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it (as I before noted) and what they did had been printed Anno 1532. The whole was finished and printed Anno 1535, with a Dedication to King Henry the 8th, by Miles Coverdale (Tyndal being then in Prison) and was called Coverdale's Bible. The Year following, viz. 1536. Cromwell, the King's Vicegerent, published his Injunctions to the Clergy; the Substance of the Seventh was, That every Parfon or Proprietor of a Church, pould provide a Bible in Latin and English to be laid in the Choir, for every one to read at their Pleasure. But here they were to precaution the People against falling into Controversy about diffi. cult Passages. They were to exhort then to Modesty and Sobrieiy in the Use of this Liberty; and where they found themselves intangled, to apply to Persons of Learning and Character. After this, a second Impression was designed, but before it could be finished, Tyndal was put to Death in Flanders for his Religion; and his Name then growing into Ignominy, as one burnt for an Heretick, they thought it might prejudice the Book, if he should be named for the Translator thereof, and fo they used a feigned Name, calling it Thomas Matthews's Bible, though Tyndal, before his Death, some say, had finished all but the Apocrypha, which was translated by Rogers, but others say, he had gone no farther than the End of Nchemiah. Bale lays, Rogers translated the Bible into English, from Genesis to the End of the Revelations, making Use of the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, and English (i. e. Tyndal's) Copies. He added Prefaces and Marginal Notes out of Luther, and dedicated the whole Book to King Henry the 8th, under the Name of Tho. Matthews, by an Epistle prefixed, minding to conceal his own Name. In this Edition there was a special Table collected of the Common Places in the Bible, and Texts of Scripture for proving the same; and chietly the cominon Places of the Lord's Supper, the Marriage of Priests, and the Mass, of which it was there said, that it was not to be found in Scripture.
When Grafton had finished this Work, he presented it to the Lord Cromwell and the Archbishop, who liked very well of it. Cromwell at the Archbishop's Request, presented it to the King, and obtained that the same might be both bought and used by all indifferently; for which the Archbishop was full of Gladness and Gratitude, and wrote two Letters to him soon after one another, assuring him, That, for his Part, it was such a Content to his Mind, that he could not have done him a greater Pleasure, if he had given him a Thousand Pounds. Grafton also writ his Letter of Thanks for the Countenance and Affistance he gave to this pious Work all along, and those that were concerned and imployed in the doing of it, and for procuring the King's gracious Licence, which was thought fit to be signified in the Title Page in Red Letters, thus, Set forth with the King's molt gracious License: But several would not beTieve that the King had licensed it, and therefore he defired further of Cromwell, that he would get it licensed under the Privy-Seal, which would be a Defence for the present, and for the future. And as the Printer had addressed to Cromwell for the Privy-Seal, so he apprehended now a farther Need of the Corroboration of Authority, upon another Account: For some observing how exceedingly acceptable the Englija tible was to the common People, wcre designing to print it in a less
and other it, whereing vacant hd Anno 1538." every
Volume, and a smaller Letter, whereby it would come to pass that Grafion would be under-fold, and so he and his Creditors would be un. done : And besides, 'it was like to prove a very ill Edition, and very erroneous, because the Printers here were generally Dutchmen, that could neither speak nor write tolerable English ; nor, for Covetousness, would they allow any learned Man any thing at all to oversee and correct what they printed. Therefore he desired one Favour more of the Lord Cromwell, viz, to obtain for him of the King, that none should print the Bible for three Years but himself. And for the better and quicker Sale of his Books, he desired also, that by his Command, in the King's Name, every Curate might be obliged to have one, that they might learn to know God, and instruct their Parishioners; and that every Abby should have Six, to be laid in several Places of the Convent.
The Holy Bible was now published, and appointed to be had in every Parish Church, by Cromwell's Injunctions published Anno 1538. The fame Year, the Church of Hereford being vacant by the Death of Fox, Granmer held a Visitation in it, where he left sone Injunctions to all Parsons, Vicars, and other Curates, by which they were enjoined to have by the first of August a whole Bible in Latin and English, or at the least a New Testament in the same Languages : That they should every Day study one Chapter of the said Bible or New Testament, conferring the Latin and English together; to begin at the Beginning of the Book, and so continue to the End. That they should not discourage any Lay-men from reading the Book, but encourage them to it, and to read it for the Reformation of their Lives, and Knowledge of their Duty.
But herein the Waywardness of the Priests was observable; they read confusedly the Word of God, and the Injunctions set forth, and commanded by them to be read; humming and hawing, and hauking thereat, that scarce any could understand thein. They had their Parishioners, notwithstanding what they read, being compelled so to do, That they mauld do as they did in Times pat; to live as their Fathers; and that the old Fashion is the beft; and other crafty and seditious Sayings they gave out among them. :
Notwithstanding this, it was wonderful to see with what Joy this Book of God was received not only among the learneder Sort, and those that were noted for Lovers of the Reformation, but generally all England over, among all the vulgar and common People; and with what Greedinefs God's Word was read, and what Resort to Places where the reading of it was. Every body, that could, bought the Book, or busily read it, or got others to read it to them, if they could not themselves, and divers more elderly People learned to read on Purpose.
After this second Edition, Grafton, and the rest of the Merchants concerned in the Work, thinking they had not Stock enough to supply all the Nation, and this being of a Volume not large enough; and considering the Prologues, and Marginal Notes gave Offence to some; and being put on by those that favoured the Gofpel, that as many as could be might be printed, for dispersing the Knowledge of Christ,
neant, that the Hands and therus, that is
of the being they would and many that is
and his Truth, they resolved to print it again, which they intended fhould be of a larger'Volume than before ; and therefore it was called, when it came forth, The Bible in the large or great Volume. They intended also, in order to this Edition, to have the former Translation revised, and to omit several Prologues and Annotations. Miles Coverdale was the Man now that compared the Translation with the Hebrew, mended it in divers Places, and was the chief Overseer of the Work: But though they left out Matthews, that is, Rogers's Notes, yet they resolved to make Hands and Maiks on the sides of the Book, which ineant, that they would have particular Notice to be taken of those Texts, being such as did more el pecially strike at the Errors and Abuses of the Romiil Church.
Grafton resolved to print this Bible in Paris, if he could obtain Leave, there being better Paper, and cheaper, to be had in France, and more dextrous and good Workmen, for the ready Dispatch of the same. For this purpose the Lord Cromwell, who stood by him in this Enterprize, procured Letters of the King to the French King, to permit a Subject of his to imprint the Bible in English, within the University of Paris, because of the Goodness of his paper and Workmen. The King at the same Time wrote unto his Ambassador, who was then Edmund Bonner, Bishop of Hereford, lying in Paris, That he should aid and allif the Undertakers of this good Work, in all their reasonable Suits. Bonner did not only present this Letter to the French King, and obtaia with good Words the Licence desired, and had the French King's Letters Patents for the printing this Bible, and being finished, to bring the Impression safely over; but Mewed great friendship to the Merchants and Printers, and so encouraged them, that the Work went on apace, and with good Success. And to shew how well affected he was to the Holy Bible, he caused the English there in Paris, to print the New Teftament in English and Latin, and took off a great many of them, and distributed thein amongst his Friends. But the Principle that moved Bonner in all this was, that he might the better curry Favour with Cromwell, and recommend himself to him; who being the great Favourite now with the King, was the fittest Instrument for his Rise. Cromwell loved him very well, and had a marvellous good Opinion of him; and so long as Cromwell remained in Authority, so long was Bone ner at his Beck, a Friend to his Friends, and an Enemy to his Enemies. But as soon as Cromwell fell, no good Word could Bonner speak of him, but the lewdelt, vilest, and bitterest that he could, calling him the rankest Heretick that ever lived: And then such as he knew · to be in good Favour with Cromwell, he could never abide their Sight.
But notwithstanding the French King's Licence, such was the overswaying Authority of the Inquisition in Paris, that by an Instrument dated September the 17th, 1538, the Printers were had up into the said Inquisition, and charged with certain Articles of Heresy. The Englifomen likewise that were at the Cost and Charges thereof, and the Corrector Coverdale, were fent for. And then great Trouble arole. But before this happened, they were gone through, even to the last part of the Work. The Englifomen having some Warning what would
over got the Prelies, Luragement of Engiß that w
follow, and finding it not safe to tarry any longer, Aed away as fast as they could to save themselves, leaving behind them all their Bibles, the Impression consisting of 2500 in Number, which were seized, and the Lieutenant Criminal caused them to be burnt, as heretical Books; only a few escaped, the Lieutenant for Covetousness selling them for waste Paper to a Haberdasher, to lap Caps in, being about four dry Fats full, and these were bought again.
However, not long after, the English that were concerned in this Work, by the Encouragement of Cromwell, went back to Paris again, and got the Presies, Letters, and Printing Servants, and brought them over to London, and so became Printers themselves, which before they never intended, and printed out the said Bible in Londin. When it was finished, it was presented to the King, and by him c mmitted to divers Bilhops of that Time to peruse, of which Stephen Gardiner was one. After they had kept it long in their Hands, and the King was divers Times sued unto for the Publication thereof; at the last being called for by the King himself, they delivered ibe Book ; and being demanded by the King, Inat was their Judgment of the Translation, they answered, That there were many Faulis therein : Wel, said the King, but are there any Herefies maintained thereby? They answered, There were no Herefies that they could find maintained thereby. If there be no Herefres, said the King, then, in God's Nume, lei it go abroad among our People. According to this Judgment of the King and the Bishops, Coverdale in a Sermon at Paul's Cross, defended his Translation, upon occasion of some flanderous Reports, that then were raised against it, confessing, That he did now himself espy fome Faults, which if he might review once over again, as he had twice before, be doubted not but to anend; but for any Heresy, he was sure there was none maintained by his Translation. . : This was published Anno 1539, and is that which is called the Great Billi. Strype, in his Memorials of Archbishop Granmer, p. 444. says, it was publihed in the Year 1538, or 1539, but as if this was a Mistake of the Press, in the Errata it is 1537, or 1538; whereas I have one that bears Date 1539,' and in it the Table for Efter for 19 Years, begins with that Year. And at the End of all it says, it was finished in April 1539. This has the Frontispiece before it, which Strype savs was before Cranmer's Bible of 1540, and explains it at large; but haih neither Coverdale's nor Cranmer's Preface, only a Description of the Succession of the Kings of Judah and Jerusalem ; and a Direction with what Judgment the Books of the Old Testament are to be read : In the Title Page, Cum Privilegio ad imprimendum folum.
When our Liturgy was first compiled, and afterwards revised and altered, in the Reign of Edward the oth, the Epistles, Gospels, Pfalms, and Hymns put into those Liturgies, were all according to this TransJation, and to continued till King Charles the ad's Restoration, when the Old Translation being found Fault with, by some Men, the Epistles and Gospels were inserted afier the last Translation, but the old Psalter' was still continued. The Bishops and Clergy did, it seems, prefer this Translation, before ary other in the Englifo Tongue.
Injunctions were given out in the King's Name by Gromwell, to all Incuments to provide one of these Bibles, and set it up publickly in the Church, in some convenient Place wheie the Parishioners might resort to the same, and read it. None were to be discourage from reading or hearing of it; but, on the contrary, exhorted to peruse it, as being the true lively Word of God, which every Chriftian ought to believe, embrace, and follow, if he expected to be saved.
The fame Year a Parliament was summoned, which made the terrible Act of the Six bloody Articles : Great Triumphing there was on the Papifts Side, for now they hoped to be revenged on all those who had hitherto set forward a Reformation.
There was nothing could so much support the Spirits of the Party which now was clouded, as the free Use of the Scriptures, and though these were set up in Churches, yet Cranmer pressed, and now this Year procured Leave for private Persons to buy Bibles, and to keep them in their Houses. So this was granted by Letters Patents November the 13th, directed to Cromwell, the Substance of which was, That the King was desirous to have his Subjects attain the Knowledge of God's Word, which could not be effected by any Means so well, as by granting them the free and kiberal Use of the Bible in the English Tongue, which, to avoid DifTention, he intended should pass among them only by one Translation. Therefore Cromwell was charged to take Care, that for the Space of Five Years, there should be no Impression of the Bible, or of any part of it, but only by such as should be assigned by him : Gardiner Bishop of Winchester opposed this all he could.
With this Bible the Enemies of the Reformation were offended; and as God of bis Goodness had raised up the Archbishop and the Lord Cromwell to be Friends and Patrons to the Gospel; fo, on the other Side, Satan, (who is an Adversary and Enemy to all Goodness) had his Instruments, by all Wiles and subtle Means, to impeach and put back the same. Upon Cromwell's Fall, Gardiner, and those that follow-. ed him, made no Doubt but they should quickly recover what they had loft of late Years : So their greatest Attempt was upon the Translation of the Scriptures. Accordingly the next Year, 1540, there was a Convocation, wherein one of the Matters before them, was concerning the procuring a true Translation of the New Testament, which was indeed intended not so much to do so good a Work, as to hinder it. For having decried the present Translation on purpose to ipake it unlawful for any to use it, they pretended to set themsclves about a new one, but it was increly to delay and put off the People from the common Ule of the Scriptures, as appeared plainly enough, in that ihe Bishops themselves undertook it, and to having it in their own Hands, they might make what Delays they pleased. For in the third Seffion a Proposition was made for the Translation, and the several Books were divided among the Bishops, viz. Archbishop Cranmer had Matthew; Langland Bishop of Lincoin, Mark; Gardiner Bishop of Winchefer, Luke; Goodrick Bishop of Ely, John; Heath Bishop of Rocheller, äits; Sampson Bishop of Chichester, Romans ; Capon Bishop of Sa um, if and 2d Corinthians; Barlow Bishop of St. David's, Galatians, Ephefiins, Co. talians; Bell Bishop of IForsejler, if and 2d Thiffalonians; Parfew Bi.
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