon his Dignity, had it much in his Mind to get the Holy Scriptures put into the Vulgar Language, and a Liberty for all to read them; for the accomplishing of which he let flip no Opportunity; and one was shortly afforded him. The Clergy (as was be fore observed) when they procured Tyndal's Tranflation to be condemned and suppressed, gave out, that they intended to make a Translation into the Vulgar Tongue ; yet it was afterwards, upon a long Consultation, resolved, that it was free for the Church to give the Bible in a Vulgar Tongue, or not, as they pleased, and that the King was not obliged to it. Upon which thofe that promoted a Refora mation, made great Complaints, and said, That it was visible the Clergy knew there was an Opposition between the Scriptures, and their Doctrines; that they had first condemned Wickliff's Translation, and then Tyndal's. And though they ought to teach Men the Word of God, yet they did all they could to suppress it. It was now therefore generally desired, that if there were just Exceptions agains what Tyodal had done, these might be mended in a
net with fretual Meaninho 1535 the Bible, by Winchester
and wrought much on all that heard them, who plainly concluded that those who denied the People the Use of the Scriptures in the Vulgar Tongue, muft needs know their Doctrine and Practices to be inconfistent with them. Upon these Grounds, Cranmer, who was projecting the most effectual Means for promoting a Reformation of Doctrine, moved in Convocation Anno 1535, that they should petition the King for Leave to make a Translation of the Bible, by some learned Men of his Highness's Nomination. Gardiner Bishop of Winchester and all his Party opposed it, both in Convocation, and in Secret with the King. But Cranmer's Party prevailed in the two Houses of Convocation, and so they petiticned the King, that he should give Order to some to set about it. And as this good Motion was made in the House by the Archbishop, so they agreed upon him to carry their Petition. To this again great opposition was made at Court. Some on the one Hand told the King, That a Diversity of Opinions would rise out of it, and that he could no more govern his Subjects, if he gave Way to that. But on the other Hand it was represented, That nothing would make his Supremacy so acceptable to the Nation, and make the Pope more hateful, than to let them Jee, that whereas the Popes had governed them by a blind Obedience, and kept them in Darkness, the King brought them into Light, and gave them the free
Le of the Word of God; and that nothing would more effe&tually exfirpate the Pope's Authority, and discover the Impoftures of the Monks, than the Bible in English, in which all People would clearly discern there was no
endation for those' Things. These Arguments, joined with the Power ueen Ann had in his Affections, were lo much considered by the King, at he gave Orders for setting about it immediately. The Arch
hop, whose Mind ran very much upon bringing in the free Use of the scriptures among the People, and by Cromwell's Means having got •E 4
enought them them by hateful, this Supremon the
Bible in ope's huit God
Leave (as we have heard) from the King, that it might be done and printed, put on vigorouily the Tranflation. And that it might not be prohibited, as it had been before, uporr Pretence of the Ignorance or Unfaithfulness of the Translators, he proceeded in this Manner. First he began with the Tranflation of the New Testament, taking an old English Translation thereof, which he divided into Nine or Ten Parts, causing each Part to be written at large in a Paper Book, and then to be sent to the best learned Bishops and others, to the Intent that they should make a perfect Correction thereof: And when they had done, he required them to send back their Parts, so corrected, to him to Lambeth, by a Day limited for that Purpose. And the same Course it js probable he took with the. Old Testament. The Acts of the Apostles was sent to Stokesly Bishop of London, to oversee and correct. When the Day came, every Man fent to Lambeth their Parts corrected, only Stokesly's Portion was wanting. My Lord of Canterbury wrote to the Bishop a Letter for his Part, requiring him to deliver it unto the Melsenger his Secretary. He received the Archbishop's Letter at Fulham, unto which he made this Answer, I marvel what my Lord of Canterbury meaneth, thai thus abufeth the People, in giving them Liberty to read the Scriptures, which doch nothing else but infect them with Heresy, I have beplowed never an Hour upon my Portion, nor ever will, and therefore my Lord shall have this Book again, for I will never be guilty of bringing the simple. Folk into Error. My Lord of Canterbury's Servant took the Book, and brought the fame to Lambeth unto iny Lord, declaring my Lord of London's Answer. When the Archbishop perceiyed that Stokefiy had done nothing therein, I marvel, faith he, that my Lora of London is fe froward, that he will not do as other Men do. Mr. Thomas : Lawney, Chaplain to the Old Duke of Norfolk, standing by, and hearing the Archbishop speak of Stokesly's Untowardliness, said, I can tell your Grace, why my Lord of London will not below any Labour or Pains this Way; your Grace knoweth well, that his Portion is a piece of the New Testament: But he being persuaded that Christ had not bequeathed him any Thing in bis Tefianient, thought it mere Madness to bestow any Labour or Pains where no Gain was to be goiten. And besides this, it is the Acts of the Apostles, which wire simple poor Fellows, and therefore my Lord of London disdained to have to do with any of them. The ArchbiMop could not fee his Defue effected by those Men, 'till it was hapo pily done by other Hands.
Anno 1537, the Bible, containing the Old and New Testament, called Matthew's's Bible, of Tyndal's and Rogers's Translation, came forth. It was printed by Grafton and Whitchurch, at Hamborough, to the Number of 1500 Copics, amounting to 500 Pounds, a great Sum in those Days: The Corrector of the Preis was John Rogers, a learned Divine; he had his Education in Cambririye; was afterwards Chaplain to the English, Factory at Antuerp; flourished a great while in Germany, and was Sun perintendant of a Church there: be was afterwards Prebendary of St. Paul's in King Edward the 6th's Time, but being tinctured with a Foa reign Leaven, was unconformable to the Liturgy, and Ceremonies of our Church; however he became the first Mariyr in the next Reign, IVilliam Tyndal, with the Help of Miles Cover dali, had translated Part of