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(that is, his Satires), which were the For all that, this fallow Gloffarist not first works he published, compared puly makes him an affaffin, but by an with the facetious conclụsion, where inuendo gives to underitand, that, on he calls himself pinguem et bene curatâ this occalion, he stole the tragedy of cute nitidum Epicuri porcum, it is pretty Thyelies from Callius of Parina, and probable that this little occasional letter afterwards sent it into the world as his was written some years before the rest. own. Many people thought fo, says For, though Bentley seems to have al- he, becaule Varus murdered Callius at certained, with tolerable accuracy, the his writing-desk, and carried off the years in which Horace fuccellively desk with the writings it contained ; composed and published his works, yet and it was well known that Caffius it by no means follows, that, because wrote several tragedies. The evidence he did not publish the first book of his would be incompetent, even though epilules before his forty-sixth or forty- 0. Varus and L. Varius had been the feventh year, that therefore they were láme perfon : but, as two several names all written about that time--though naturally denote two several persons, the logic which authorizes this mode the anecdote gives the lie to itself, and of drawing' conclufions is very usual manifefily is to be' classed among those among the expositors of the antjents. numberless others which malice and Quid nunc te dicum facere in regione envy have at all times been busy in inPedana (1) ?

venting, and which dulness and stu(1) Pedum was a little town between pidity have adopied without proof and Tibur and Præneste, in the confines propagated without design, io tarnish whereof Tibullus probably had an es- the reputation of illustrious men.-I tate.

should not have dwelt so long in vindi. Scrilere quod Caj Parmensis (2) opuf- caring a poet, wbo, though one of the cula vincat?

prime ornaments of the most shining (2) Caffius of Parma, one of the period of Roman literature, is become conspirators who, by the death of Ju- indifferent to us, who are no longer in lius Cæfar, were in hopes of reviving pollession of any of his productions, the Republic, was, on the last breach had I not observed this fcandalous between O&avianus and Antonius, of scholium admitted into the best edi. the party of the latter, and had a com, tions of our poet, even into those of inand in the battle near Actium. On Baxter and Gefluer, and not one of the well-known event of that day he the editors employing but a couple of fed 10 Athens, where, at the com lines for defending the honour of an mand of Octavianus, he was murdered innocent man thus cruelly Nandered at his writing-desk, by the hand of Q. after his death. Varus. - s Valerius Maximus, lib. 1. Horace here fpeaks solely of the cap. 7. lect. 7. Velleius Paterc.] The opulcula of Callins of Parma, and gives old Scholiaft, in Cruquius, in his ac us an adequate idea of the deparıcount of this Calsius, confounds the ment to which they belonged ; as he baule of Actium with the baitle of contrasts them with the opufcula of Philippi, though there was an interval Tibullus, and thinks it paying him a of more than years between them, great compliment to allert ihat he has and the Quintus Varus, who suffered been even able to excel ihein. bimself to be employed as an allaslin, The interpreters of the antients often with the Lucius Varius who in tragic mistake the true meaning hy kindly poetry Mewed himself equal to the beli willing to lend the author some of of the Greeks, by his Thyestes * their wit, as if he had too little of his Quintilian. lib. x. cap. 1. Varii Thy own; and it must be confeísed that ejles cuilibet Græcorum cumparari po- their's is not always of the belt fort. iefi] and in the epic department, per. Cruquius fpies an irony here, pero haps, was only interior io Virgil; and fecily indiscernible by any one else; whom Horace unites with Virgil in and Baxter fupposes ihat opuscula has that fine encomium where he lays of in this place a quite peculiar force, and both :

is as much as to say, works that would Animas, quales neque candidiores [alter. not be paid for by their weight in gold, Terra tulit, neque quîs me fit devinétior As if opufcula, where the question is

Dr. Blackwell alto makes Varius the of little, light, occasional, ludicrous, perfon who put Catrius to death. Mem. or amatory poeins, must be fomne of the Court of Augufius.,

what elle besides opuscula !


Moreover, it is especiallyworth notice, Et mundus victus (3), non deficiente that Horace could and did take the liber

crumena (4)? w to inéntion namely and honourably (3) I read mundum victum, and not, the younger years of a former friend who with Bentley, et victum et domum. had been an accomplice in the murder (4) We are imperceptibly impelled of Cæfar, a follower of M. Brutus, by a neceflity within, to take ourand 'lo determinate a foe to the Julian felves, our own opinions and manners, party and the fubsequent Augustan, for the Itandard, whether we would ihat after the death of Brutus and Caf- say something completely handsome to fius, he rather chole, in a kind of def- another person, or suggell to him with peration, to side with Antonius than a good grace, how we think he ought submit to Odavius. This likewise is a to be. Horace seems, throughout this firoke that helps to make us more fa- Epistle, always to put himlelf in the miliar with the moral character of our place of Tibullus. Indeed there was a Poet, on this side too little known. As great similarity between them, especie we proceed we shall light upon more fuch cially in the propensity to an independe instances as fhew, that, amid the self ent and idle country-life, and in the ish or voluptuonis courtiers of an all- defirable poverty, as they both call it, powerful, and, with all bis affected of being exadly fo rich, and no richer, moderation and pretended modely, a than was necefsary to the gratifying of fometimes dangerous Usurper, he had their inclinations. But the difference the honeli assurance to fay what he in the modification of it, and even in thought, fari quæ fentiat. Such as the main features of their mind, seems would perhaps reply, that this does as to have been still greater than that fimuch honour to Auguflus as to Horace, milarity: and though in the elegies of I would remind of an anecdote handed Tibullus we may meet pretty often down to us bị Suetonius, and which with sentiments and images of the is fo completely in characler with the greatest tenderness, yet, in my opinion, former, that we may eren venture to they contain nothing of the philofophitake it on the word of an antient glof. cal spirit that breathes throughout the farist. A certain Æmilius Elianus of works of Horace, and gives them fo Corduba was accufed of various crimes, peculiar a character of fagacity and a reinto which Aaguftus himself thought fined understanding. The proper chaproper to examine. The accuser, for racter of Tibullus is more-or almoft ihe sake of giving the greater weight to entirely--refined sensuality. This ahis other charges, laid the most fress lone, elevated by a romantic force of upon this : that Ælianus had u fed to faney, might inspire him to write the allow himself in fpeaking very unduti- first of his elegies, which is also the fully of Auguftus. “That thou shalt most beautiful, and fupply him with immediately perceive," interrupted Ar- that affecting mixture of enthusiasm of gustus with vehemence; “ I will thew love and images of death ; but nothing Alianus that I have a longue as well can make us believe, that an iinage as he ! I will say more agaiifit his cha. jike this, racter than he against mine." Aud

-Tacitum sylvas interreptare salubres when Tiberius, in a lerter to his flep- Curantem quicquid dignum sapiente bonofather, expressed himself very violently

que eft, on the fame fubjeci, Augustus told him in reply. thai he would do better would have suited him ; or such a wilk to restrain his youthful warmth, and

as this, not to be so much incensed that -any Sit mihi quod nunc eft, etiam minus : uz one should speak ill of him: “ It is Quod fupereft ævi, &c. [mihi vivam enough," added he, “that we have would ever have come into his mind. brought matters to fuch a pass that no His avenues, and thickets and bowers, man can do us any harm." Octavia are to him only the scenes of his dara nus had cleared his way to the sove- ling propensities; and all the charms reign power by fuch infamous and they have for him, they receive from cruel means, that it was now mere the presence of his Delia.

To Horace, prudence in Auguftus to rule with his little farm is the place gentlenefs, and with the lusire of his

Which gives him to himself again ; new name, which spoke nothing but pure kindness, to cover ihe crines and when he exclaims, with fuch á with which his former was fullied. rapturous effusion of heart,

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O rus, quando ego te aspiciam} quando- would throw such a number of 'ho

[tibus horis neit men, who labour with all their Nunc veterum libris, nunc fomno & inér- might 10 refcue an author who writes Ducere solicitæ jucunda oblivia vitæ ? such beautiful Latin, and whom they he has no need, like Tibullus, to turn cannot well avoid putting inso' the his meads and grally banks, by the hands of youth, from the horrid charge magic of his imagination, into a vo of Epicurilm*. li is indeed only in lupluous Elyfium, where

waggery that he talks of the fat, sleek,

and well-fed Epicurean hoy; that thefe Juvenum series teneris immifta puellis Ludit, et affiduè prælia miscet amor.

gentleinen are well aware of: but noTIBULL. I, 3.

thing fo offensive ought even to be

faid in mirih!-Horace, (we cannot The latter, while he is praising his deny its) with all his grave morality, preferit humble, though plentiful con is at times fomewhat frolickfome: the dition, casts many a itolen glance, house of the jocose Mæcenas, and the scarcely able to repress his figlis, at the Emperor Auguftus himself, who was {plendid fortune which he never enjoyed, fond of this humour, had not corrected but was born to enjoy; and he seenis hin in that particular; and indeed it is to want some more agreeable dillipa- good fiddling to i hen, that love dancing. tions, as a nepenthe to keep him from

“ But may we not fuppose that he here painful losgeltions. Horace, on the called himself an Epicuri de grege purcontrary, sees his withes exceeded in

cus in the lame ironical sense as Socrates, the enjoyment of his little fortune; in Plato's apology, and on other occaHoc erat in votis, &c. Auctius alque Di Gions, gave himself out for “an ignorant melius fecere he has nothing more to laic." The eralion would not be lo desire ihan that he may keep. what he much amniss, if Horace here håd but as has, and it might be lefs, withont his good a reafon for fich an irony as Sothinking he had lost anything. Ti

But of his no trace appears. bullus's life was a dream, and his hap In short, if the viri barbatiffimi cannot piness a delicious in oxication of foul. affore any induluence 10 our Bard for Horace lived awake, and by his expe

one joke, in reasonable regard in the rience acquiked two great treasures, ihe bad company in which he had the knowledge of the world and the know, misfortune in live; the company of ledge of himself

. Indeed he too had Angustus, of Mæcenas, Pollio, Meltrifled, and was not ashamed of it. falla, Lamia, &c. not to forget the Nec lukile pudet, sed non incidere ludum

wanton Cynara, and Lalage who miled but he knew when to leave off; and and prattled to prettily, dulce ridendem the tumult of life and enjoynient had —dulce loquentein ; then we must give not deafened his car to the gentle voice him up to the censure they would pass of his genius, of his better self, admo-,

on his philofoplay, and let hin' do nishing him to live to himself, and in

penance for his perverleness! Yet, for himself to leek that which mankind are

ihe sake of the reader who may not be seeking every where except where they sufficiently acquainted with the ancients would find it ; and then are furprized for finding the salt of this pleasantry or angry that it is not to be found.

fo fiue as in all likelihood it appeared Horace therefore, in all appearance, to Tibullus, let us be permitted to add does Tibullus too much honour, when,

a couple of words. The Epicurean in the paffage Quid dulci voveat nutr:- philosophy, which ufed the word voculu majus alumno, he puts him, as it luptuoulinels word for ever abomiwere, in his own place, nay, perhaps, nated by the Romans-to denote the already 100 mucli

, in only thinking ideal representation of that wherein him wife enongh to profit by the hint they placed the happiness of the wife, he thereby gave him. Tibullus had all had, merely on account of this word, that for which his friend esteems him

an universal prejudice against it. For, happy; only he feems not to have amidst the most profligaie corruption of been quite malier of the sapere ; and manners, the Romans would not have yet this was exactly that which could fubftantiate the rest.

* The good J. H. Meibom can contrive -Epicuri de grege porcun (5). no other way of bringing him off than by (5) What pity that Horace could reading parcum for porcum — whereby, pot foresee the perplexity into which indeed, the joke is loft, but, in his opithis paffage, after many hundred years, nion, the man's reputation is saved.



of Fisher Celin'

& Burgess Sculp

Ancient Conduit in the High Street,

Maidstone, Hent. 1780

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