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1. The Amount of the Subscription. the French and Bavarians, à Naval 2. The Form of the Memorial. Pillar, on a grund fcale, may hereafter 3. The Site on which to erect it. be raised to perpetuale the remem

And first the Amount of the Sub- brance of the four great victories oba fcription. Here, unfortunately, out tained by Lord Nellon *. hopes are disappointed, and But, with all my respect for the anwishes circumscribed. From some tients, I must confess that I prefer à cause or other it has certainly not Statue; inasmuch as it is universally adamounted to any thing like the fum miffible, and adapted to every situation. which a due sense of his merits and With the exception of the Monuservices would have led us to expect. ment in London, and of the national The difference of opinion relative to pillar at Blenheim, I know of no the form of the Monument, and to the column of any magnitude in this most eligible situation whereon to erect country; whild in most of the great it, may have operated against it. squares, and at the ends of some of the

Secondly, as to the Memorial itself. principal tireets in London, itatues I should feel very much difposed to

have been erected to the inemory of fupport the proposal for a Column, if the Great and Good. Paris was likeit could be erected in a place where it wife famous for its numerous ftatues. would harmonise with the surrounding At Copenhagen, and particularly at objects, or where it might become à Stockholm, there have been fome mark, or beacon, to our brave and noble statues erected within these few hardy tars, and a memento and terror years. At Copenhagen, in the centre to our enemies.

of the Market place, there is an equesThe Columns, or Pillars, erected at irian ftatue of Christian V. in bronze, Rome, have been much admired for placed on a pedestal of porphyry their beauty, and curious workman. There is also one of Frederick V. in fbip, but of these there are only three bronze, erected in the octagon palace remaining, viz. Trajan's Pillar, (erected at Copenhagen, in 1769. At Stockby Apollodorus), which is 144 feet holm, in the year 1790, a fine equelhigh ; and that of Antoninus, laid to trian statue of Guftavus Adolphus was be 176 feet high; on the fummits of erected in the centre of a square, called, these pillars, as it is well known, there La Place du Nord, the pedestal of were formerly colotfal statues of these which is decorated with medallions of Emperors, and on the sides were ex- his favorite Generals. pressed, in alto relievo, all their war: But that which approaches the nearest like deeds, and triumphs. These are to our purpose, and which might serve now ftanding in their spacious forums, as an example to us upon the present which answer, I believe, to our mar- occasion, if our subscription was comket places.

menfurate with our object, is the peBut these were inferior to the Columa destrian Statue of the late Guliavus na Rostrata, erected in the Capitol to (father of the present heroic King of the honour of C. Duilius Nepos, the Sweden) in bronze, which was very first Roman Consul who obiained a lately erected by the citizens of Stockvi&ory over the combined Heets of holm, in commernoration of the naval Carthage and Sicily. It is adorned victories obtained by the late King with the beaks of the fifty refrels taken over the Romans in 1790 ; and in in the engagement, and although only which actions the renowned Sir Sidney, nine feet high, it is the admiration of Sinih (the Hero of Acre) bore a very every stranger.

distinguished part. These colomns were erected at the ex. The late King Gustavus, with a. pence of the Siale; and it is not impro- mild and intrepid countenance, is rebable thati as a column one hundred and presented holding a rudder in one thirty feet high was erected in Wood- hand, and extending an olive branch stock Park, in honour of the Victories in the other. of the great Duke of Marlborough over I now come to the last, though not

* On the banks of the Rhine, in the Palatinate, there is a Column in the form o* an obelisk, in memory of the famous paffage of tiiat river by Gustavus Adolphus, ane his ariny. The French Republic erected a pillar to the memory of General Dampiere, who was killed by the English at the battle of Famars, May 3, 1793.

the

the least important confideration, viz. it is proposed to erect a Statue of the site or place on which the Me. Lord Nelson, by public subscription. morial is to be erected ; and here I

In the market-place of Norwich (the think our decision should be founded metropolis of his native country) it on the concurring practice of this and would appear to the greatest advantage, other countries. In almost every in- and be its proadelt ornament. On all fiance, we find the Monuments erecied public occasions, thousands and tens in the most frequented squares and of thousands would have an opportustreets; and ihey were not only placed wity of beholding this perfect representhere in honour of the illustrious dead, tation of their beloved HERO; among and as menorials of some signal vic- whom ihere would no doubt be many teries or events, but that they might be of those who were the companions of often seen and contemplated by those his dangers and his toils, and the partat whose expence they were erected, ners of his glory and his fame. and by succeeding generations.

Around it will all Norfolk's youth reIs that likely to be the cafe to any fort,

[breafts exteitt, if the proposed memorial he And from his memory inflame their erected at Burnham Thorpe, (an oh. To matchless valour, whilft they fing his. fcure and remote village), where only praise ! the comparatively few who reside in that neighbourhood, and fuch strangers Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 2. as may occasionally vifit that part of

TH

THE Abolition of the Slave Trade, the county, are ever likely to behold it?

if it should be happily effected, Burnham Thorpe, in being the place will do immortal honour to the Goof Lord Nelson's nativity, has become vernment. The Slave Trade is perfuficiently famous from that circın; nicious in a religious, commercial, and Nance alone ; indeed the late Admiral political view. In a religious view it has himself set an example that ap- is utterly indefensible ; for stealing pears almoli to decide this question. men, (which is practised in this trade) Although much attached to his native by the Old Testament, was

to be village, he did not in 1797, send the punished by death, and the New Teliword of the Spanilh Adiniral to the taient confirms the magnitude of the Minister and Church wardens of Burn- crime. When the Slave Trade comham. No! he sent it to the Mayor menced, in the time of Elizabeth, the of Norwich, with a letter containing Queen was deceived, by being told this remarkable expression : "In order that none of the Africans should be to its being preserved as a memento of unwillingly carried away from their the event ihe glorious victorv off Cape country. Her words upon this were St. Vincent), and of my affection for very remarkable, --" If this should my native county" By fending it to happen, it would be detestable, and Norwich, he rightly considered, that bring down the vengeance of Heaven this hard-earned trophy would be ge- upon the undertaking.” Other Sovernerally seen, and that the contempla: eigns were deceived, in its being altion of it, and the train of ideas it ledged that the Slave Trade would be would naturally excite, in ardent, pa. the means of converting the Negroes triotic, and congenial minds, might to Christianity. It was not iniltis produce the effect of simulating others

manner that ihe Apostles propagated In fature times to similar deeds 'of the Gospel. On the contrary' it can “ gallant daring." As a local memo: be proved, from indifputable evidence, rial of respect and gratitude, a fatue of that the Slave Trade flops the propagaour ever-to-be-lamented countryman tion of the Gospel in Africa. It enis, I think, in every respect to be pre- deavours to prevent the fulfilinent of ferred. If the rest of the fubscribers the Prophecy, which says, that “ Ethishould be of the fame opinion, opia thall stretch forth her hands to might be immediately announced, that God;" and the atteinpt will bring * By order of the Corporation of Nore down the thunder.

It provokes that wich, a maral Monument, of a pyra- itone (in the language of Scripture) io midical shape, was last year put up in the fall upon a man which, if i dues fali, Council Chamber of the Guildhall. The

“ will grind him to powder.". base of it is in the form of a sarcophagus;

In a commercial view, it is of exand this Sword, and the Letter open to tenlive disadvantage, in preventing that view, are preserved in a glass case therein. immense source of honourable trade

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which might be entered into with on account of the gigantic and portenAfrica for numerou's articles of great tous evil of the Slave Trade.' value (luch as gold-dust, ivory, gums, The gentlemen of Jamaica have been dying woods, grain, &c.), indepene the molt strenuous and determined dently of flaves. It is said in page 205 against the Abolition of the Slave of a very interesting work, in quarto, Trade. If the trade were continued, intituled “ Proceedings of the Asocia- it might cause the rain of their protion for promoting the Discovery of perty ; it might make Jamaica like Sr. , the interior Parts of Africa," which Domingo. It is from the newly imwas published a few years since in ported Negroes that insurrections arile; London,-“ But if on the system of they are ofien (as the celebrated Mr. the Moors (the effect of which has Pili observed) recruits for rebellion. been tried too long in he difputed for The Slave Trade (hould be abolished; its wildom), associations of Englishmen and a considerable part of the unferiled hould form caravans, and take their land in Jamaica fhould be given, in departure from the highest navigable ten or twenty acre lots; to white peon: reaches of the Gambia, or from the ple. By this a while militia inight be seulement which is lately established raised to be a counterpoile to the blacks, at Sierra Leone, there is reason to be which might not only prevent domeltic lieve that countries new to the fabrics insurrection, but repel foreign invaliona of England, and inhabited by more The people of Barbados, while the than a hundred millions of people, other lands have lately been afraid of would be gradually opened io 'ber insurreclions, have been unmoletied by trade." This will not appear to be a these apprehenfions, on account of a visionary idea, but to be founded on numerous white militia, which has the opinions of intelligent persons ac- arisen from giving ten acre lots to quainted with Africa.

white persons. In addition to this, In a political view the Slave Trade the Negroes should be placed under may be laid to be pernicious, if it is the protection of the Magistrate ; and, bad in a commercial view. This con- in time, they fhould be permitted (as clufica will be generally allowed to has been successfully practiled in fome follow from the premises. Al this of the Spanish letulements) to purtime we are particularly in want of chafe i heir freedom by degrees. It is commerce, that our finances may not reasonable to think that the freedom be impaired, and that we may raise fea- which has been gained by indufiry, men for our navy. There is no knowo will not be ufed to the disadvantage of ing how far the French may proceed the community. This would be betier in the conquest of Europe ; and it is for the blacks than the imitation of. the express determination of Buona- their brethren in St. Domingo, who parte inmediately to build a valt navy,' have cruelly murdered ihe whites, and ihat he may fubdue our favoured coun- yet have gained no freedom for them

try. Under these circumstances it felves. li is not pollible for a favage, 1. feems the part of prudence to build as illiterate Nation, to gain regular fresa

large a navy, and to raise as many fea- dom. Mr. Locke judiciously observes, men as we well can; and, perhaps, " Where there is no Law, there is no to ettablish new government docks Freedom.”. And how can a favage Na. yards. It would be better to overdo tion administer just Laws in a regular ihan underdo the maiter. And if we manner? fiod we have more vessels of war than A fyftem might be adopted, founded we want, we can sell them to ihe mer- on Justice and Benevolence (and, prochants; who will readily purchase for bably, our prelent enlightened Adminithe purposes of trade 40-gun frigales, stration may adopt such a fytiem on (which are now more required than the Aholition of the Slave Trade), that smaller frigates), or even purchase fhips would be beneficial to the negro, the of 64 or 74 guns. There is another thing planter, and the government. We of great importance to be observed upon have the Prime Minister strongly on our this head, that the Abolition of the Slave fide. And the friends of humanity Trade will strengthen the Government should fill exert their endeavours io by increasing the number of its friends, procure the Abolition of the Slave fome of whom might have hallily and Trade from every country; to place injudiciously wished for its overthrow, ile Negro under the protection of just GENT. NAG. February, 1807.

and

Feb. 7.

and well-administered laws; to open a his hearing by the Small Pox, contitrade, upon an honorable basis, with; nued deaf all his life after, and, at the to civilize and to convert Africa to the age of 25, spoke so very ill and indisChristian Faith. Our caufe is insupo" tinaly, thai he was of necessity put pressible, and, ultimately, victorious. under Braidwood's care, who found Fond, impious, Man! think't thou yon him (as he told Lord Monboddo) even

fanguine Cloud, [Orb of Day? at that advanced age almost destitute Rais'd by thy Breath, has quench'd the of ideas, and was consequently obliged To-morrow he repairs the Golden Flood, to teach him to think, as well as to And warms the Nations with redoubled ray, speak. Yours, &c. BENEVOLUS. Every person, Mr. Urban, who has

his organs in proper proportion, viz. Mr. URBAN,

tongue, lips, lower jaw, teeth, gums, TN p. 36, 1 perused a compendious palate

, uvula, and noftrils, is capable letter on the deaf and dumb. Mr. of effecling all the configurations that Butler calls the subject affecting, and I produce elementary founds. Of this think he has treated it in an'affecling truth any man may easily convince manner. To his warm panegyric on himself, by running over the Alphabet Braidwood, the founder of the first with his voice, and observing the dif. regular Academy for these children, ferent action of such organs respectively. I certainly cannot with propriety ob- A complete set of these instruments, ject ; although I deem it but right to in perfect symmetry, are almost uni. apprize him and your readers, that, versally possessed by perfonis called owing to an increase in her charges of Dumb"; fo that, as 'I observed, their late years, the advantages of Widow want of speech appears to proceed from Braidwood's Enablishment at Hackney, no other impediment, than that invecan now only be enjoyed by_the_fons

terate one, the want of hearing. In and daughters of Opulence. The Poor, his “ Dissertatio de Loquela," printed however, need not despair ; a Charity at Amsterdam, 1700, Amman poin. named the Asylum was instituted tedly observes, “ Graviffimæ huic caA. D. 1792, in the Grange-road, Ber- lamitati pro cumulo accedit, quod ommondsey, whither they are invited to

nem respuere medicinam hactenus send their deaf little ones of both unanimiter, quantum fcio, fuerit crefexes; and where, as a most striking dita, et propterea insanabilium numero example of the success attending it, adscripta ; at ego, re feriò mécum penWilliam Hunter, an ingenious young fita, mutorum plerofque, quamvis loman, himself born deaf and dumb, quelæ organa haberent fana, tales

effe, confiantly affists Watson, the master, animadveru, quod fimul et surdi essent; in infructing others.

quare surditatem quidem medelam adI have often thought, that few, if mittere, penitus defperavi, de loquelâ any, deaf children, are in reality dumb. autem plane aliter fenfi." -- "The weight Mr. Batler's communication tends to of this heavy calamity is increased, in corroborate ms opinion. Being dum)

as much as (lo far as I know) it hath I consider the necessary consequence of bikerro been universally fuppofed to being deuf; no: an independent effect, bid defiance to every remedy, and acnor owing to any sympathy between the cordingly ranked among the incurable nerves of hearing and those of the evils ; but I have thoroughly and fetongue, as Montaigne and many of rioully considered the subject, and have the Antients supposed with Platerus. observed, that the most part of those Several have remained dumb, 'who who have been dumb, alıhough they were not born deaf, but who lost their have the organs of speech perfect, were hearing in infancy, before they had such as were also deaf, wherefore, acquired speech ; for indeed we may although indeed I have altogether de. all,

' in fonie fort, be said to be born spaired of deafness receiving a remedy, dumb, i. e. fpeechless, for a time. The I have been of a very different opinion lofs of hearing also, at any age, will respecting speech.” Hence, I presume, in line fuperinduce the loss of speech, it may reafonably be inferred, that if either totally or partially. Lord Mon- any lubstitute for ihe sense of hearing boddo meniions, I remember, an in- can be adopted, the faculty, or art of stance of a child between eight and nine

communication by speech may be acyears of age, who had learned not only quired by the Deaf, although doubtto speak, but to read. This boy loit lellly with much greater difficulty than

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.by by those who are enabled by hearing to the conftruction of language, and writing. modulate their voices, in imitation of He had made a good beginning in arithothers, according to their clear per metic, and surprizing progress in the arts ception of sounds.

of drawing and painting. I found him caAbilities to reason and imitate, with pable of not only comparing ideas, and powers of imagination, constitute the drawing inferences, but expreffing his distinguishing prerogative of human

sentiments with judgment. On my definature ; unele, certainly, are not want.

ring him to attempt something he thought ing in molt persons born deaf. Nature himself unequal to, I set him the example has, also, mercifully bestowed on them by doing it myself; upon which he took

his head, and, with a smile, replied (disa partial capacity at least of attaining tinctly, viva voce) You are a man, Sir; I am knowledge,' with all the indispensible a boy. Observing that he was inclined in means of pronunciation. But, through company to converse with one of his want of perception of sounds, the Deaf schoolfellows by the tacit finger-lanare precisely in the fame ftate, with guage, I asked him, why he did not speak respect to speech, in which we may to him with his mouth? To this, his imagine those would be placed, who answer was as pertinent as it was concise ; were shut up and bred together, from He is deaf. Many other inftances I could earliest infancy, in such a manner as

mention of expreffions of the Mind, as to hear no language whatever spoken ; proper as could be made by any boy of his i. e. in other words, without fpeech.

age, who had not the disadvantage of And yet, Şir, that men who never

Deafness." heard a sound, and fill continue incu. This interesting extra&t is with me rably deaf, should themselves be ca- worth a whole volume of cool morapable of uttering articulate expressions lizing discusfions; for it appeals irre. with the greatest grammatical accuracy; fisibly to the heart. Oh! Mr. Urban, that they should be qualified to chuse if he that makes two blades of grass grow the fittelt words to convey their ideas to where only one grew before, haih mure others both in speech and written lan. merit than the whole race of Politicians, guage; that they should be so intimately what fuperior credit and dilinguishing acquainted with the various positions honours are due to the successful cultiof the organs of speech, as to know vator of those grounds of human reawhat is spoken by another, only by son, which would otherwife have been looking iteadily ai the fpeaker's coun- an unproductive, barren, and dreary tenance.---This, Mr. Urban, is a fact wilderness ! so stupendous, that reiterated personal I am truly concerned to state, that, observation alone could have convinced at the last election of deaf children into ime of its actual existence.

the ASYLUM, upwards of 50 wretched Unhappily, the unthinking genera- candidates for protection were unsuclity of the world are too apt to com- cessful. Yours, &c.

MEDICUS. bine the idea of Idiotism with that of the pitiable condition of the Deaf; Mr. URBAN, Newcastle, Feb. 7. whereas, in truth, the scale of intelJectual comprehensions or understan- IN p. 39, are fome remarks on the

town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, dings is variously graduated in them as written on “ A Tour through the in other persons : indeed, many of the Northern Parts of England." Though Deaf pollessa quickness of apprehension, they are, I confess, fome of them but and a scope of imagination and sagacity, too true, yet, I think, your Correfponabove the common standard of their dent rather severe, and has not given fellow-creatures who hear well.

that impartial account of the place we With your permission, Sir, I shall hould 'expect in a publiç communiconclude ihis very hally letter with an cation of that fort. I do not mean to extract from Green's • Vox Oculis defend the conduct of the police of subjecta, 1783.” That gentleman's Newcattle-upon-Tyne, in fuffering fon, ii seems, was either born deaf, or erery inhabitant to clean out their had lost his hearing by lickness in early necessary houses, stables, &c. and lay infancy; and was placed by his an, their contents in the middle of the xious parent at Braidwood's academy, street at any period of the day they in 1780.

please. Every one, Sir, mult condemn On my next visit in September 1782, such a horrid, filihy practice, not says Green, “his (the boy'3) improve-' only as injurious to ihe health of the ments were very perceptible, in speech, town, bat, also, a great nuisance;

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