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had become an almost insuperable obstacle to the further progress of raising troops.

5. Records were completed showing minutely the physical condition of 1,014,776 of the men examined, and tables of great scientific and professional value have been compiled from this data.

6. The casualties in the entire military force of the nation during the war of the rebellion, as shown by the official muster-rolls and monthly returns, have been compiled with, in part, this result:

KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS WHILE IN SERVICE.

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These figures have been carefully compiled from the coinplete official file of muster-rolls and monthly returns, but yet entire accuracy is not claimed for them, as errors and omissions to some extent doubtless prevailed in the rolls and returns. Deaths (from wounds or disease contracted in service) which occurred after the men left the army are not included in these figures.

7. The system of recruitment established by the Bureau, under the laws of Congress, if permanently adopted, (with such improvement as experience may suggest,) will be capable of maintaining the numerical strength and improving the character of the army in time of peace, or of promptly and economically rendering available the National forces to any required extent in time of war.

THE UNITED STATES ARMY DURING THE GREAT CIVIL WAR

OF 1861-65.

The following statement shows the number of men furnished by each State:

No.

STATES.

Men furnished

Aggregate No. under Act of Aggregate No. of men furnish'd April 15, 1861, of men furnish'd under all calls, for 75,000 militia under all calls. reduced to the 3 for 3 months.

years' standard.

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Maine..
New Hampshire..
Vermont ..
Massachusetts.
Rhode Island..
Connecticut
New York.
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Delaware.
Maryland
West Virginia..
District of Columbia.
Ohio
Indiana..
Illinois
Michigan
Wisconson
Minnesota.
Iowa.
Missouri..
Kentucky
Kansas.
Tennessee.
Arkansas
North Carolina.
California
Nevada
Oregon
Washington Ter’ty.
Nebraska.
Colorado
Dakota
New Mexico,

900 4,720 12,357 4,686 4,820

781 817 930

968 10,501

71.745 34,605 35,246 151, 785 23, 711 57,270 464, 156

79,511 366,326 13,651 49,731 32,003 16,872 317,133 195, 147 258, 217 90,119 96,118 25,034 75,860 108,773 78,540 20,097 12, 077

56,595 30,827 29,052 123,844 17,878 50,514 381,696

55,785 267,558 10,303 40,692 27,653 11,506 237,976 152,283 212,694 80,865 78,985 19,675 68,182 86,192 70,348 18,654 12,077

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650

7,451

216
617

895
1,279
1,762

181 2,395

7,451

216 581 895 380

1,762

181 1,011

1,510

Total.........

93, 326

2,688,523

2,154,311

HISTORY OF THE FLAG

BY A DISTINGUISHED HISTORIAN.

Men, in the aggregate, demand something besides abstract ideas and principles. Hence the desire for symbols—something visible to the eye and that appeals to the senses. Every nation has a flag that represents the country-every army a common banner, which, to the soldier, stands for that army. It speaks to him in the din of battle, cheers him in the long and tedious march, and pleads with him on the disastrous retreat.

Standards were originally carried on a pole or lance. It matters little what they may be, for the symbol is the same.

In ancient times the Hebrew tribes had each its own standard—that of Ephraim, for instance, was a steer; of Benjamin, a wolf. Among the Greeks, the Athenians had an owl, and the Thebans a sphynx. The standard of Romulus was a bundle of hay tied to a pole, afterwards a human hand, and finally an eagle.

Eagles were at first made of wood, then of silver, with thunderbolts of gold. Under Cæsar they were all gold, without thunderbolts, and were carried on a long pike. The Germans formerly fastened a streamer to a lance, which the duke carried in front of the army. Russia and Austria adopted the double headed eagle. The ancient national flag of England, all know, was the banner of St. George, a white field with a red cross. This was at first used in the Colonies, but several changes were afterwards made.

Of course, when they separated from the mother country, it was necessary to have a distinct flag of their own, and the Continental Congress appointed Dr. Franklin, Mr. Lynch, and Mr. Harrison, a committee to take the subject into consideration. They repaired to the American army, a little over 9,000 strong, then assembled at Cambridge, and after due consideration, adopted one composed of seven white and seven red stripes, with the red and white crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, conjoined on a blue field in the corner, and named it “The Great Union Flag.” The crosses of St. George and St. Andrew were retained to show the willingness of the colonies to return to their allegiance to the British crown, if their rights were secured. This flag was first hoisted on the first day of January, 1776. In the meantime, the various colonies had adopted distinctive badges,

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