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have any such conceptions, whether God is under any or what limitations, and so on, as I am persuaded that nothing but good can result from free discussion. Sixth, The lectures Lectures shall be public and popular, that is, open not only to to be popustudents of the Universities, but to the whole community car without matriculation, as I think that the subject should be studied and known by all whether receiving University instruction or not. I think such knowledge, if real, lies at the root of all wellbeing. I suggest that the fee should be as small as is consistent with the due management of the lectureships, and the due appreciation of the lectures. Besides a general and popular audience, I advise that the lecturers also have a special class of students conducted in the usual way, and instructed by examination and thesis, written and oral. Seventh, As to the number of the lectures, Number of much must be left to the discretion of the lecturer, I should lectures. think the subject cannot be treated even in abstract in less than twenty lectures, and they may be many times that number. Eighth, The patrons' if and when they see fit Publicamay make grants from the free income of the endowments tion of for or towards the publication in a cheap form of any of the lecture lectures, or any part thereof, or abstracts thereof, which they may think likely to be useful. Ninth, The patrons' re- Accounts spectively shall all annually submit their accounts to some to be

audited one chartered accountant in Edinburgh, to be named from a

om annually. time to time by the Lord Ordinary on the Bills, whom failing, to the Accountant of the Court of Session, who shall prepare and certify a short abstract of the accounts and investments, to be recorded in the Books of Council and Session, or elsewhere, for preservation. And my desire and hope is that these lectureships and lectures may promote and advance among all classes of the community the true knowledge of Him Who is, and there is none and nothing besides Him, in Whom we live and move and have our being, and in Whom all things consist, and of man's real relationship to Him Whom truly to know is life everlasting. If the residue of my estate, in the sense before defined, should turn out insufficient to pay the whole sums above provided for the four lectureships (of which shortcoming, however, I trust there is no danger), then each lectureship shall suffer a propor



tional diminution; and if, on the other hand, there is any If surplus surplus over and above the said sum of £80,000 sterling, it after pay. shall belong one half to my son, the said Herbert James

Gifford, in liferent, and to his issue other than the heirs of sities entail in fee, whom failing, to my unmarried nieces equally One half in fee; and the other half shall belong equally among my to H. J. unmarried nieces. And I revoke all settlements and codicils Gifford in

previous to the date hereof if this receives effect, providing liferent.

that any payments made to legatees during my life shall be Other

accounted as part payment of their provisions. And I conunmarried sent to registration hereof for preservation, and I dispense nieces with delivery thereof.-In witness whereof, these presents, Testing written on this and the six preceding pages by the said

Adam West Gifford, in so far as not written and filled in by my own hand, are, with the marginal notes on pages four and five (and the word ' secluding' on the eleventh line from top of page third, being written on an erasure), subscribed by me at Granton House, Edinburgh, this twenty-first day of August Eighteen hundred and eighty-five years, before these witnesses, James Foulis, Doctor of Medicine, residing in Heriot Row, Edinburgh, and John Campbell, cab driver, residing at No. 5 Mackenzie Place, Edinburgh.

James Foulis, M.D., Heriot Row,

Edinburgh, witness.
John Campbell, cab driver, 5

Mackenzie Place, witness.



Positivist objections.-Historical evolution.-- Positivist point
of view.-Rig veda.—The dawn.-End and endless.- Endless
in the Avesta.—Theogonic elements.-How the perception of

the infinite led to religious ideas.-Tangible, semi-tangible,
intangible objects.- Trees.- Mountains. — Rivers.— Earth.-
Clouds, stars, moon, sun, sky.-Demi-gods and great gods. The
infinite in man as an object.—The something behind man.-
The infinite behind man.--Religious ideas springing from it.-
Animism.-Seelencult.--Strange names; Totemism. The infinite
in man as a subject.-Psychological deities.-Sense, imagina.

tion, intellect, language.—Devatas.-Âtmâ.—Natural reli-

gion, as physical, anthropological, and psychological , 141-165



Is religion possible ?-History and theory inseparable.-
Agnosticism.-Epicurean view of the gods.-Chance and pur-
pose ; Darwin.-Atheism.-Intuitive knowledge of the gods.--

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