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concluded in a manner equally extraordinary. The king drew a book of psalms from his pocket, and, taking off his crown, began to fing Te Dcum, in which he was joined by the assembly. He afterwards gave them to understand that he intended in fix years' time again to convene an affembly of the states. Thus was this great revolution completed without any bloodshed, in which the Swedes surrendered that constitution which their forefathers had bequeathed to them after the death of Charles the Twelfth, as a bulwark against any despotic attempts of their future monarchs.

The exorbitant power which Gustavus the Third had thus affumed, he exercised with some degree of moderation ; and at an assembly of the states in 1786, after many points were referred to them by the king, and debated with great freedom, he dismissed them with condescension and gentleness, at the same time remitting a tenth part of the subsidy which they had granted him.

On the 12th of July, 1788, hoftilities commenced on the frontiers of Finland, between a body of Russian light troops, and a detachment of the Swedes posted on the bridge of Pomalasund. After various engagements both by land and fea, in which Guftavus displayed the greatest abilities, an agreement for establishing an everlasting peace, and fixing the frontiers of Russia as they were before the war broke out, was figned at Werela, OR the river Kymene, between the plenipotentiaries of the empress of Ruffia and the king of Sweden.

A diet fummoned by the king to meet at Geffié, a folitary place on the Bothnic Gulf, near seventy miles from Stockholm, excited much attention. Some imagined that the diet might affert the national freedom against a despotic monarch; but Guftavus had guarded againft any such design, by his choice of the spot, and surrounding it with his mercenary troops. He found some difficulty in gaining his only intention, that of raising money, and was obliged to be satisfied with a part of his demand.

The diet being dissolved, the king returned to Stockholm, where, at a masquerade in the opera-house, on the night of the 16th of March, 1792, he was shot with a pistol by an assassin, named Ankerstroem, in confequence of a conspiracy among some of the discontented nobles; and having furvived in great pain till the 29th of that month, he expired in the forty-fifth year of his age.

The reflexion of dying inglorioully by the hand of a vile affaslin is said to have embittered the last moments of the king's life much more than even the agonifing pain of his wounds. He showed the same noble and brave spirit on his death-bed as he had done before his enemies during his life-time. He retained all his mental faculties to the last, which enabled him so well to arrange the future government of his country.

The wounds at first indicated the most promising appearance of recovery, and the Ņugs were all extracted: but some rulty pieces of iron bad penetrated so far into the body as to render any lurgical operation immediate death. The presence of mind thown by Gustavus during his illness was very great. While he waited for the arrival of his surgeons in an apartment adjoining to the saloon of the opera-house, leveral of the foreign minifters presented themselves, to whom he said, “I have

given orders, gentlemen, that the gates of the city shall be shut. " You will therefore not take it ill, if you should be unable to send cou" riers to your courts until after three days. Your advices will then be “ more certain, since it will be probably known whether I can survive " or not." His conversation then related to the effects which the acci.

dent might produce in Europe: and the love of fame, which was always his predominant paffion, was perceptible in his remarks.

Finding that he was not likely to survive, he settled all his affairs with the greateft composure imaginable. He sent for his son the prince-royal, and addreffed a .peech to him on the nature of good government, in a manner fo truly affecting, that all who were present shed tears. At eight o'clock, on the morning of his death, he received the facrament. The queen had taken leave of him the evening before; and at half past ten he died in great agonies.

The prince-royal, being fourteen years of age, was immediately proclaimed king, by the name of Gustavus Adolphus : and the duke of Sudermania, his uncle, and brother to the late king, in compliance with his majesty's will, was declared sole regent, and guardian of the young lovereign, till he should attain his majority, which was fixed at the age of eighteen. We have only to add, that the prudence and conciliatory mea. sures of the regent have established the tranquillity of this kingdom beyond expectation.

Guftavus Adolphus IV. the prefent king of Sweden, was born Nov. 1, 1778 ; and succeeded his father Guftavus III. March 29, 1792.

Guftavus III. the late king, was born Jan. 24, 1746; married O&t. 17, 1766, to the princess-royal of Denmark, by whom he had iffue Guftavus Adulphus, the present king.

Brothers and lifters to the late king :
1. Charles, duke of Sudermania, born O&t. 7, 1748.
2. Frederic Adolphus, duke of Weft-Gothland, born July 18, 1750.
3. Sophia Albertina, abbess of Quedlingburg, born in O&. 1753.

MUSCOVY, or the RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN

EUROPE AND ASIA.

SITUATION AND EXTENT OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN EUROPE.

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{

Miles.

Degrees.
Length 1500

23 and 65 East longitude.
Breadth 1100

between

47 and 72 North latitude. Ruflia in Europe contains 1,194,976 square miles, with 17 inhabitants

to each, DivisioNS AND

ACCORDING to the most authentic accounts

} NAMES. of this mighty empire it confifts of forty-two provinces, or governments; besides part of Carelia, Esthonia, Ingria, Livonia, and part of Finland, which were conquered from Sweden; the Crimea, or Crim Tartary, anciently the Taurica Cherfonetus, a peninfula in the Euxine Sea, subject to the Turks formerly, but added in the year 1783 to the Russian empire, with the isle of Taman, and part of Cuban *; also the duchy of Courland, and a great part of Lithuania in Poland, together with another large portion of the latter country, united to the Rullian empire, in consequence of a second

• The Rulians are supposed to have gi ined above a million of subje&o by this ceffion.

partition of Poland in the year 1793 ; confifting of all that tract of land with its inhabitants, which is contained within a line beginning at the village of Drury, on the left bank of the river Dwina, and thence ex tending to Neroch and Dubrova, passing Kunish, near the frontier ol Gallicia, proceeding thence to the river Dniester, and lastly running along that river till it enters the old border of Ruffia and Poland at Jegertic.

The following table will give some idea of the Ruffian empire properly so called, or Russia in Europe, with its acquisitions from Sweden in the present century; and also of the Ruflian empire in its most extenfive sense ; for we must also include all the acquisitions in Tartary, now known by the name of Siberia ; the whole comprehending the northern parts of Europe and Asia, stretching from the Baltic and Sweden on the West, to Kamtíchatka and the Eattern Ocean; and on the north, from the Frozen Ocean to the forty-seventh degree of latitude, where it is bounded by Poland, Little Tartary, Turkey, Georgia, the Euxine and Caspian Seas, Great Tartary, Chinese Tartary, and other unknown regions in Asia.

The country now comprised under the name of Russia, or the Rullas, is of an extent nearly equal to all the rest of Europe, and greater than the Roman empire in the zenith of its power, or the empire of Darius subdued by Alexander, or both put together, as may be seen by turning to the table, p. 27

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· Ruflia takes its name from the Rusli, or Borasli, a Sclavonic tribe. The word Muscovy is derived from the river Mosca, on which the ancient capital Moscow stands. The country, according to its situation and climate, is divided into the northern, middle, and southern regions ; which are again divided into governments, named after those towns in which courts of judicature are established. The northern division contains the governments of St. Petersburg, Archangel, Olonetz, Vybourg, Revel, Riga, Pícov, Tver Novgorod, Vologda, Yarostavi Koftroma, Viatka, Perme, Tobolsk. The middle division contains the governments of Moscov, or Moscow, generally called Mofqua by the Ruflians, Smolensk, Polotik, Mooghilev, Ťchermigow, Novgorod, and Sieverskoy, Kharkov, Kourk, Orel, Kalouz, Toola, Riazane, Vladimer, Nezney-Novgorod, Kazane, Sinbersk, Penza, Tambov, Voronez, Saralov, Oufa, Kolkvane, Irkoutk. The southern division contains the governments of Kiev, Ecatherinof av, Caucasus, the province of Taurida, and the habitations of the Don Kozacks *. CLIMATE, SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, VEGE- In the southern parts of

TABLES, MINES, AND MINERALS. Russia, or Muscovy, the longest day does not exceed fifteen hours and a half; whereas, in the most northern, the sun is seen in summer two months above the horizon. Hence there is in Muscovy a vast diversity both of soil and climate.

The severity of the climate, in Russia properly so called, is very great. Dr. John Glen King, who resided eleven years in Russia, observes, that the cold in St. Petersburg, by Fahrenheit's scale, is, during the months of December, January, and February, usually from 8 to 15 or 20 degrees below 0; that is, from 40 to 52 degrees below the freezing-point; though commonly, in the course of the winter, it is for a week or ten days fome degrees lower. The same writer remarks, that it is very difficult for an inhabitant of our temperate climate to have any idea of a cold so great. It is such, that, when a person walks out in that fevere weather, the cold makes the eyes water, and that water freezing, hangs in little icicles on the eye-lashes. As the common peasants usually wear their beards, you may see them hanging at the chin like-a folid lump of ice. The beard is therefore found very useful in protecting the glands of the throat: and the soldiers, who do not wear their beards, are obliged to tie a handkerchief under the chin to supply their place. All the parts of the face, which are exposed, are very liable to be frozen : though it has often been observed, that the person himself does not know when the freezing begins, but is commonly told of it first by those who meet him, and who call out to him to rub his face with Inow, the usual method to thaw it. It is also remarked that the part which has once been frozen is ever after most liable to be frozen again. In fome very levere winters, sparrows, though a hardy species of birds, have been seen quite numbed by the intense cold, and unable to fly: and drivers, when fitting on their loaded carriages, have sometimes been found frozen to death in that posture. When the thermometer has stood at 25 degrees below o, boiling water thrown up into the air by an engine, so as to spread, has fallen down perfectly dry, formed into ice. A pint bottle of common water was found by Dr. King frozen into a solid piece of ice in an hour and a quarter, A bottle of strong

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• In this table, which is copied from the authentic work of captain Pleschief, the spelling of the Ruffian names is adapied to the English pronunciation, by his accurute tranfator Mr. Savisnove, chaplain to the Russian legation at the court of Great Britain.

ale has also been frozen in an hour and a half; but in this fubftance there was about a tea-cupful in the middle unfrozen, which was as strong and inflammable as brandy and spirits of wine. But, notwithstanding the severity of the cold in Russia, the inhabitants have such various means and provisions to guard against it, that they suffer much less from it than might be expected. The houses of persons in tolos. able circumstances are so well prote&ted, both without doors and with in, that they are seldom heard to complain of cold. The method of warming the houses in Ruffia is by an oven conftructed with several flues; and the country abounds with wood, which is the common fuel. These ovens consume a much smaller quantity of wood than might be imagined; and yet they serve at the same time for the ordinary people to dress their food. They put a very moderate faggot into them, and suffer it to burn only till the thickest black smoke is evaporated; they then shut down the chimney. to retain all the rest of the heat in the chamber; by this method the chamber keeps its heat twenty-four hours, and is commonly so warm that they fit with very little covering, especially children, who are usually in their shirts. The windows in the buts of the poor are very small, that as little cold may be admitted as possible : in the houses of persons of condition, the windows are caulked up againft winter, and commonly have double glass-frames. In short, they can regulate the warmth in their apartments by a thermometer with great exactness, opening or shutting the flues to increase or diminish the heat. When the Russians go out, they are clothed so warmly, that they almost bid defiance to frost and snow; and it is observable that the wind is seldom violent in the winter ; but when there is much wind, the cold is exceedingly piercing.

One advantage which the Russians derive from the severity of their climate, is the preserving of provisions by the frost. Good housewives, as soon as the froft sets in for the winter, about the end of O&tober, kill their poultry, and keep them in tubs packed up with a layer of snow between them, and then take them out for use as occasion requires : by which means they save the nourishment of the animal for several months. Veal frozen at Archangel, and brought to Petersburg, is esteemed the finest they have; nor can it be distinguished from what is fresh killed, being equally juicy. The markets in Petersburg are by this means fupplied in winter with all manner of provisions, at a cheaper rate than would otherwise be possible; and it is not a little curious to see the vast stacks of whole hogs, sheep, fith, and other animals, which are piled up in the markets for sale. The method of thawing frozen provisions in Ruffia is by immerging them in cold water; for when the operation of thawing them is effected by heat, it seems to occasion a violent fermentation, and almost a sudden putrefaction : but when produced by cold water, the ice seems to be attracted out of the body, and forms a transparent incrustation round it. If a cabbage, which is thoroughly frozen, be thawed by cold water, it is as fresh as if just gathered out of the garden ; but if it be thawed by fire of hot water, it becomes fo rancid and strong that it cannot be eaten.

The quickness of vegetation in Ruila is pretty much the fame as has been described in Scandinavia, or Sweden and Denmark. The Inow is the natural manure of Russia, where grain grows in plenty, near Poland, and in the warmer provinces. The bulk of the people, however, are miserably fed; the foil produces a vast number of mufhrooms for their subsistence; and in some places, besides oaks and tiss, Rullia yields rhubarb, fax, hemp, pasture for cattle, wax, honey, rice, and

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