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the wall upon it.”—Plutarch, in this account, is to be Pomarium “ And as I near approach'd the verge of life, understood as speaking of Rome.

ll omarium.

Some kind relation (for I'd have no wife),
Should take upon him all my worldly care,

POMERIUM Proferre, signifies to extend or enlarge Pompeii.
While I did for a better state prepare.”

a city, which could not be done by any, but those who

had taken away some part of an enemy's country in war.
The parentheses in these lines were so maliciously re- But this qualification was sometimes dispensed with. Po
presented, that the good bishop was made to believe that marium is quusi pone monia,“ behind the walls.”
Pomfret preferred a mistress to a wife. But he was soon POMONA, in fabulous history, the tutelar deity of
convinced that this representation was the mere effect

orchards and fruit-trees. See VERTUMNUS.
of malice, as Pomfret at that time was actually married. POMPEII (anc. geog.) a town of Campania near
The opposition, however, which his slanderers had made Herculaneum, and destroyed along with it by the great
to him had its effect ; for, being by this obliged to stay eruption of Vesuvius in the time of Titus. See HER-
in London longer than he intended, he catched the small- CULANEUM. It is about 15 miles from Naples, and six
pox, and died of it, aged 35.

or seven from Portici-So much bas been said and writ.
He published a volume of his poems in 1699, with a ten on the discovery of this place, as makes it unneces-
very modest and sensible preface. Two pieces of bis sary for us to say much: we shall therefore only give a
were published after his death by his friend Philalethes; short extract on the subject from an anonymous work
one intitled Reason, and written in 1700, when the dis- lately published, apparently of considerable merit.“ On
putes about the Trinity ran bigh; the other Dies Novis- entering the city (says our author*), the first object is a * Compa-
sima, or the * Last Epiphany,” a Pindaric ode. His pretty square, with arcades, after the present manner of rative

Sketch of versification is not unmusical ; but there is not the force Italy. This was, as it is imagined, the quarter of the

England in his writings which is necessary to constitute a poet. soldiers; numbers of military weapons being found here. and Italy, A dissenting teacher of his name, and who .published “ A narrow, but long street, with several shops on with Dissome rhimes upon spiritual subjects, occasioned fanati- each side, is now perfectly cleared of its rubbish, and in quisitions cism to be imputed to him; but his friend Philalethes good preservation. Each house has a court. In some

on Nation

al Advan
has justly cleared him from the imputation. Pomfret of them are paintings al fresco, principally in chiaro-
had a very strong mixture of devotion in him, but no fa- scuro ; and their colours not the least injured by time.

The few colours which the ancients knew were extract-
“ The Choice (says Dr Johnson) exhibits a system of ed only from minerals; and this may be a sufficient rea-
life adapted to common notions, and equal to common son for their freshness. The street is paved with irregu.
expectations ; such a state as affords plenty and tran- lar stones of a foot and a half or two feet long, like the
quillity, without exclusion of intellectual pleasures. Per- Appian way.
haps no composition in our language bas been oftener “ In discovering this city, it was at first doubted whe-
perused than Pomfret's Choice. In his other poems ther it were actually Pompeii : but the name inscribed
there is an easy volubility ; the pleasure of smooth metre over the gateway put it beyond all doubt. The skele-
is afforded to the ear, and the mind is not oppressed with tons found were innumerable. It is said that


bad ponderous, or intangled with intricate, sentiment. He spades in their hands, endeavouring, probably at first, to pleases many; and he wbo pleases many must bave me- clear away the torrent of ashes with which they were derit."

luged. Indeed the satisfaction which is felt at the view
POMME, or POMMETTE, in Heraldry, is a cross of ancient habitations, is much allayed by inevitable re-
with one or more balls or knobs at each of the ends. flections on this frightful scene of desolatiou, though at

POMMEL, or Pummel, in the Manege, a piece of the distance of so many centuries.
brass or other matter at the top and in the middle of the " An ancient villa is also seen entire at a little dis-

tance from Pompeii. The house is really elegant and
POMMERULLIA, a genus of plants belonging spacious, but only two stories high. The pavement of
to the triandria class, and in the natural method rank- the chambers is composed of tesselated marble, and,
ing under the 4th order, Gramina. See Botany In- when polished, displays the design perfectly well.-

There is some at the museum of Portici brought from POMOERIUM, in Roman antiquity, was, according this place, which the eye would really mistake for paintto Livy, that space of ground, both within and without ing. Under the house is a fine triangular cellar, of the walls, which the augurs, at the first building of ci- which each part is 100 feet long, well filled with amties, solemnly consecrated, and on which no edifices were phoræ. The skeletons of 29 persons were found here, allowed to be raised. Plutarch gives this account of the supposed to have fled to it for safety. Each house is ceremony of drawing the pomerium : “ They dug a filled with ashes: they have almost penetrated through trench, and threw into it the first-fruits of all things, ei- every crevice; and it is incredible how such a volume ther good by custom, or necessary by nature, and every of them could have been thrown out by Vesuvius with man taking a small turf of earth of the country from sufficient force to have reached so far.” It has been whence he came, they cast them in promiscuously. Then observed by some travellers that spoons were found making this trench their centre, they described the city among the ruins of Pompeii, but no forks, from wbich in a circle round it. After this, the founder yoking a it is concluded, that table utensils of the latter descripbull and a cow together, ploughed a deep furrow, with tion were not known to the Romans at that period. a brazen ploughshare, round the bounds. The attend- Forks, it is supposed, were invented at Constantinople, ants took care that all the clods fell inwards, i. e. toward and were not in use in Italy till about the year 1000 of the city. This furrow they called Pomerium, and built the Christian era.








In concluding our account of Herculaneum, it was mer explosion, yet no extant memorial of any kind had Pompei.
stated that the means attempted for unrolling the ma- recorded it.
nuscripts found among the ruins, had been unsuccess- “ Neither of these two cities was discovered again
ful, and that the plan had been dropped. It will not, till a long period of sixteen hundred and thirty-four
we presume, be a little gratitying to the admirers of an- years had elapsed. It was in the year 1713, that some
cient literature, to be informed that this difficult labour labourers, in sinking a well, struck their tools against
has been resumed under the auspices of his Royal High- a statue, which was on a bench in the theatre of Her-
ness the Prince of Wales, and that six volumes of Pa. culaneum. Forty years afterwards Pompeii was exca-
pyri presented to his Royal Highness by the king of vated with much less difficulty, as the incumbent stra-
Naples have reached Londo..

tum was neither so hard nor so deep as that of the for.
In the year 18 o the Rev. Mr Hayter, an excellent mer city.
scholar, with a liberal provision from the prince, and “ The number of the manuscripts saved from both
with prrmission of the king of Naple-, went to Italy for those cities is said to be about 500; but, if I am right-
the purpose of unrolling and transcribing the Papyri. ly informed by those whose official situation must give
The following narrative extracted from a letter address- them a competent knowledge of the subject, your royal
ed to bis royal patron by Mr Hayter, will, wo doubt highness, by facilitating the developement of these vo-
not, be interesting to our readers :

lumes, will probably be the means of further excavaThe numerous settlements (says the author) of the tion, and of rescuing from their interment an infinite Greeks in Italy received the name of Magna Græcia, quantity of others. About thirty years ago, his Sicilian because their mother country was of a size considerably majesty ordered the developement, the transcription, and less than that in which they were planted : among these the printing of the volumes which had then been saved, were nearly all the cities in the province of Campania, to be undertaken. This operation was accordingly beincluding Naples, the capital of bis Sicilian majesty, and gun, and has never been discontinued till the late invaalso Herculaneum, and Pompeii, which are supposed to sion of the French. But its mode, however excellent, boast a foundation coeval with Hercules himself, three was extremely slow; it has been performed by a single thousand and fifty years ago, or twelve bundred and fifty person, with a single frame only, under the direction of years before the Christian era. This province, more than the marquis del Vasto, chamberlain to the king, and any other part of Magna Græcia, was always celebrated president of the royal academy. for the studious and successful cultivation of the arts and “The frame consists of several ta per and oblong pieces sciences. The two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii of wood, with parallel threads of silk that run on each ranked next to that of Naples in every respect, as places side, the length of each piece : when the frame is laid of considerable note ; they bad their public theatres, on any volume, each piece of wood must be fixed prewith every other attendant of great population, splen- cisely over each line of the page, wbile the respective dour, opulence, and general prosperity. These, in com- threads being worked beneath each line, and assisted mon with all the rest of Campania, became the elegant by the corresponding piece of wood above, raise the and favourite resort of the Romans, for the different line upwards, and disclose the characters to view. purposes of health, luxury, repose, and erudition.

“ The operation seems ingenious, and well adapted to In the ninth year of Nero's reign, these two cities the purpose : it was, I believe, invented by a capuchin experienced a most formidable shock from an earthquake, at Naples. The fruits of it are said to be two publicawhich overthrew a great part of them. Nor bad they tions only; one on music, by the celebrated Philodemus, recovered altogether from the effects of this calamity by who was a cotemporary of Cicero : and the other on their own exertions, and the aid of imperial munificence, cookery. The first is in his majesty's library, at the when a second calamity, of a different nature, but equal queen's palace. Through the obliging politeness of Mr ly unexpected, consigned them both at once to the most Barnard, the king's librarian. I have bad the advantage complete oblivion. This calamity was the great erup- of perusing it. Indeed I hope your royal highness will tion of Vesuvius, which happened on the 24th day of not disapprove my acknowledging in this place the very August, two full months from the accession of the em- warm and respectful interest which both this gentleman peror Titus Vespasian. Herculaneum was buried under and the right honourable the president of the Royal Soa mass of lava, and volcanic matter, to the depth of 24 ciety have expressed for the furtherance of feet. Pompeii, being more distant from the mountain, highness's great and good design. Meanwhile, by this was overwhelmed principally with a shower of ashes, nor specimen of Philodemus, I am convinced that, if the in any place more than half the depth of the other city. frames should be multiplied to the proposed extent, seveBut the fate of both was sudden and inevitable; and yet ral pages of thirty different manuscripts might be disit appears that almost all of the inhabitants, and, what closed and tran-cribed within the space of one week. is an equally surprising circumstance, more of the Her- “ But the very period at wbich the manuscripts were culaneans than the Pompeians, escaped. By the few buried, serves to point out to your royal highness that skeletons which have been found in either place, the re- you may expect the recovery of either the whole, or at lation of Dio Cassius, who states the destruction of the least parts, of the best writers of antiquity, hitherto people while assembled at the theatre, is proved to be deemed irrecoverable. All of these, in truth, had writ. totally erroneous. It may be proper to remark, that ten before that period, if we except Tacitus, whose inbefore this eruption the whole of Vesuvius was in a state estimable works were unfortunately not composed till of cultivation and fertility, from the top to the bottom; twenty years afterwards during tbe reign of 'Trajan. and though the form and soil of the mountain in one “ Nor can it be imagined for a moment, that among particular spot seemed to denote the traces of some for five or six bundred manuscripts, already excavated, and


your royal



Pompeii. especially from the numberless ones which further exca- 1787, vol. ii. p. 118, &c.; and Watkin's Tour through Pompeji

vations may supply, lost at such a period in two of the Swisserland, Italy, &c. See also Lemaistre's Travels
most capital cities, in the richest, most frequented, and through France, Italy, &c.
most learned province in Italy, each of them an establish- POMPEY the GREAT, CNcIUS POMPEIUS MAG-
ed seat of the arts and sciences, each of them the resort NUS, the renowned rival of Julius Cæsar. Being defeat-
of the most distinguished Romans, not any part of those ed by him at the battle of Pharsalia, owing to the de-
illustrious authors should be discovered.

fection of his cavalry, he fled to Egypt by sea, where
“ But the manuscript of Philodemus itself makes the he was basely assassinated by order of Theodotus, prime
reverse of such an idea appear much more probable. To minister to Ptolemy the Younger, then a minor, 48
the moderns, who have

B. C. See Rome.

POMPEYS, CNEius and SEXTUS, his sons, com-
“ Untwisted all the chains that tie
The biddeo soul of harmony,"

manded a powerful army when they lost their illustrious ile

father. Julius Cæsar pursued them into Spain, and de-
his Treatise on Music cannot, indeed, be supposed to feated them at the battle of Munda, in which Cneius
communicate much information; yet the subject is scien- was slain, 45 B. C. Sextus made bimself master of Si-
tific, and scientifically treated. The author bimself, too, cily ; but being defeated in the celebrated naval en-
was one of the most eminent men in his time for wit, gagement at Actium by Augustus and Lepidus, he fled
learning, and philosophy. But in the rest of the arts to Asia with only seven ships, the remains of his fleet,
and sciences, in history, in poetry, the discovery of any which consisted of more than 350 ; and from thence,
lost writer, either in whole or part, would be deemed a unable to continue the war, he was obliged to retire to
most valuable acquisition and treasure, and form a new Lesbos, where renewing the war by raising an army,
era in literature,

and seizing on some considerable cities, Marcus Titius,
“ It is extremely fortunate that the characters of these in the interest of Mark Antony, gave him battle, de-
manuscripts, whether they should be Greek or Latin, feated bim, took bim prisoner, and basely put bim to
must be very obvious and legible. Before the year of death, 35 B. C. See RoME.
our Lord 79, and some time after it, the Majusculæ or Pompey's Pillar, a celebrated column near Alex-
Unciales Litteræ, capital letters, were solely used. A andria in Egypt, 114 feet high, and of which the shaft,
page, therefore, in one of these manuscripts, would pre- composed of a single piece of granite, is 90 feet. For
sent to your royal highness an exact image of some mu- an account of different opinions concerning the origia
tilated inscription in those languages on an ancient co- and design of this pillar, see ALEXANDRIA, p. 596.
lumn, statue, or sepulchre.

POMPONATIUS, PETER, an eminent Italiani phi-
“ There cannot remain a doubt, even omitting the as- losopher, was born at Mantua in 1462. He was of so
surances from men of official situation to that effect, that small a stature, that he was little better than a dwarf ;
your royal highness's superintendant will receive every yet he possessed an exalted genius, and was considered as
possible assistance from the marquis del Vasto ; and in one of the greatest philosophers of the age in wbich he
that case it seems improbable that the object of this mis- lived. He taught philosophy, first at Padua, and after-
sion can be altogether fruitless.

wards at Bologna, with the highest reputation. He
“ With such a termination of it, however, your royal bad frequent disputations with the celebrated Achillini,

highness, by having proposed to concur with his Sicilian whose puzzling objections would have confounded bim,
majesty in the quicker and more effectual developement, had it not been for his skill in parrying them by some
transcription, and publication of these manuscripts, will joke. His book De Immortalitate Anima, published in
reap the satisfaction of baving made a most princely at- 1516, made a great noise. He maintained, that the
tempt in behalf of knowledge and literature, on an oc- immortality of the soul could not be proved by philoso-
casion where their interests might be affected most ma- phical reasons; but solemnly declared his belief of it as
terially, and in a manner of which no annals have afford- an article of faith. This precaution did not, however,
ed, or can hereafter afford, an example. Your very in- save him ; many adversaries rose up against him, who
terposition will be your glory : your want of success will did not scruple to treat him as an atheist ; and the
only make the learned world feel with gratitude what monks procured his book, although he wrote several
you would have done."

apologies for it, to be burnt at Venice. His book upon
The interposition of his royal highness has had the Incantations was also thought very dangerous. He
happiest effect. The splendid encouragement which he shows in it, that he believed nothing of magic and sor-
gave to the work revived the drooping spirits of the Ita- cery; and he lays a prodigious stress on occult virtues
lian literati, and the consequence has been, that the bu- in certain men, by which they produced miraculous ef-
siness of unrolling and transcribing the manuscripts now fects. He gives a great many examples of this; but
proceeds with an alacrity which promises the most bril- his adversaries do not admit them to be true, or free
liant success. In forty-six years not more than eighteen from magic. -Paul Jovius says, that he died in 1525,
rolls were developed before the interference of our prince. in his grand climacteric. He was three times married ;
Under his encouragement, ninety have been recovered and bad but one daughter, lo whom he left a large sum
in two years! What new facilities may not now be ex-

He used to apply himself to the solution of
pected when all the vigour of British intelligence is ex- difficulties so very intensely, that he frequently forgot
erted on the subject!-See Swinburne's Travels in the to eat, drink, sleep, and perform the ordinary functions
Two Sicil es, vol. ij. p. 98, &c.; Lady Miller's Letters, of nature : nay, it made him almost distracted, and a
or De la Lande ; Captain Sutherland's Tour

the laughing-stock to every one, as he himself tells us.
Straits, from Gibraltar to Constantinople, p.75, &c.; Dr POMPONIUS MELA. See MELA.
Smith's Sketch of a Tour on the Continent, in 1786 and POMUM, an APPLE; a species of sced-vessel, com-




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of money.



near it.

Ο Pomum posed of a succulent fleshy pulp; in the middle of which boats to carry the men and merchandises to the fleet. Pordi

is generally found a membranous capsule, with a num- The fort is 200 paces from the sea, and very irregular; cherry Pondi. ber of cells, or cavities, for containing the seeds. Seed- built with bricks, and covered with fine plaster, resem- # cherry.

vessels of this kind have no external opening or valve. bling white marble. The huts of the blacks lie bere At the end opposite to the footstalk is frequently a small and there, and the walls are of bamboos mixed with the cavity, called by the gardeners the eye of the fruit, and branches of trees. The French are greatly addicted to by botanists umbilicus, the “ navel,” from its fancied women, from whom they catch diseases that render them resemblance to the navel in animals. Gourd, cucum- pale, livid, and meagre, with a frightful aspect. Howber, melon, pomegranate, pear, and apple, furnish in- ever, several of the French are married to a sort of Porstances of the fruit seed-vessel in question.

tuguese women, who are of a mixed breed, being a kind POND, or Fisir-Pond. See F1s11-Pond.

of Mulattoes. The country about it is barren, and conPond, is a small pool or lake of water from whence sequently most of their provisions are brought from other no stream issnes. In the Transactions of the Society in- places. Their trade consists of cotton-cloth, silks, pepstituted at London for the Encouragement of Arts, Ma- per, saltpetre, and other merchandises that are brought nufactures, and Commerce, vol. viii. and printed in the from Bengal. With regard to the religion of the nayear 1790, there is a short account of a machine for tives, the most numerous are the Gentoos; but there are draining ponds without disturbing the mud. It was Mahometans or Moors who hold a great many ridicucommunicated to the society, together with a drawing lous opinions. The Gentoos are of different sects, and and model of the machine, by Lieutenant-colonel Dans that of the Brahmins are priests. The custom of wosey. The model was made from the description of a men burning themselves with the bodies of their dead machine used by a gentleman near Taunton for many busbands was very common, but of late much discounyears before, for supplying a cascade in his pleasure- tenanced. This place was taken, and the fortifications grounds. The colonel's regiment was then lying at demolished, by Colonel Coote in 1761; it was restored Windsor; and thinking that the invention might be to the French by the peace of 1763 ; was retaken by useful to supply the grand cascade at Virginia water, he the English in 1793, and finally restored to France in made the model, and presented it to the king, who was 1814. It is 100 miles south of Madras. E. Long. graciously pleased to approve of it. In consequence of 79. 58. N. Lat. 11. 42. whichi, by bis majesty's desire, a penstock on that prin- PONDICO, an island of the Archipelago, lying on ciple was constructed from the model at one of the ponds the gulf of Ziton, near the coast of Negropont. It is in the neighbourhood.— The colonel thinks the machine small and uninhabited, as well as two others that lie may be useful in the hands of men of science, and applicable to silk, cotton, and other mills, where a steady PONG-JOU Isles, in the province of Fo-kien in Chiand uniform velocity of water is wanted; which might na, form an archipelago between the port of Enjouy be regulated at pleasure, occasioning no current to di- and the island of Formosa. A Chinese garrison is kept sturb the mud or fish, as the stream constantly runs from here, with one of those mandarins who are called litethe surface. He says he has often made the experiment rati, whose principal employment is to watch the tradby the model in a tub of water.

ing vessels which pass from China to Formosa, or from Of this machine the following is a description. Formosa to China. Plate In fig. 1. A is the pipe, loaded with a rim of lead, of As these islands are only sand-banks or rocks, the inCCCCXXXVII. such weight as serves to sink it below the surface of the habitants are obliged to import every necessary of life ; fig. 1.

water. B is the discharging pipe, laid through the neither shrubs nor bushes are seen upon them; all their
bank HI. C is the joint on which the pipe A turns ornament consists of one solitary tree. The harbour is
its form, which is shown fig. 2. D is the ball or float, good, and sheltered from every wind; it has from 20
which, swimming on the surface of the pond, prevents to 25 feet depth of water. Although it is an unculti-
the pipe A from descending deeper than the length of vated and uninhabited island, it is absolutely necessary
the chain by which they are connected. E is a chain for the preservation of Formosa, which has no port ca-
winding on the windlass F, and serving to raise the tube pable of receiving vessels that draw above eight feet of
A above the surface of the water, when the machinery water.
is not in use. G is a stage. HI is the bank, repre-

PONIARD, a little pointed dagger, very sharp sented as if cut throught at I, to show the tube B lying edged; borne in the hand, or at the girdle, or hid in within it. K is a post to receive the tube A wben the pocket. The word is formed from the French

lowered, and to prevent its sinking in the mud. In poignard, and that from poignée, “ handful.”—The poFig. 2. fig. 2. A is a cast cylinder, with a plate or cheek, B, niard was anciently in very great use ; but it is now in

which is fastened to the timber of the tube on one side, a good measure set aside, except among assassins. but not on the other, as the part of the cylinder C turns Sword and poniard were the ancient arms of duellists ; in the hollow of the wooden tube when it is immerged. and are said to continue still so among the Spaniards. A piece of strong sole leather is put inside the brass- The practice of sword and poniard still make a part of plate B, to prevent leaking.

the exercise taught by the masters of defence. Ponn-Wecd. See POTAMOGETON, BOTANY Index. PONS, a town of France, in the department of Cha

PONDICHERRY, is a large town of Asia, in the rente Inférior, very famous in the time of the Huguepeninsula on this side the Ganges, and on the coast of nots. It is seated on a hill, near the river Seigne, 10 Coromandel

. Its situation is low, and the ships anchor miles from Saintes. W. Long. 0. 30. N. Lat. 45. 36. about a mile and a half from it; nor can the boats or PONT-DU-GARD, is a bridge of France, in Lower canoes come nearer it than a musket-shot, on account of Languedoc, built over the river Gardon, which served the breakers, so that the blacks come in flat bottomed for an aqueduct. It is a very remarkable and a most

• 2




Pont magnificent work, and was raised by the ancient Ro- much as it cost at first; but when ours are rendered Ponton,

mans. It cousists of three bridges, one above another ; useless, they sell for nothing. Our pontoons are 21 Ponton. , the uppermost of which was the aqueduct, to convey feet long, five feet broad, and depth within two feet 1.5

water to the city of Nismes, which is eight miles to the inches.
south. They are altogether 192 feet high, and the up- Pontoov-Carriage, is made with two wheels only,
permost 580 feet long. They are constructed between and two long side-pieces, whose fore-ends are supported
two rocks. E. Long. 4. 26. N. Lat. 43. 58.

by a limber; and serves to carry the pontoon, boards,
PONTEDERIA, a genus of plants belonging to the cross-timbers, anchors, and every other thing necessary
hexandria class; and in the natural method ranking un- for making a bridge.
der the sixth order, Ensatæ. See BOTANY Index. Pontoon-Bridge, is made of pontoons slipped inte

PONTEFRACT, or POMFRET, a town of the west the water, and placed about five or six feet asunder ;
riding of Yorkshire in England, situated on the river each fastened with an anchor, when the river has a
Are, which contained 3605 inhabitants in 1811. It is strong current ; or to a strong rope that goes across the
said to take its name from a broken bridge, which is sup- river, running through the rings of the pontoons. Each
posed to have been laid anciently over that marshy spot boat' has an anchor, cable baulks, and chests. The
called the Wash. Here are the ruins of a noble old castle, baulks are about five or six inches square, and 21 feet
where Richard II. was barbarously murdered, and two long. The chests are boards joined together by wooden
of Edward V.'s uncles. The collegiate chapel of St bars, about three feet broad and 12 feet long. The
Clement, which had a dean, three prebendaries, &c. baulks are laid across the pontoons at some distance from
is still distinguishable in it. This town has a good mar- one another, and the chests upon them joined close ;
ket, and fairs for horses, sheep, and other cattle. It is a which makes a bridge in a very short time, capable of
corporation, governed by a mayor, recorder, aldermen, supporting any weight.
and burgesses. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 2001. PONT ST ESPRIT, is a town of France, in the de-
was left by George Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, to be partment of Gard. It is seated on the river Rhone,
lent for ever at 5l. a time, on proper security, for three over which is one of the finest bridges in France. It
years, to the poor artificers of the town; and Thomas is 840 yards long, and consists of 26 arches. Each
Wentworth, Esq. ancestor to the marquis of Rocking- pier is pierced with an aperture, in order to facilitate
ham, left 200l. to the charity-shool. A branch of the the passage of the water when the river is high. The
great Roman military way called Ermin street, which town is large, but the streets are narrow and ill built.
passed from Lincoln to York, may be traced betwixt It formerly contained several churches and convents.
this town and Doncaster. The adjacent country yields It is 17 miles south of Viviers, and 55 north-east of
plenty of limestone, together with liquorice and skirrets. Montpelier. E. Long. 4. 46. N. Lat. 44. 13.
W. Long. 1. 18. N. Lat. 53. 42,

PONTUS, the name of an ancient kingdom of Asia,
PONTIFEX, PONT:FF, or High-priest, a person originally a part of Cappadocia ; bounded on the east
who has the superintendence and direction of divine by Colchis, on the west by the river Halys, on the
worship, as the offering of sacrifices and other religious north by the Euxine sea, and on the south by Armenia
solemnities. The Romans had a college of pontifis; Minor. Some derive the name of Pontus from the Etymology

of the and over these a sovereign pontiff, or pontifex maximus, neighbouring sea, commonly called by the Latins Pontus instituted by Numa, whose function it was to prescribé Euxinus ; others from an ancient king named Pontus, the ceremonies each god was to be worshipped withal, who imparted his name both to the country and the sea; compose the rituals, direct the vestals, and for a good but Bochart deduces it from the Phænician word botno, while to perform the business of augury, till, on some signifying a filberd, as if that nut abounded remarkably superstitious occasion, he was probibited intermeddling in this place. But this derivation seems to be very far therewith. The office of the college of pontiffs was to fetched; and the common opinion that the country deassist the bigh-priest in giving judgment in all causes rived its name from the sea, seems by far the most prorelating to religion, inquiring into the lives and man- bable. The kingdom was divided into three parts; the ners of the inferior priests, and punishing them if they first named Pontus Galaticus, extending from the river saw occasion, &c. "The Jews, too, had their pontiffs; Halys to the Thermodon ; the second, named Pontus and among the Romanists, the pope is still styled the Polemonaicus, extended from the Thermodon to the sovereign pontiff

borders of Pontus Cappadocicus ; and this last extended PONTÍFICATE, is used for the state or dignity from Pontus Polemonaicus to Colchis, having Armenia of a pontiff or high-priest ; but more particularly in mo- Minor and the upper stream of the Euphrates for its dern writers for the reign of a pope.

southern boundary. PONTIUS PILATE. See PILATE.

It is commonly believed, that the first inhabitants of PONTON, or Pontoon, in War, a kind of flat- Pontus were descended from Tubal ; but in process of hottomed boat, whose carcase of wood is lined within time mixed with Cappadocians, Paphlagonians, and and without with tin: they serve to lay bridges over other foreign nations, besides many Greek colonies rivers for the artillery apd army to march over. The which settled in those parts, and maintained their liberty French pontoons, and those of most other powers, are till the time of Mithridates the Great and Pharnaces. made of copper on the outside : though these cost more The first king of this country whom we find mentioned

Artabazes at first, yet they last much longer than those of tin ; in history is Artabazes, who had the crown bestowed on the first and when worn out, the copper sells nearly for as him by Darius (A) Hystaspes. The next was Rhodo


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(A) This country, together with the adjacent provinces, was in different periods under the dominion of the As-
Var XVII. Part I.



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