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several English Translations of the Bible. Three Months after this Visitation, provide of his own, the New Testament in Latin and English, with Erasmus's Paraphrase thereon, for their better Instruction, in the Sense and Knowledge of the Scriptures. And that in the Time of High Mass, he that sayeth or singeth a Pfalm, thaill read the Epistle and Gospel in English, and one Chapter in the New Testament at Martins, and another out of the Old, at Evena
Gardiner Bishop of Winchester refused to accept the Homilies and Injunctions, thinking them contrary to the Word of God, so that his Conscience would not suffer him to observe them. He said, Erasmus's Paraphrase was bad enough in Latin, but worse in English, for the Translator hod oft out of Ignorance, and out of Design, misrendred him papably, and was one that neither understood Latin nor Englií well; and that this and the Homilies were contrary in several Things to one another, and therefore could not both be received ; and that there were Errors in each, and to neither ought to be admitted : Upon this he was committed to the
s by the Parliame the Statute of thand New Testament of an
During the Time that the Visitors were occupied abroad in the Execution of their Commission, the King appointed a Parliament to be --fummoned against the 4th of November 1547, which met at the Time appointed, and with it a Convocation was held, in which the Archbi. shop bore the greatest Sway; and what Things were agitated therein, were chiefly by his Motion and Direction, fome whereof were turned into Laws by the Parliament, through his Activeness and Influence, as particularly that Repeal of the Statute of the Six bloody Articles. The Act also, inhibiting the reading the Old and New Testament, in the English Tongue, and the printing, felling, giving, or delivering of any such other Books, or Writings, as are therein mentioned and condemned 34th, 35th Hen. VIII. cap. 1. together with all and every other Act and Acts of Parliament, concerning Doctrine, or Matters of Relia gion; and all and every Article, Branch, Sentence, Matter, Pains, Foro fcitures contained therein, were repealed; and utterly made void. 1 Edward the VIth, cap. 12. by which Repeal all People had the Liberty of reading the Scriptures, and being in a Manner their own Expositors. . In the year 1948, the Archbishop held a Visitation, in divers Places throughout his Diocese; wherein Enquiry was to be made concerning the Behaviour, both of the Priests and of the People, in Eighty Six Articles, one whereof was concerning having the whole Bible in the largest Volume in every Church. In another Enquiry was made concerning all Priests, under the Degree of Batchelors in Divinity, whether they had the New Testament in Latin and English, and Erasinus's Paraphrase. And in another, concerning the Letters or Hinderers of the Word of God, read in English, or preached fincerely. ,
. ... In the Year 1549, the Commons broke out into a dangerous Rebellion, chiefly in Devonshire, where they were very formidable for their Numbers. These laying their Heads together, agreed upon certain Articles, to be sent up to the King. In the tenth Article they require the Bible, and all Bocks of Scripture in English, to be called in again ; that unless this was done, the Clergy would have a difficult Talk to
over-bear the Hereticks; they would also have the Mass in Latin, as formerly. To their Demands, the Archbishop draws up an excellent Answer at length, wherein he vindicates the English Service, and the Use of the Holy Scriptures in the Vulgar Tongue, and other Mata ters relating to the Reformation. He charged them with Ignorance, and told them, they asked they knew not what; but were imposed upon by some Priests and Papists. Wherefore did the Holy Ghost (said he) come down in fery Tongues, and give the Apostles Knowledge of all Languages, but that all Nations inight hear, speak, and learn God's Word, in their Mother Tongue ? Can you name any Chriftians in all the World, but they have, and ever had, God's Word in their own Tongue? And will you have God further from us, than from all other Countries ? that he ball Jpenk to every Man in his own Language, that he understandeth, and was born in, and to us fball speak a strange Language, that we understand not? And will you, that all other shall laud God in their own Speech, and we fball say to him we know not what? If you lift 110t to read his Word yourselves you ought not to be fo malicious and envious, to let them that would gladly read it to their Comfort and Edification. And as for confounding that which is really Heresy, their having the Scripiures in their Mother Tongue, was the best Expedient for that Purpose.
Anno 1550, there were certain Articles drawn up, signed by the King and Council, for Bishop Gardiner to subscribe, one of which was, It is convenient and godly, that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, that is, the whole Bible, be had in English and published, to be read of every Man ; and that whosoever doth repel and dehort Mer from reading thereof, Roth evil and damnably ; likewise that Erasmus's Paraphras, had been upon good Confiderations ordered to be fet up in Churches. But he refusing to sign the Articles, his Benefice was firít sequestred for Three Months, which Time being expired, and he continuing obstinate, he was at lalt deprived.
Fuller tells us, there was another Translation of the Bible, set forth In this King's Reign, and not only fuffered to be read by particular Persons, but ordered to be read over yearly, in the Congregation, as a Part of the Liturgy, or Divine Service. He says, he had seen two several Editions thereof, one set forth Anno 1549, the other 1551, but neither of them divided into Verses.
Anno 1553, Queen Mary coming to the Crown, designed to reduce all Matters Eccleliaftical to the fame State in which they stood in the Beginning of the Reign of the King her Father. All the Matters of the Church she left wholly to the Management of Gardirer, whom the advanced from a Prisoner in the Tower, to be Lord High-Chancellor of England. He ruled Matters as he would, and the Consent of the Parliament and Convocation followed his Head and his Will, and what he could not do at one Time, he did at another. The Parliament met in October, when an Act was passed for repealing King Edward's Laws about Religion. The Preamble of it sets forth the great Disorders, that had fallen out in the Nation, by the Changes that had been made io Religion, from that which their Fore-fathers had left them, by the Authority of the Catholick Church; thereupon all the Laws that had been made in King Edward's Time akout Religion, were now repealed;
itions thivided into coming
and it was enacted by this Statute of Repeal, That after the 20th of December next, there should be no other Forin of Divine Service, but what had been used in the last Year of King Henry the VIIIth, leaving all Clergy-men at Liberty in the mean Time, to use either the Old or New Service; by which was rooted up all the Reformation, which had been planted for Seven Years before.
At a Convocation held in November 1554, an Address was made by the Lower House, to the Upper, wherein they petitioned for divers *Things in Twenty Eight Articles meet to be considered for the Reformation of the Clergy; one whereof was, That all Books, Latin and English, concerning any heretical, erroneous, or Nanderous Doctrines, might be destroyed throughout the Realm and burnt. Among these Books, they set the schismatical Book (as they called it) the Common-Prayer Book, and all suspected Translations of the Old and New Testament, the Authors whereof are recited in a Statute made in the Reign of Henry the VIIIth. (So that the Common-Prayer Book was burnt with very good Company, the Holy Bible.) And that such as had these Books mould bring the same to the Ordinary by a certain Day, or otherwise to be taken and reputed as Favourers of those Doctrines. And that it might be lawful for all Bishops to make Enquiry, from Time to Time, for such Books, and to take them from the Owners. And for the better suppresling of such pestilent Books, it was desired, that Order may be taken with all Speed, that none such should be printed, or sold within the Realm, nor brought from beyond Seas upon grievous Penalties. And the next Year 1555, a Proclamation was published against importing, printing, reading, felling, or keeping heretical Books.
The Gospellers being persecuted with much fierceness, by those of the Roman Persuasion, chiefly headed by two most cruel natured Men, Bishop Gardiner, and Bishop Bonner; several both of the Clergy and Laity, made their Flight from these Storms at Home into Foreign Countries, to Strasburgh, Francfort, Bazil, Zurich, Geneva, and other Places, where they were received with much Kindness, and had the Liberty of their Religious Worship granted them. In these Places some followed their Studies, some taught School, some wrote Books, some ashsted at the Press, and grew very dear to the learned Men in those Places.
At Geneva a Club of them imployed themselves, in translating the Holy Bible into English, intending to do it with more Exactness than hitherto had been done, having the Opportunity of consulting with Calvin and Beza in order thereunto. These were Miles Coverdale, Chriftopher Goodman, Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson, William Cole of Corpus Christi College Oxon, and William Whitingham, all zealous Calvinists, both in Doctrine and Discipline. What they performed may be perceived by the Bible that goes under the Name of the Geneva Bible at this Day. It was in those Days, when it first came forth, better esteemed of, than of later Times; but for a long while was much valued, by the Puritans, chiefly for the Sake of the Calvinistical Annotations, and · had several Impressions.
When Queen Elizabeth came to the Crown, she applied her first Care to the restoring of the Protestant Religion, and therefore in Den
cember Anno 1558, the allowed by Proclamation, the Liberty of read. ing the Epistles, Gospels, and Ten Commandments in English, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the Litany might likewise be said in the same Language. As to the rest of the Service, 'twas to go on by the Rubrick of the Miffals and Breviaries, and no Innovations to be made, in any of the Rites and Ceremonies thereunto belonging, 'till 'twas otherwise ordered,
When the Queen passed through the City from the Tower to her Coronation, in a Pageant erected in Cheapside, an old Man with a Scythe and Wings, representing Time, appeared, coming out of a hollow Place or Cave, leading another Person all clad in white Silk, gracefully apparelled, who represented Truth, (the Daughter of Time) which Lady had a Book in her Hand, on which was written Verbum Veritatis, the Word of Truth. It was the Bible in English, which, after a Speech made to the Queen, Truth reached down towards her, which was taken and brought by a Gentleman attending, to her Hands. As soon as she received it, the killed it, and with both her Hands held it up, and then laid it upon her Breast, greatly thanking the City for that Present, and said, froe would often read over that Book.
In the Beginning of the next Year 1559, the Queen appointed a Con. ference about Religion, between the Papists and Protestants, when three Points were to be argued. The first was, Whether 'tis against the Word of God, and the Custom of the Ancient Church, to officiate and adminifor the Sacraments in a Language unknown to the People? Dr. Cole Dean of St. Paul's was appointed to deliver the Sense of the Papists, who taking the Negative of the Question, endeavoured amongst other Are guments, to fortify his Reasoning, with one drawn from the ill Translation of the Bible ; If we should (says he) consent to the English Service, uz must be obliged to King Edward's Common-Prayer Book ; now this Book consists of Versions of the Psalms, and other Parts of the Scripture, in which are several plain Mistakes and Deviations from the Original ; now this, continues he, is downright depraving the Holy Scriptures, and if the Liturgy mell be regulated upon this false Translation, we inay be said to Jerve God with Lyes.
The Papists would not be kept to the Conditions of the Conference, but broke the Method agreed upon, and fell to wrangling and shifting, so the Afembly was dismissed. The Popish Disputants thought it their wiseft Course to prevent any farther Proceeding, left they might have been too closely pinched in their Cause, and the Weakness of their Arguments too openly appear to all. However it occafioned two Things to be done, ist. To set out the Doctrine of the Church, in several Articles"; and 2dly, To review the Translation of the Bible.
For the Translation of the Bible, the Sees being all filled, the most learned Bishops were by the Quecn's Commillion appointed thereunto, whence it took the Name of the Bithops' Bible. To each his Part and Portion was assigned, with Orders to add some Marginal Notes, for the Illustration of the Text, where they found it obscure or difficult. The Pentateuch was committed to William Ailey Bishop of Exeter ; Foshua, Fudges, Ruth, and the two Books of Samuel, were given to,
ligned of Job, to fand far drebendary entry and
Richard Davis, who was afterwards made Bishop of St. David, when Young was translated to York; all from Samuel to the second Book of Chronicles, was alligned to Edwyn Sandys, then Bishop of Worcester ; from thence to the End of Job, to one whose Name is marked A. P. C. which Collier says, might probably stand far Andrew Perfon Cantuarienfis, one of the Archbishop's Chaplains, and Prebendary of Canterbury; the Psalms were given to Thomas Bentham Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield; Collier thinks this was more probably Thomas Beacon Prebendary of Canterbury; the Proverbs to one that is marked A. P. here is a Ć ftanding at some Distance, probably (fays Collier) to distinguish the Perfon from the former A. P. C; the Song of Solomon, to one marked A. P. E. these Collier says, stand or Andrew Pern Eliensis, he being at that Time Prebendary of Ely; all from thence to the Lamentation, was given to Robert Horn Bishop of Winchester; Ezekiel and Daniel, to Bentham; from thence to Malachi, to Edmund Grindal Bishop of London ; the Apocrypha, to the Book of Wisdom, to Barlow Bishop of Chichester; and the relt of it to John Parkhurst Bishop of Norwich; the Gospels, AEts, and the Epistle to the Romans, to Richard Cox Bishop of Ely; the Epistles to the Corinthians, to one marked G. G. which Collier says, probably may stand for Gabriel Goodmani, then Dean of Westminster : 'To whom the rest of the New Testament was assigned is not known, there being no Capital Letters subjoined. All these Allotments may be gathered from the Bible itself, as it was afterwasds set out by Archbishop Parker; for at the End of every Section or Portion, the initial Letters of his Name or Title that had translated it, were printed.
Upon the Death of Queen Mary the English Exiles at Geneva return. ed home, except some few, Wittingham, and one or two more, who staid behind to finish their Translation of the Bible, wherein they had proceeded a good Way already. They congratulated the Queen's Accession to the Crown, by presenting her with the Book of Psalms in English, which they had printed at Geneva in a little Volume, with Notes in the Margent, (being Part of the Work they were about) and dedicated to the Queen; the Dedication dated from Geneva, February the ioth, 1559, ( Anno ineunte ) exhorts her now in her Entrance on her Government, to go on with Resolution in reforming Religion, from the Corruptions of Papistry. That in the mean Season, they, according to the Talents God had given them, thought it their Duty, with the most convenient Speed, to further, even with the utmost of their Power, her godly Proceedings. And albeit they had begun inore than a Year ago, to peruse the English Tranflation of the Bible, and to bring it to the pure Simplicity and true Meaning of the Spirit of God; yet when they heard that Almighty God had miraculoully preserved her to that most excellent Dignity, with moit joyful Minds and great Diligence, they endeavoured themselves to set forth this moft excellent Book of the Psalıns, unto her Grace, as a special Token of their Sermice and good Will, 'till the rest of the Bible, which was in good Rea. diness, should be accomplished and presented.
And now Care was taken by those in Commission for Religion, to lapply vacant Churches, and that fit Men might be provided to officiate m them. For that purpose those that were admitted to Curacies, were