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were originally Polish peasants, and served in the Ukraine, as a militia against the Tartars. Being oppressed by their unfeeling lords, a part of them moved to the uncultivated banks of the Don or Tanaïs, and there established a colony. They were soon after joined, in 1637, by two other detachments of their countrymen ; and they reduced Asoph, which they were obliged to abandon to the Turks, after laying it in alhes. They next put themselves under the protection of the Rullians, built Circalka, on an island in the Don ; and their poffeffions, which consisted of thirtynine towns on toth sides that river, reached from Ribna to Afoph. They cultivated the country, but were so wedded to their original customs, that they were little better than nominal subjects to the czars, till the time of Peter the Great. They profefled the Greek religion ; their inclinations were warlike, and they occasionally served against the Tartars and Turks on the Palus Mæotis.
The character of the Tartars, of Kasan may serve for that of all the Mahometan Tartars in their neighbourhood. Very few of them are tall; but they are generally straight and well made, have small faces, with fresh complexions, and a sprightly and agreeable air. They are haughty and jealous of their honour, but of very moderate capacity. They are sober and frugal, dexterous at mechanical trades, and fond of neatness. The Tartarian women are of a wholesome complexion rather than handsome, and of a good confiitution : from their earliest in fancy they are accustomed to labour, retirement, modesty, and submiffion. The Tartars of Kafan take great care of the education of their children. They habituate their youth to labour, to fobriety, and to a strict observance of the manners of their ancestors. They are taught to read and write, and are instructed in the Arabic tongue, and the principles of their religion. Even the smallest village has its chapel, school, priest, and 1chool-master; though some of these prietis and school-mafiers are not much skilled in the Arabic language. The best Tartarian academies in the Ruflian empire are those of Kalan, Tobolsk, and Attracan, which are under the direction of the gagouns, or high-prietis. It is not uncommon to find small collections of historical anecdotes in manufcript, in the huts of the boors : and their merchants, besides what those little libraries contain, are pretty extensively acquainted with the history of their own people, and that of the circumjacent ftates, with the antiquities of each. Such as choose to make a progress in theology enter themselves into the schools of Bougharia, which are more complete than the others.
The Tartar citizens of Kasan, Orenberg, and other governments, carry on commerce, exercise several trades, and have some manufaćtories. Their manner of dealing is chiefly by way of harter; coin is very rarely teen among them, and bills of excliange never. They are not in general very enterprising; but as they exiend their connexions by partners and clerks, many of thein carry on a great deal of business, which their parfimonious way of life renders very lucrative. At Kafan they make a trade of preparing what is called in England Morocco-leather. The villages of these people comprehend from ten to one hundred farms. Moit of them also contain tanners, ihoe-makers, tailors, dyers, finiths, and carpenters.
The habitations and manner of living of the Tartar citizens and villagers of Attracan are perfectly similar with those of the Tartars of Ka. Jan. In the city of Attracan they have a large magazine for goods, built of bricks, and several shops upon arches. They carry on an important commerce with the Armenians, Perhians, Indians, Bougbariaus: and
their másufactories of Morocco-leather, cotton, camelots, and filks, are in a very thriving ftate.
The Finns are of Afiatic origin, and have a close resemblance to the Laplanders, but are more civilised, and better informed. They live in towns and villages, have schools and academies, and have made some progress in the arts and sciences. They profess the Lutheran faith, and use the Chriftian æra in their chronology. They carry on commerce, and exercise moft of the common trades. The boors are chiefly employed in agriculture, hunting, and fishing. They are great eaters, making five meals a-day, and are immoderately fond of brandy. They enjoy a congderable degree of freedom, as the Russian government has continued to them the enjoyment of the privileges which they formerly had under the crown of Sweden.
The Votiaks, who are a Finnish race, chiefly inhabit the province of Viatka, in the government of Kafan. Some of the Votiaks are Christians, but great part of them are heathens and idolaters ; though even these believe the doctrine of a future state of rewards and punishments.
The Oftiaks, who are likewise a Finnish race, are one of the most numerous nations of Siberia. Before they were in subjection to Russia, they were governed by princes of their own nation, and their descendants are ftill reputed noble. These people divide themselves into different stocks or tribes : they choose their chiefs from among the progeny of their ancient rulers. These maintain peace and good order, and superintend the payment of the taxes. They are entirely unacquainted with the use of letters, and are extremely ignorant; they can reckon as far as ten, but no farther, as is the case of other Finnish nations.
The Vogouls are rather below the middle stature, have generally black hair, and a scanty beard. Their principal occupation is the chase, in which they discover much eagerness and address; using indiscriminately fire-arms, the bow, and the spear. They are also skilful in contriving traps, snares, and gins, and all the lures of game.
The Tfcbouwasches dwell along the two sides of the Wolga, in the gevernments of Vischnei-Novgorod, Kasan, and Orenberg. They never lire in towns, but affemble in Imall villages, and choose the forests for their : habitations. They are very fond of hunting, and procure for that purpose icrew-barrel muskets, which they prefer to the bow. One of their marriage ceremonies is, that on the wedding night the bride is obliged to pull off her husband's boots. A late writer says, “ Among the Tichouwasches “ the hutband is master of the house; he orders every thing himself; and “ it is the duty of the wife to obey without reply.”
The Kirguifans have a frank and prepoffeffing air, similar to that which characterises the Tartars of Kafan. They have a sharp but not a fierce look, and smaller eyes than those Tartars. They have good natural sense, and are affable and high-spirited, but fond of their eale. and voluptuous. They dwell always in portable huts, wandering abont their deserts in search of pafturage for their flocks and herds, which conftitutes their principal occupation. The decoration of their horses employs them almost as much as that of their perfons; they having generally elegant faddles, handsome housings, and ornamented bridles, They are great eaters, and they also smoke tubacco to excess. Men, women, and children, all smoke, and take snuff: they keep the latter in little horns faftened to their girdles. The great and wealthy live perfectly in the fame manner as the rest of the people, and are distinguished
and the quantity of huts which furround their quarters, inhabited by their wives, children, and Naves.
The Tungufians form one of the moft numerous nations of Siberia. They are of a middle ftature, well made, and of a good mien. Their fight and hearing are of a degree of acuteness and delicacy that is almost incredible ; but their organs of smélling and feeling are confiderably more blunt than ours. They are acquainted with almost every tree and ftone within the circuit of their usual perambulation; and they can even describe a course of some hundred miles by the configurations of the trees and stones they meet with, and can enable others to take the fame, route by such descriptions. They also discover the tracks of the game by the compreffion of the grass or moss. They learn foreign languages with ease, are alert on horseback, good hunters, and dexterous at the bow.
The Kalmucs are a courageous tribe, and numerous ; for the moft part raw-boned and stout. Their visage is fo fat, that the skull of a Calmuc may be eally known from others. They have thick lips, a small nole, and a short chin, the complexion a reddish and yellowish brown. Their cloathing is oriental, and their heads are exactly Chinese. Some of their women wear a large golden ring in their nostrils. Their principal food is animals, tame and wild, and even their chiefs will feed upon cattle that have died of diflemper or age, and though the flesh be putrid; so that in every horde the flesh-market has the appearance of a lay-stall of carrion ; they eat likewise the roots and plants of their deserts. They are great eaters, but can endure want for a long time without complaint. Both sexes smoke continually : during the summer they remain in the northern, and in the winter in the southern deserts. They sleep upon felt or carpeting, and cover themselves with the same.
The Kamtschadales have a lively imagination, a strong memory, and a great genius for imitation. Their chief employments are hunting and fisning. The chase furnishes them with sables, foxes, and other game.
They are very expert at fishing, and are well acquainted with the proper Seasons for it. They eat and drink great quantities; but' as what they eat is always cold, their teeth are very fine. Dogs are their only do. mestic animals, and they put a high value upon them. Some of them travel in small carriages drawn by dogs ; and a complete Kamtschadalian equipage, dogs, harness, and all, costs in that country near twenty rubles, or 41. 10s. The Kamtschadales believed the immortality of the soul, before they were prevailed upon to embrace the Christian religion. They are superititious to extravagance, and extremely fingular and capricious in the different enjoyments of life, particularly their convivial entertainments.
The manners of the Siberians were formerly so barbarous, that Peter the Great thought he could not inflict a greater punishment upon his capital enemies, the Swedes, than by banishing them to Siberia. The effect was, that the Swedish officers and soldiers introduced European usages and manufactures into the country, and thereby acquired a comfortable living. In this forlorn region, so long unknown to Europe, some new mines have lately been discovered, which, upon their first open. ing, have yielded 45,000 pounds of fine filver, said to have been obtained with little difficulty or expense. But Kamtschatka is now considered as the moft horrid place of exile in the vast empire of Ruffia; and here some of the greateft criminals are sent.
Religion.] The established religion of Russia is that of the Greek church, the tenets of which are by far too numerous and complicated to
be discussed here; but the great article of faith by which that church has been fo long separated from the Latin or Catholic church, is the doétrine that the Holy Spirit does not proceed from the Father and the Son, but from the Father only. They deny the pope's supremacy; and though they disclaim image-worship, they retain many idolatrous and superftitious customs. Their churches are full of pi&tures of saints, whom they consider as mediators. They observe a number of fasts and lents, so that they live half the year very abitemiously : an institution which is extremely convenient for the soil and climate. They have many peculiar notions with regard to the sacraments. They oblige their bishops, but not their priests, to celibacy. Peter the Great showed his profound knowledge in government in nothing more than in the reformation of his church. He broke the dangerous powers of the patriarch and the great clergy. He declared himself the head of the church, and preserved the subordinations of metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops. Their priests have no fixed income, but depend, for subsistence, upon the benevolence of their flocks and hearers. Peter, after establishing this great political reformation, left his clergy in full poflelsion of all their idle ceremonies; nor did he cut off their beards : that impolitic attempt was reserved for the ema peror Peter III. and greatly contributed to his fatal catastrophe. Before his time, an incredible number of both sexes were that up in convents : nor has it been found prudent entirely to abolith those focieties. The abuses of them, however, are in a great measure removed; for no male can become a monk till he is turned of thirty; and no female a nun till she is fifty; and even then not without permisfion of their superiors.
The conquered provinces, as already observed, retain the exercise of their own religion ; but such is the extent of the uffian empire, that many of its subjects are Mahometans, and more of them no better thani Pagans, in Siberia and the uncultivated countries. Many ill-judged attempts have been made to convert them by force, which have only tended to confirm them in their infidelity. On the banks of the river Sarpa is a flourishing colony of Moravian brethren, to which the founders have given the name of Sarepta ; the beginning of the settlement was in 1765, with distinguished privileges from the imperial court.
LANGUAGE.] The common language of Russia is a mixture of the Polish and Sclavonian ; their priests, however, and the most learned clergy, make use of what is called modern Greek : and they who are acquainted with the ancient language in its purity, may easily acquire the knowledge of it in its corrupted state. The Russians have thirty-six letters, the forms of which have a strong resemblance to the old Greek alphabet.
LEARNING AND LEARNED MEN.] The Russians have hitherto made but an inconsiderable figure in the republic of letters: but the great encouragement lately given by their sovereigns, in the institution of academies and other literary boards, has produced fufficient proofs that they are no way deficient in intellectual abilities. The papers exhibited by them at their academical meetings have been favourably received all over Europe ; especially those that relate to astrononiy, the mathematics, and natural philosophy. The speeches pronounced by the bishop of Turer, the metropolitan of Novgorod, the vice-chancellor, and the marshal, at the opening of the commiffion for a new code of laws, are elegant and classical: and the progress which learning has made in that empire fince the beginning of this century, with the ipecimens of literature published both at Petersburg and Moscow, is an evijence that the Rullians are not unqualified to Thine in the arts and sci
AND OTHER BUILDINGS.
The efforts to civilile them did not begin with Peter the Great, but were much older. A small glimmering, like the first day-break, was seen under czar Iwan, in the middle of the 16th century. This became more conspicuous under Alexius Michaelowitz; but under Peter it burst forth with the fplendor of a rising fun, and has continued ever since to afcend towards its meridian.
UNIVERSITIES.] Three colleges were founded by Peter the Great at Mofcow; one for classical learning and philofophy, the second for mathematics, and the third for navigation and astronomy. To there be added a difpenfary, which is a magnificent building, and under the care of some able German chemists and apothecaries, who furnith medicines not only to the army but all over the empire. And within these few years, Mr. de Shorealow, high-chamberlain to the emprefs Elizabeth, daughter to Peter the Great, has founded an university in this city. The late empress Catharine II. also founded an univerfity at Petersburg, and invited fome of the most learned foreigners in every faculty, who are provided with good falaries ; and allo a military academy, where the young nobility and offcers' funs are taught the art of war. It ought also to be mentioned, to the honour of the fame royal benetactress, that she founded a number of schools for the education of the lower claties of her subjects, throughout the beti-inhabited parts of the empire. Cities, TowNS, PALACES,} Petersburg naturally takes the lead in
Š this division. It lies at the junction of the Neva with the lake Ladoga already nientioned, in latitude (0; but the reader may have a better idea of its situation by being informed that it stands on both sides of the river Neva, between that take and the bottom of the Finland gulf. In the year 1703, this city coniisted of a few small fithing huts, on, a fpot fo waterish and swampy, that the ground was formed into nine islands, by which its principal quarters are tiill divided. Without entering into too minute a description of this wonderful city, it is sufficient to lay that it extends abont fix miles every way, and contains every structure for magnificence, the improvement of the arts, revenue, navigation, war, commerce, ard the like, that is to be found in the most celebrated cities in Europe. But there is a convent which deserves par. ticular notice, in which 440 young ladies are educated; 200 of them of waliiperior rank, and the others Naughters of citizens and tradesmen, who, after a certaia time allotted to their education, quit the convent with improvements tuitable to their conditions of life; and those or the lower class are presented with a tum of money, as a dowry if they marry, or to tecure to themielves a proper livelihood. Near to this convent is a foundbing-hospital, assistant to ihat noble one established at Moscow, and where the mother may come to be delivered privately; after which the leaves the child to the ttate, as a parent more capable of promoting its wel fare.
As Petersburg is the emporium of Russia, the number of foreign thips trading to it in the summer-time is surprising. In winter 3000 one horse siedges are employed for pallengers in the firects. It is fupe pored that there are 150,000 inhabitants in this city; and it is crnamented with thirty-five great churches; for in it almost every sect of the Christian religion is tolerated. It also contains five palaces, fome of which are superb, particularly that which is called the New Summer-Palace, near the Triumphal Port, which is an elegant piece of architecture. This magnificent city is defended on the side next the sea hy the fortress of Cronliadt, which, considering the difficulty and danger of navigating a large naval force through the gulf of Fuland, is luthe