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the evil. Pitt, the late premier, for two this room is a trap.door, on opening years likewise employed his efforts 10 which you descend, by ten heps, into fatham and letren them, but they a loashfome hole, or dungeon, 13 feet eluded his grafp; and, in the midst of by 10 and 7 feet 3 inches high, with other important objects, he relivquished thiree wooden bedfieads, on which lay this most important one as too cumpli fome short dirty fraw, and pieces, or cated and Herculean for even his gi- bits, of dirty ragged rugs. The only gantic powers to remedy. And the ventilation or glimmering light this plan of 'Malthus, of monachilm and miserable place receives is through an nunnery of the poor, is fo liitle con- irøn-grating, 2 feel 10 inches by only vected with the nature of the human eight inebes, and level with the court; paflions and propensities, as to render in this damp and loaihfome dungeoa it either impracticable, or subversive of seven of the prisoners, heavily ironed, morals.

Aleep every night; one of them told The length of this Effay induces me me that when the trap door-was listed to postpone any farther remarks on up, in a cold morning, the tieam which thele fubjects, after premiling that the illued out was like the smoke of a first step towards effecting a diminution chimnev. What must the miserable of the poor-rates, and the promotion wretches confined every night in fich of morality with the poor, is the de- a putrid hot-bed of diseale luffer! I molition of Poor, or Parish Worke represented to the Keeper, (I wish I houses ; or the appropriation of them could add with effect), that it was untó any other purpoles than those of the fit for any human being, during the present impolitic and ruinous fvfiem. hours of sleep'; and, as there was

In a future Effay the subject will be plenty of room in the prison, he was farther coufidered by

not justified in the use of it, but ex. J. C. LETTSOM. prefily forbid by the statute 14 Geo. County Bridewell, SOUTHWELL, II. Behind the Gaoler's kitchen is Notts. Gaoler, William Adams, la. The court-yard, for males committed Járy 1101. Fees abolished. For the for petty offences, 31 feet by 28, with conveyance of prisoners to Nouing a room, 18 feet 6 by 16 feet 6; it conham: 7.56 6d. each, and 10 Redford tains three wooden bedfieads, two of 11. 1 s. and 10 Newark 4 s. 6 d. and then for four persons each, and the the fame fun each if. brought back to other for two ; this is, likewise, their the retpective places. Chaplain, none, day-room, in which they eat and drink, or any religious attentions whatever.' and fleep, and, in bad weather, must Surgeon, Mr. Hutchinson, falary none, be in ihe whole day; the Keeper's makes a bill. Allowance one pound parlour commands this court.

Va. of bread and one penny in money per grants have a coure yard, 23 feet hy day.

18, with a day and deeping-room, 24 Remarks.This Bridewell is nifed feel by 20, for male vagrants; and as a prison for thole manors in this another, of the fame dinensions, above County which belong to the Arch. it for females. A door in the wall of bishop of York.

the vagrants' court opens into that for The situation, a little way out of female selons, which' is 28 feel 3 inthe town, was advantageoufly chofen, ches hy 18 feet 6. By a flight of ttone upon a gradual eminence commanding fieps you afcend into the sleeping-room arfree circulation of air. The entraice belonging to the prisoners of this class ; is in the centre of the front wall, and it is 18 feet 6 inches by 16 leet 6, and faces Burgage Green : a pallage, nine contains two wooden bedsteads for feet wide, leads to the Keeper's house. three persons each ; the floor of this On the left of the entrance is his coal room is plalier, and immediately over houfe and kitchen, the window of one which is appropriated to petty which looks through the iron grating' offenders. There is a passage which of a door on the opposite side of the leads to the cell-yard, which has in it paflage, and

opens into the male selons' a pump, and lead cistern ; and, very court, which is 30 feet 6 inches hy 23 improperly, three folitary eells for the feet 8 inches ; it has a Magged floor, a resractory, each about 10 feet by & pump, and a fewer; at the upper end and 9 feet high, with a wood bedstead, is the felons day-room, 17 feet 9 by and small. iron-grating over each door, 16 feet 6 inches, with a fire-place, and through which thofe in folitary con: iron-grated window. In the floor of finement are enabled to see and cona



verse with the female felons, in their labour and falutary regulations already, chambers, or on ihe lieps. At the fare adopted, which promise to vie with ther end of the vagranis' court a door the very belt in the Kingdom. opens into that for faulty servants, or BIRMINGHAM. The Gaol for this apprentices, which is 21 feet by 20, large and populous town is called The, with iwo apariments, one above the Dungeon. Gaoler, John Sumner, faother, the lower for males with two lary 18 l. 10 s. bui he pays a rent of beds for three persons each, the upper 251. to the widow of the late keeper, for females with one beutiead for three Mariha Wooldridge. Fees 2 s. No persons, and each of themi 20 feet by table. Licence for beer. No Chap18. The iron-grated window looks lain, or any religious attentions. Sure into the court-vard which is conmou geon from the town, if wanted. Ali to all. In this court are two folitary lowance, 4 d. a day, in bread and cells, similar to those near the female cheese, which the Keeper tells in the felous yard, and at the extremity is a prison.. door into a full garden, containing The court, which is paved with about a rood of land. A court for the broad stones, is about 25 feet Square. women night be made out of this The Keeper's house in front; and ungarden. Noinfirmary, bath, or oven. der it two dungeons, down eight steps No rules and orders. ' Neither the Act each, have a wood bedfiead, with straw for preservation of health or Claules and one blanket. At fonie particular againit fpirituous liquors hung up. times the Gaol has been so crowded Some of the prisoners were employed that fix prifoners have flept a night or by the Keeper in curing pegs at iwo iwwo in each of these dungeons. On pence a thousand, which he tells at four the right hand side the court are two pence a thousand. On a iione tablet night-rooms for women, 8 feet by s over the door is this inscription : feet 9 inches, and four rooms over

This houle was built in the year them. On the other side of the court 1.636, and the new addition, with the is one fmall day-room for men and walls, in 1787,

women, and two night-rooms, fora Prilogers, 4th Oa. 1805, twelve merly the Gaoler's fiubles; the doors men, two women,

have each an iron-grated aperture of

Soutlawell, 12 inches square, the only light of My dear friend,

Od. 4th. 1806. ventilation they receive. Over these This prison is fo remarkably bad in are four other rooms, but being very its contiruction, that it is with difficulty insecure are not used. In the Gaoler's I can describe ii, fo as to be underlicod. house are six rooms for those who can It is in a very dilapidated and intercure pay, one is partitioned off for a drinking liare, and inliead of promoting morals, room, another with lumber in it, and or health, is the very bave of both four have iron bedsteads, and bedding Nothing can exceed the Iqualid wretch for those who can pay %s. 6 d. per eduels, filth, and feveriiy, which are week. On each side the bedstead is a every where presented. I have just been chain, and handcuff, by which the priconferring with a very sencible Magi; foner is secured, Hat on his back, every straie * of this place on the fubject, and night: and there is an iron neck collar, who is deeply imprelled with its im- with a feven pound weight fufpended portance. Adieu, yours truly, by a chain, which, I was told, had

JAMES NEILD. been frequently used. Neither the Act To Doctor Lettfon, London. for preservation of health, nor the Poffcript, Nov. 1866. I have just Claules against spirituous liquors hung received a report of this prison, drawn up; The lower parts of the prison inup by the excelent Magiftrare alluded tolerably filthy, 'Prisoners, 5th. Nov. to above, by which it appears that the 1802, four men, three women; who, humane and considerate Jufiices of this with four of their acquaintances from respectable County, allembled at the the town, were drinking, and some of General Quarter Sessions, have deter. them in a hate of intoxication. My mined upon building a new House of remarks to the Keeper were not totally Correction. That a new Keeper is ap- thrown away, however ;, for at my pointed, rules and orders made, a visit- visit, September, 1803, I found the ing committee formed, and a system of drinking-room, up-stairs, converted into

a bed-room, and the lower parts clean. * Rey, J. T. Becher,

The irioners, men and women, fix in


number, were drinking with their ar., a day. Soft water is bought at a halfsociates, the iap muit be kept running, penny a pail, and l:ard water at twelve or how was the Gaoler to pay his rent: shillings a year. At my visit, lli. Nor. On my visit, ist. Nov. 1805, prisoners, 1805, the Keeper, W. D. Brownell. viz. 3 men, women ; drinking, as Prisoners, three. It is called Bordsley usual, with their friends. On this prison. occasion I was accompanied by a very P.S. There seems to be great at. worthy and active Magistrale * of this tention at the Poor house to the nume. town, who went with me to the new rous inhabitants. Gaol building here, io which, he assured

Yours truly,

JAMES NEILD. me, there should be no licence for beer, ?o Dr. Letifom, London. nor should the Gaoler furnish any article of provision to the prisoners.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF HORACE. The prison for debtors, called the

Book I. EPISTLE IV. Biriningham Court Prison, is situate in TO ALBIUS TIBULLUS. Philip-lireet; John Downes, Keeper,


HAT this is the fame Tibullus A damp dungeon, about 3ļ yards who has left us in his clegies the fquare, in the liule back yard (13 feet transcript of his tender and fusceptible io inches by 13 feet) of the Keeper's foul, forinec, as if by the Graces ihem house, and a sleeping-room above, with felves, to foft sensations and a volupfiraw on the foor. There are three

tuous melancholy enthusialın, is berooms to which the Keeper furoishes yond all doubt, notwithstanding the beds to those who can pay ? s. per scruples of the learned Cruquius. Conweek. The dungeon is ufed as a day- cerning the friend thip of our Poet for rooin on account of the little couri, him, we find two memorials in his vard, and, I was informed, there were works; thè xxxiiid Ode of the First frequently four and once fifteen pri. Book, and the present Epilile, which, foners in it. Debiors are not permitted though the proper dare thereof is not to work, which seems cruel, because now to be ascertained, appears to have their confinement may be forly days. been written a few years after that Ode, Prisoner, 5ih. Nov. 1802, one; Sept. yet, perhaps, earlier than the majority 1803, three; ift. Nov. 1805, two. At of the other Epililes. this visit I was informied that poor Ilow the learned tribe of expositors prisoners had an allowance of 3 d. per came to fall upon the conceit that this day from their respective parisies. liţile familiar levier was a consolatory

Aston GAOL,' Birmingham, is in epifile, in which Horace endeavoured the back yard of an ale-boule ; Keeper, to cheer his forrowing friend by an afJemima Tart'; falary none, but lives fectionate addrels, it would be diffirent free. Two dark, damp'dungeons, cult to comprehend, if we had not so ilown ten steps, to which you delceod many examples that these genileinen by a trap-door level with the court, frequently cannot lee' the wood for abcut 12 feet by 7 each, with wood trees. Thronghout the whole of this hellicads, siraw, and a rug. The only for epilile there is not indeed the lighi, or ventilasjon, through an iron finalieli srace of the pretended dejection Frated aperture, about 12 inches (quare. of Tibullus. But it appeared quite unThe doors open into'a narrow dark natural in these Marp-lighted wits, ihai paflage. Brick floors, an inch deep a Poet, who, from the whole renour in water at my visit, 5th Nov. 1892. of his elenirs that are come down to Prifoners, nove Thele dungeons are us, lad had so much agreeabile dallio unfit for the confineinent of any human ance with the Delias and Neæras of being, and may be numbered amongst ihe day, mould all at once he feen The very' world in the hingelom. Over roving above the forests in folitude and thein are tivo rooms which opeu into silence envljely immersed in moral conthe couri, each about 12 feet aquare, templations. Hereupon it occurred to one used as a day-room, the other as a them, that Tibulliis, in his heroic Sleeping room, with a wood bedfead, poem 10 Medalla Corrions, speaks of ftraw, and rugs, for perty offenders. very great riches, of which he had been Prisoners, 25th Anguil, 1803, three deprived by the inconfancy of fortune, runaway apprentices. Allowance 4 d. and that he begins the very first of his

elegies with declaring himself poot. George Simcox, Esq. This, they thought, explained the

whole whole affair; for, naturally, he who fary than ever to have a friend and pas from a liate of opulence is fallen into tron who was near to thern on whom poverly, has every reason in the world all depended: But this relation did io hang down his head. But they for: pot prevent, it rather promoted, the lis got that Tibullus, in the very place berty and assured leisure wherein Tie where he fpeaks of his lost riches, gives bullus ferved thole beneficent deities to likewise to understand that he has still whose service the wife Solon confessed fuinething to lose ; and that the poverty himself devoted even in his advanced which wrough the whole of his firit age, and from whom, as he affirms, all elegy he painis in very glowing colours, the joys of inortals are derived. Tibullus and in which he eiieems hinself ex- loved io roam in fancy in Saturn's golden tremely happy, is only deserving of age and in the Elysian fields ; he loved, that name in comparison with the like Horace, liberty and learned ease; wealth of a Mæcenas or a Mestalla, or he iherefore preferred to live, like Hom a Cneus Lentulus; in short, that it was race too, in the country; and this leta kind of porerty with which no rea. ter is written to him during his relifouable man wouli curvy the faid dence on his estate in the territory of Cneus Lentulus' his five and twenty Pedum. Our poet, who was connected millions of crowns, which he, accord- with him by fimilarity of difpofitions ing to Seneca's * 'account, polletled, and purluirs, but lived generally at a without being able to enjoy them, and, distance from him, and in a different for the most part, loft, wiihout know. circle, seems to have had here no other ing what was become of them. This end in view, than to inform himself seems to have been the true state of once more concerning the condition of the finances of Tibullus. During the his friend, to invite him in a familiar, civil commotions (probably under the polite, though not very earnest manlait triumvirate) in his early youth, he ner, to come to him, and on this oclost the confiderable estate which' his cafion to pay him a compliment in ancestors, most likely by Government return for the civil way in which Ticontracts, as Roman knights, had ac- bullus had spoken of his Sermones. quired. But, when Augustus was en: The urbanity which is diffused through deavouring as much as posfible to re- the whole letter, may be more easily pair the ruinous consequences of the felt than described or imitated. Nós civil war, he regained so much of it, thing can exceed the delicacy with or at leati faved fo much of it, from which he gives such a turn to the the Mipwreck, as enabled him, ex: praise of Tibullus, as to make it at empt as he was from all extravagant once a beautiful character of an amidefires, to live in eale and independ- able man born under lucky omens, ence. This iş amply evinced by the and a nice indirect admonition to be epistle now before us; and there is no- content with all that nature and form thing in the poems of Tibullus himself tune had done for him, and not to difthat does not coincide with it. His turb his fatisfaction by reflefsendeavours dependence on Metralla Corvinus proves to increase it. The modesty too de. nothing in behalf of the pretended in- ferves observation with which he not dige:ice of Tiballus. For every Ro- only treats Tibullus, who was doubtnian of inoderate liation and circum- less in more than one respect his infeAtances had his patron among the great, rior, as his equal, but also in a manwhole client he was. This relation per makes him his superior, by the was the cement whereby the founder value he fets upon the favourable judg. of Rome held his political fabrick to- ment he pafles on his Sermones. To gether; and at the period when the spare the self-love of the persons with Republic was imperceptibly declining whom he has to do, in this liberal into a Monarchy, it was more necel- manner, without fattery and mean

ness, is somewhat peculiar to Horace : * Seneca de Benefic. ii. 27. He was, lible how he was able 10 live con

and hence it is more eally comprehensays Seneca, the most striking example of wealth in private perfons ; for he saw him- ftanıly in such good undersianding

with Co self, by the liberality of Auguftus, in pof

rivals of a class of man,

many feffion of 400 million of fefterces. If we kind, whom he elsewhere terms, with reckon four sefterces to a denarius, and the greatest reason, the genus irritabile. fix denarii to a crown, it gives the above From the circumstance of his mentionfum,

ing in the first verse only his Sermones

(that (that is, his Satires), which were the For all that, this fallow Gloffarist not first works he published, compared puly makes him an affaffin, but by an with the facetious conclụsion, where inuendo gives to underitand, that, on he calls himself pinguem et bene curatâ this occalion, he stole the tragedy of cute nitidum Epicuri porcum, it is pretty Thyelies from Callius of Parina, and probable that this little occasional letter afterwards sent it into the world as his was written some years before the rest. own. Many people thought fo, says For, though Bentley seems to have al- he, becaule Varus murdered Callius at certained, with tolerable accuracy, the his writing-desk, and carried off the years in which Horace fuccellively desk with the writings it contained ; composed and published his works, yet and it was well known that Caffius it by no means follows, that, because wrote several tragedies. The evidence he did not publish the first book of his would be incompetent, even though epilules before his forty-sixth or forty- 0. Varus and L. Varius had been the feventh year, that therefore they were láme perfon : but, as two several names all written about that time--though naturally denote two several persons, the logic which authorizes this mode the anecdote gives the lie to itself, and of drawing' conclufions is very usual manifefily is to be' classed among those among the expositors of the antjents. numberless others which malice and Quid nunc te dicum facere in regione envy have at all times been busy in inPedana (1) ?

venting, and which dulness and stu(1) Pedum was a little town between pidity have adopied without proof and Tibur and Præneste, in the confines propagated without design, io tarnish whereof Tibullus probably had an es- the reputation of illustrious men.-I tate.

should not have dwelt so long in vindi. Scrilere quod Caj Parmensis (2) opuf- caring a poet, wbo, though one of the cula vincat?

prime ornaments of the most shining (2) Caffius of Parma, one of the period of Roman literature, is become conspirators who, by the death of Ju- indifferent to us, who are no longer in lius Cæfar, were in hopes of reviving pollession of any of his productions, the Republic, was, on the last breach had I not observed this fcandalous between O&avianus and Antonius, of scholium admitted into the best edi. the party of the latter, and had a com, tions of our poet, even into those of inand in the battle near Actium. On Baxter and Gefluer, and not one of the well-known event of that day he the editors employing but a couple of fed 10 Athens, where, at the com- lines for defending the honour of an mand of Octavianus, he was murdered innocent man thus cruelly Nandered at his writing-desk, by the hand of Q. after his death. Varus. - s Valerius Maximus, lib. 1. Horace here fpeaks solely of the cap. 7. lect. 7. Velleius Paterc.] The opulcula of Callins of Parma, and gives old Scholiaft, in Cruquius, in his ac- us an adequate idea of the deparıcount of this Calsius, confounds the ment to which they belonged ; as he baule of Actium with the baitle of contrasts them with the opufcula of Philippi, though there was an interval Tibullus, and thinks it paying him a of more than years between them, great compliment to allert ihat he has and the Quintus Varus, who suffered been even able to excel ihein. bimself to be employed as an allaslin, The interpreters of the antients often with the Lucius Varius who in tragic mistake the true meaning hy kindly poetry Mewed himself equal to the beli willing to lend the author some of of the Greeks, by his Thyestes * their wit, as if he had too little of his Quintilian. lib. x. cap. 1. Varii Thy own; and it must be confeísed that ejles cuilibet Græcorum cumparari po- their's is not always of the belt fort. iefi] and in the epic department, per. Cruquius fpies an irony here, pero haps, was only interior io Virgil; and fecily indiscernible by any one else; whom Horace unites with Virgil in and Baxter fupposes ihat opuscula has that fine encomium where he lays of in this place a quite peculiar force, and both :

is as much as to say, works that would Animas, quales neque candidiores [alter. not be paid for by their weight in gold, Terra tulit, neque quîs me fit devinétior As if opufcula, where the question is

Dr. Blackwell alto makes Varius the of little, light, occasional, ludicrous, perfon who put Catrius to death. Mem. or amatory poeins, must be fomne of the Court of Augufius.,

what elle besides opuscula !


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