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may be neceffary to say something of a tween the two writers, which the French work, whose very exiftence might be critics have instituted, and from which doubted, were it not recorded by the they have decided in favour of Avellaneda, rival pen of Cervantes. That it thould that the fuperiority of Cervantes will aphave continued in filence and oblivion du- pear. The language of Sancho, they say, ring the lapse of near two centuries, can is better adapted to the person of an igno-be attributed only to the supposed fidelity rant countryman; yet this, I apprehend, of the French translation ; or that the is no recommendation; and, however the fuperior me of the original Don Quix- Spanish courtiers of those days might be ote was so evident, that to enter the lifts amused with his fimplicities, as the auwith its author was an undertaking nearly thor tłyles them, I much doubt whether as romantic as any ascribed to the hero of they would afford equal entertainment at, the tale. Anxious to see that in the ori. this time. The Sancho of Cervantes has ginal, of which I had met with no tranf- undoubtedly much more wit, and perhaps lation but through the medium of the less of nature, than his competitor. But + French language, I procured, by the let it be remembered, that imitations of kind intervention of a friend, the work. Nature, to produce delight, should not of Avellaneda from Spain. I at first be too close ; for what shall we fay of amused myself with translating detached that man who could prefer the waxen paffages ; but afterward, finding it to be exhibitions at a country wake to the nearly as different from tlie French tranf- Venus de Medici, or the Apollo Belvilation as from the continuation by Cer- dere? Yet the former have been mir. vantes, I extended my plan; and, having taken for real personages, the latter never. completed my task, have been induced to Between the works of Nature and of Art present it to the publick, from the consi- a strong line of discrimination should be deration of its being the only genuine re- drawn; and each is most perfect, when presentation of the original in the English resembling, but incapable of being conlanguage. Although it is not my inten- founded with, the productions of its rition to enter into minute criticism, it val. In dramatic scenery, every one may not be improper to offer a few words knows that the characters require heighton the merit of my author. After suchening beyond the bounds of common numerous teftimonies of approbation, life ; and the fools of Shakspeare would which, as a corroborating mark of au- be much more disgufting, were their lanthenticity, I have been induced to pre- guage and conversation that of boorish ig. serve; little perhaps will be expected norance, or illiberal rudeness. Yet Avel.. from me but accumulation of praise, and laneda has scarcely allowed common sense diversification of panegyric: yet I am not to his Sancho; for where is the man, prepared to fubfcribe implicitly cither to with the least shadow of reason, who the opinions of the Spanish licencers, or could talk of writing loud to a deaf perthe fentiments of the French critics. I fon? The moft ftupid cannot miftake in can neither see the great superiority of this a matter of that kind, or apply an object author over Cervantes, nor compromise of fight, even in imagination, to the organ their merits, by allowing the praise of in- of hearing. Against the Hero himself vention to the one, and the glory of com- nearly the fame objection may be urged. pletion to the other. In every point of I behold him degraded below his original view, I behold Cervantes unrivalled; but character-he has no lucid interval, as in though I join cordially with that great Cervantes, beaming with deep sense, and man, in his reprobation of the malevolent boundlets knowledge. In vain shall we scurrility of Avellaneda's Preface, I con- look for those disquisitions, which the fefs, that some of his objections to the imagination of Cervantes was capable of Aragonian appear to me fo weak, as al conceiving; in vain shall we look for those moft to give the victory to his competitor. nice shades of character, which even in That he calls the wife of Sancho Panza his madness difcriminate our hero from Mary Gutierrez, would be a trifling fault, the unhappy maniacs which, nature proeven if Cervantes himself had not let him duces. It was reserved perhaps for Shakthe example; that he writes in the dialect speare and Cervantes to depict lunacy in a of Aragon, though an objection that has form neither unnatural nor disgusting, its weight with a Spaniard, is, as the where the intellect shall be strong, and French critics observe, of no consequence unclouded, except on the particular fuh when translated into any other language; ject of the disease ; and where the replies and the circumstance of making Don thall be pregnant with good sense, even Quixote renounce his attachment

in the paroxysms of madness. But, when Dulcinea, though perhaps reprehenfible ! 'thus acknowledge the inferiority of Avel. in the conduct of the story, is yet venial, laneda, let it not be imagined that he pofa if the spirit of it be preserved in other re- feffes no merit, because his rival enjoys to fpeéts. It is from the comparison be- large a portion, I had merely faid thus

much,

to

inuch, that the reader may not raise his Yardley, esq. *; a copy, of which, inideas too high, in expecting a work equal ferted in the Novelists' Magazine for to that of Cervantes, or form of the trans- 1781, was sent to the translator ; and lator an opinion too low, in fuppofing be was partly the occasion of his offering entertained such sentiments. What the this to the publick, translated from the. merit of Avellaneda is, must be left to the Spanish." judgment of each person to appreciate.' To authenticate the Work, are preWith me, I confess, he does not rank high; fixed the original “Dedication to the and I should be inclined to aflign bim a place among those authors, who (to use the poble Town of Argamasilla in

Alcade Magisirales and Gentlemen of the words of Horace) arc “ Extremi pris la Mancha, the huppy Country of the inorum, extremis usque priores." In my translation I have chiefly studied fidelity renowned Knight Don Quixote, Luand correctness. Having no predeceffor minary of the Professurs of Knightof whole labours I could avail myself, I erranirv ;'--the several original licences was not willing to facrifice much to the anil approbations to the first edition in graces of style; and was rather anxious 1614 ; which in 1731 were renewed, to represent my author as he is, than at- by Don Auzilın de Montiano y Luytempt in any inftance to insert beauties ando, in which he says, which he does not poffefs, or conceal “I have reviewed ihe second part of faults which he may have committed. Don Quixote, written by the licentiate. On this account, I have preserved foine Alonzo Fernández de Avellaneda. The passages which I at firft thought of pals. opportunity of reading it (which has been ing over as tedious; and have omitted my earnest wish for many years) has afnothing but a few trifling paragraphs, forded me great pleasure; as I had discowhich the refinement of this age, and vered in the Don Quixote of Cervantes the delicacy of this nation, would ill en- some levere ftriétures on this, with the dure. Of the poetical parts I am not folidity of which I was not satisfied: I anxious to claim the merit, nor am I was the more anxious to meet with the willing to incur the cenfure; they were'' original, in order to be convinced whe-, supplied at my request by a friend, whose ther there was cause l'ufficient to justify readiness of compliance he will permit'me them,

It happened otherwise; and I thus publicly to acknowledge. That the trust no judicious man will decide in faadept in Spanish literature, however, '

may vour of the atiertions of Cervantes, when not suffer from this circumstance, the ori- he compares the two second parts; for ginal pieces are fubjoined at the end of the adventures of this Don Quixote are the volumes. Notwithstanding more than more natural, and adhere to the striet one careful revision of this translation, I rule of probability. The same character am conscious that it is not without de- that shews itself in his first rally, is lurfects; but, when it is contidered that I tained sometimes with less extravagance, have supplied that which no one has hi confequently with more resemblances therto undertaken, I hope I may escape and in what relates to Sancho, who will blame, if I do not deserve praise. A fu- say that the droll rufticity of a villager is ture translator may express himself with not more closely imitated in this of Avela more vigour of language, "more grace of lanedia?' It appears to me difficult to re-, di&tion, or greater harmony of perio? ; concile the extreme fimplicity, fometimes but he will not, I trust, find many par- discovered by the Sancho ot Cervantes, fayes where I hve miitaken the mean- with the delicate archness he makes ule ins, or misreprefented the sente of the ori- of at others, and the peculiar discretion ginal. If it be observed that I have done that he evinces in many cases; to that little, let it be remembered, thai, in a we cannot help feeling that Sancho speaks situation where most men have contented and acts like the anthor, instead of speakthemfelves with doing noihing, I have ing and acting like himself. On the conperformed some service, however small, trary, his character in Avellaneda never to the literary world; and, to use the varies from the specimen he gives us at words of Pliny, it must be a very bad the commencement, nor does he go bebook indeed that does not contai.. fome- yond himself in actions, words, or juilg. thing good. The work of Le Sage was ment, so far as to make us forget him ; translated by Capt. Steevens carly in the his wit has relish; he is neither so dul), 18th ceniny; and a Mr. Baker copied Capt. Steevens, and published his book in * The above-mentioned translations 1750; and the fame was re-printed in were mere copies of tfiat by Capt. Stec1700. These circunstances are vons; the language in some few instances rioned in a Poflícript to another trant, oly being adapted to the time in which lation from the French by W. ALSrius the respective publications took place.

men

nos

for so devoid of humour, as Cervantes cited in the public mind an ardent defire would have us think: and I believe, that to know what, after fo many changes, is in this instance he gave way to that diss now the religious code among the mass of pleasure which his better judgment would the French people. The dominion of the have corrected, had he written without priefts was for years rejected: even Chrif., the prejudice which the offence com- tianity itself was supposed to be thrown mitted againft him excited, and unfup- ' away; and infidelity and atheism were ported by the boundless applauses which faid to reign. By intelligent minds it was he lo deservedly received from ours, as always perceived, that ruch a state of well as foreign nations. Few men, when things could not long continue; but that irritated from diminished favour and pa, into one form or another of the Chriftian tronage, know how to keep their tem- religion they would ere long subside. This per; and it is not therefore to be won- has actually taken place; and a large pros dered at, if the brilliant understanding of portion of the people have returned again Cervantes were clouded on a subject he into the bofom of their old mother, the thought contrary, in every refpeét, to his Church of Rome. Of this communion own intereft.”

the Emperor professes himself to be *; This is followed by the Licence of and, being full of projects on all kinds of the Ordinary, Don Miguel Gomez ile things, he is determined to have "uniElcobar; the Approbation of the Li- in his dominions. For this purpose he

formity in the Roman Catholic Church cenijate Don Francisco Domingo, &c.; has appointed the Ciergy to draw up this the King's Licence, dated 1730; and an

Catechism; the Doctrinal part of which ample Criticism on La Sage's French (Mr. B. fays) is as little exceptionable translation, by the Authors of the “ Jour

as any. The reader will here find the nal des Scavans," published in 1704. mere facts recorded in the Sacred Scríp

In one of the pleasing little novels tures, and the general principles of Chrirwith which the rival works abound, tianity arising out of them, and depending we meet with a word in ihe new travf- upon them.”—“In the specification of Jation, which (in the sense there uten) moral obligations, the Catechilm presents we have never before observed in print. to the reader many branches of Chriftian A Spanish nobleman, returning home duty with great fairness and precision. after a shori absence, found his lady in This indeed is what we might reasonably confinement. · In our younger days, on

expect ; for so clear and reasonable are the authority of Bailey and of John the duties which the word of God inculfon, we should have considered this to

cates, that persons can hardly miss them, have been an imprisonment, and have them to view. But there is at the same

when it is really their purpose to exhibit imagined that the heroine had, hy foole time a great defect ; the duties are all on enchanter or fell giant, been lecured in

one side. It may be considered as among a dismal dungeon. But the context the strong internal evidences of the divine relieves us from this embarraflieni, by origin of the New Testament, that relative the information that her confinerneut duties are all' ftated with perfe&t fairness was merely the result of an increase in and impartiality. Parents and children, the nobleman's family. The ute of masters and servants, rulers and subjects, the word, however, in this ambiguous are equally taught what they ought to be, fense, we are aware, is jnftified by mo- and what they ought to do. Here, on the dlern refinement, and Thail only ob- contrary, we meet with but one fide. ferve, that the story in which it here

What inferiors owe to their superiors is occurs is one which must harrow up but what fuperiors owe to their inferiors

minutely detailed, and sternly enjoined ; every tender emotion of the heart,

will be fought for in vain : not a word on

the subject is to be found.” 27. A Catechism for the Use of all the

Churches in the French Enpire ; to which ure prefixed the Pope's Bull, and who left Paris a few weeks fînce, writes

* A Clergyman of a neutral 'nation, the Archbishop's Nandamus. Translated

thus to a correspondent in England: “The from the Original, with an Introduction

Emperor's chapel at St. Cloud is remarkand Notes, by David Bogue.

ably plain and decent. If I recollect " THE astonishing events which, du- right, except a small silver crucifix on ring the last 17 years, have taken place in the altar, there is not an image, a cross, France, have turned the eyes of every or a painting in it. Buonaparte, however man of reflection to that country of won- deftitute of real religion he may be thought ders. As the infuence of religion on the to be, regularly attends at his private chamanners and deftinies of a people muft pel in the Thuilleries, and St. Cloud, on be universally acknowledged, there is ex. a Sunday morning, with his family."

Thus

Thus far from the Translator's In- “ A. Yes, undoubtedly; for we read troduction; and the following quotation in sacred Scripture that God, the Lord of will serve to illuftrate his last remark: heaven and earth, by a disposition of his

“Q. What are the duties of Chriftians fupreme will, and by his providence, in regard to the Princes who govern gives empires not only to a person in parthem; and, in particular, what are our

ticular, but also to his family;" duties towards Napoleon the Firft, our The Introduction thus proceeds: Emperor ?

“ Worthip forms a third division of the “ A. Christians owe to the Princes who Catechism, and occupies a much larger govern them, and we owe in particular to space than both the others. Concerning Napoleon the First, our Emperor, love, prayer, some good ideas are to be found, respect, obedience, fidelity, military fer- and some pious remarks concerning the rice, and the tributes ordained for the Lord's Supper; but here the portion of prefervation and the defence of the Em- exceptionable matter is far greater than pire and of his Throne; besides, we owe under the former heads." him fervent prayers for his safety, and for

After clearly pointing out these er. the temporal and spiritual profperity of

rors, and ably combating them, Mr. the State.

“.Q. Why are we bound to all these Bogue obferves : duties towards our Emperor ?

“If we may judge from this specimen, “4.. First, becaufGod, who creates the Romifh religion in France is nearly empires, and who diftributes them ac

the same as it was before the Revolution. cording to his will, in loading our Em- Much of its pomp and splendour it has peror with favours, whether in peace or

loft : its immense endowments and its war, has established him our Sovereign, princely revenues are all gone; but its has made him the minister of his power, spirit and its pretensions are still the same. and his image on earth. To honour and The beast, a non delcript, has loft its ferve our Emperor is therefore to honour fleekness and its corpulence, its fat and and serve God himself. Secondly, be- its fize; scarcely any thing remains but cause our Lord Jesus Christ, as well by his fkin and bones, and it is chained: but it doctrine as by his example, has himself growls as ' loud as it did before ; and it taught us what we owe to our Sovereign. barks as fiercely as in the days of old, at He was born under obedience to the de- those who refuse to throw it a fop. Not cree of Cæfar Auguftus; he paid the tri- one doctrine to which Proteftants obbute prescribed; and, in the same manner jected, is laid afide ; not one opinion as he has commanded to render to God which was abhorred as antichriftian, is what belongs to God, he has also com- lopped off.” manded to render to Cæfar what belongs to Cæfar.

28. Festuca Grammatica; the Child's Guide " Q. Are there not particular motives to fome Principles of the Latin Gramwhich ought to attach us more strongly to mar, in which the original and naturai Napoleon the First, our Emperor ?

Delineation of the Perl is reflored ; and "A. Yes; for he it is whom God has the Government of Nouns is reduced, ly raised up, in difficult circumstances, to Means of the English Particles, to her re-establish the public worship of our fa- certain Ruies most easy to le comprethers' holy religion, and to be the pro- honded by Children ; with a Phraleolotector of it. He has restored and pre- gicon of the regular Latin Syntax, Mewferved public order by his profound and ing its very extensive Analogy with the active wisdom; Ke defends the State by English to be a true and mofi ready Mehis powerful arm, and is become the dium, through which to initiate a young anointed of the Lord by the confecration English Scholar in the Latin Tongue. which he has received from the chief Pon- By the Rev. Richard Lyne, Author of tiff, head of the universal Church,

the Latin Primer. “Q. What are we to think of those

" THE design of this book may be soon who should fail in their duty towards the and easily accomplished. Its design is to Emperor ?

inform the minds of children with a know"A. According to St. Paul the Apoftle, ledge of some principles of the Latin Gramthey would refift the order eftablished by mar; and for this I have here comprised God himself, and would render themielves and compreffed, as plainly as I could, all worthy of eternal damnation.

that, after five and twenty years' expe= “ Q. Are the duties by which we are rience of teaching, I believed to be nebound towards our Emperor equally bind- ceflary, as a first step. After this, and ing towards his legitimate succeffors, ac- again after a like step in the Greek, I cording to the order eftablished by the most earnestly recommend Nugent's EnConftitution of the Empire ?

glish Translations of the Post Royal Gram

mars,

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mars, the Latin and the Greek, as being to be feared was abandoned by the old on the whole, so far as I am informed, Governnient when that unfortunate fuperlatively the best books on their fub- country was lately evacuated. jects, that this or any age was ever bleffed Mr. Park, the editor of Harington's with, Bleffings they are, fo far as a know- Nugæ Antiquæ, has long been prepaledge of the most generally useful lan ring an extended edition of Lord Orguages, and those inost important records, ford's Royal and Noble Authors, which sacred and prophane, which they contain,

we find is now on the eve of publicamay be efteemed to.

And a very serious misfortune it is to Greek and Latin litera- tion. Its appearance has been delayed ture, that these two Grammars are not

in contequence of the numerous enread classically in all our Grammar-schools; graved portraits which are to accomthat ever a ftudent should go to the Uni- pany it. These consist of the principal verfity, and much more that he should personages introduced, which Mr. P. quit it again, without being well verled we understand, has greatly augmented; in them.”_" By availing each of their and at the same time has enlarged upon native tongue as a vehicle to the Latin, Lord Orford's plan, by exhibiting ipePriscian taught Latin to the Greeks, and cimens of their literary productions. Alvarus to the Italians. And though we This has expanded the work to five have never proceeded Systematically upon volumes odavo. this plan of common sense with our children, yet that we should do so, may ap- INDEX INDICATORIUS. pear, not only from the extraordinary ap- AN OCCASIONAL CORRESPONDENT titude of our Particles to the Latin govern- afks, “ Was Sir Thomas Whyte, founder ments, after whatever part of speech, but of St. John's college, Oxford, brother of more efpecially from this, that, whether John Whyte, Bp. of Winchester 1557 ?" we will deign professedly to teach them To the abuses noticed in vol. LXXVI. through the medium of our Particles or

p. 1016, a very old Subscriber adds one no, it is actually through that we do teach which he confiders moft Aagrant, and them." Preface.

which he submits to the attention of that

Prelate in whole diocese it to frequently LITERARY INTELLIGENCE

occurs; the letting out of Church-vaults

as “ Wine, Rum, and Brandy vaults!" The Publick will learn with concern thus converting “ the House of God into that no progress has yet been made in a den of thieves." the unrolling of the fix Herculaneum A Gravesend Correspondent may confiMSS. which were presented by the dently rely on the accuracy of our copy of King of Naples to his Royal Highnels the Roman Inscription at the London the Prince of Wales, about two years

Coffee-house, when he recollects that it ago. A corner only of one of The rolls

was drawn by Carter, and engraved by

Bafire. His offer of some coins found at was unfolded ; and the whole was afserwards fubmitted to the action of frequently picked up numbers on the spot,

Reculver is very kind. We have ourselves Ream, under the direction of an emi. but never one of any value. nent chenilt, but wiihout tlie delired

A Tradesman may inform his children, effect. Instead of feeding and giving that the goodly Personages after whom he pliability and consistency to the tinder, enquires are all Saints in the Romith it has more firinly united the niass, Church, on whose anniversaries rent-days and in a great measure obliterated the and other bargains were formerly fixed. writing. The ill succels of this expe- A Correspondent who favoured us with riment has discouraged farther attempts a Letter on Paper-money is requefted to on the other five rolls. It will be re- send another copy of his communication, collected, that at the fame time the it being mislaid. King of Naples presented these rolls to We are obliged to PHILEMON for his the Prince of Wales, an equal number second candid letter, and have accordingly was sent to the National Institute of destroyed both. France. As we have heard nothing of cond Letter is returned to the Poft-office.

SKEPTikos is not worth using. His fethe progres made in unrolling thein,

The authentic Memoirs of Lieutenant, we are to suppose that the French have general Simcoe (vol. LXXVI. p. 1103) had uo better fuccess than ourlelves.

will speedily be resumed. The lovers of literature are naturally KING's Norton in our next; with our

anxious to hear of the lieps which will bent thanks for the hint which the descrip: be taken by the new French Govern- tion of it conveyed. The Memoirs of Dr. ment at Naples relative to the entire li- Short; Mr. Lc Mesurier ; &c. &c. Mall brary of thele curiosities, which it is also then appeas.

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