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from Fenry VII. upon the death of queen Elizabeth, to the English crown, after showing considerable abilities in the government of Scotland. This 'union of the two crowns, in fact, destroyed the independ. ency, as it impoverished the people, of Scotlands for, the seat of government being removed to England, their trade was checked, their agri. culture' neglected, and their gentry obliged to seek for situations in other countries. James, after a splendid but troublesome reign over his three kingdoms, left them, in 1625, to his son, the unfortunate Charles I. That prince by his despotic principles and conduct induced both his Scottish and Englisu subjects to take up arms againft him; and, indeed, it was in Scotland that the sword was first drawn against Charles. But when the royal party was totally defeated in England, the king put himself into the power of the Scottisu army; they at first treated him with respect, but afterwards delivered him up to the English parliament, on condition of their paying 400,000 pounds to the Scots, which was said to be due to them for arrears. However, the Scots afterwards made several bloody but unsuccessful attempts to restore his son, Charles II. That prince was finally defeated by Cromwell, at the battle of Worcester, 1651, after which, to the time of his restoration, the common-wealth of England and the protector gave law to Scotland.
The state of parties in England, at the accession of queen Anne, was such, that the Whigs once more had recourse to the Scots, and offered them their own terms, if they would agree to the incorporate unioni as it
It was long before the majority of the Scotch parliament would listen to the proposal : but, at latt, partly from conviction, and partly through the effects of money distributed among the needy nobility, it was agreed to; since which event, the history of Scotland becomes the same with that of England.
Great Britain contains 79,712 square miles, with 119 inhabitants to each. CLIMATE AND THE longest day in the northern parts contains
BOUNDARIES. S 17 hours and 30 minutes; and the shortest in the southern near eight hours. It is bounded on the North by that part of the iDand called Scotland ; on the East by the German Ocean; on the West by St. George's Channel ; and on the South by the Eng. lish Channel, which parts it from France; and contains 49,450 square miles.
The situation, by the sea washing it on three fides, renders England liable to a great uncertainty of weather, so that the inhabitants on part of the sea-coafts are often visited by agues and fevers. On the other hand it prevents the extremes of heat and cold, to which other places, lying in the same degree of latitude, are subject; and it is, on that ac
want, friendly to the longevity of the inhabitants in general, especially those who live on a dry soil. To this situation likewise we are to ascribe that perpetual verdure for which England is remarkable, occafioned by refreshing showers and the warm vapours of the sea.
NAME AND DIVISIONS, Antiquaries are divided with regard to ANCIENT AND MODERN. Į the etymology of the word England ; some derive it from a Celtic word, fignifying a level country, but the common etymology appears to be preferable, according to which it is derived from Anglen, a province now subject to his Danish majesty, which furnihed a great part of the original Saxon adventurers into this island. In the time of the Romans, the whole island went by the name of Britannia. The word Brit, according to Mr. Camden, fignified painted or stained ; the ancient inhabitants being famous for painting their bodies: other antiquaries, however, do not agree in this etymology. The western tract of England, which is almost feparated from the rest by the rivers Severn and Dee, is called Wales, or the land of strangers, because inbabited by the Belgic Gauls, who were driven thither by the Romans, and were strangers to the old natives.
When the Romans provinciated England, they divided it into,
1. Britannia Prima, which contained the southern parts of the kinga dom.
2. Britannia Secunda, containing the western parts, comprehending Wales. And
3. Maxima Cæfarienfis, which reached from the Trent far northward as the wall of Severus, between Newcastle and Carlisle, and sometimes as far as that of Adrian in Scotland, between the Forth and Clyde.
To these divifions fome add the Flavia Cæsariensis, which they suppose to contain the midland counties.
When the Saxons invaded England, about the year 450, and when they were established in the year 582, their chief leaders appropriated to themselves, after the manner of other northern conquerors, the countries which each had been the most instrumental in conquering; and the whole formed a heptarchy, or political confederacy, consisting of seven kingdoms. In time of war, a chief was chosen from the seven kings, by public consent ; so that the Saxon heptarchy appears to have somewhat resembled the conftitution of Greece, during the heroic ages.
CÁIEF TOWN Somerset
7 Lancaster York..
York 5. Northumberland, Durham...
Durham founded by Ida in j Cumberland.
Carlisle 574, and ended in Westmoreland..
Northumberland and Scot
land, to the Frith of Newcastle [ Edinburgh
J 6. Eaft Saxons, found. S Effex
ed by Erchewin in Middlesex, and part of London
The other part of Hertford, Hertford
j Chester It is the more necessary to preserve these divisions, as they account for different local customs, and many very effential modes of inheritance, which to this day prevail in England, and which took their rife from different inftitutions under the Saxons. Since the Norman invasion, England has been divided into counties, a certain number of which, excepting · Middlesex and Cheshire, are comprehended in fix circuits, or annual progreffes of the judges, for adminiftering justice to the subjects who are at a distance from the capital. The circuits are ; CIRCUITS. COUNTIES.
Chelmsford, Colchester, Harwich,
Malden, Saffron Walden, Bocking,
Braintree, and Stratford,
Hertford ... Hertford, St. Alban's, Ware, Hitchin, Home cir
Baldock, Bishop's Stortford, Berkcuit.
hamstead, Hemsted, and Barnet. Kent
Maidstone, Canterbury, Chatham,
Rochester, Greenwich, Woolwich,
Gravelend, and Milton.
Croydon, Epsom, Richmond,
ham, and Darking.
stead, Hastings, Horsham, Midhurst, Shoreham, Arundel, Winchelsea, Battel, Brighthelmftone,
and Petworth. 7 Aylesbury, Buckingham, High Wick
ham, Great Marlow, Stoney-Strat
ford, and Newport Pagnel. Bedford, Ampthill, Wooburn, Dun
stable, Luton, and Biggleswade. Huntingdon, St. Ives, Kimbolton,
Godmanchester, St. Neot's, Ram
sey, and Yaxley. Cambridge, Ely, Newmarket, Roy
fton, and Wisbech. Bury, Ipswich, Sudbury, Leostoff,
part of Newmarket, Aldborough, Bungay, Southwold, Brandon, Halelworth, Mildenhall, Beccles, Framlingham, Stowmarket, Woodbridge, Lavenham, Hadley, Long Melford, Stratford, and Easter
bergholt. Norwich, Thetford, Lynn, Yar
mouth. Oxford, Banbury, Chipping-Norton,
Henley, Burford, Whitney, Dor
chefter, Woodstock, and Thame. Abingdon, Windsor, Reading, Wal
lingford, Newbury, Hungerford, Maidenhead, Farringdon, Wantage,
and Oakingham. Gloucester, Tewksbury, Cirencester,
part of Bristol, Camden, Stow, Berkley, Dursley, Lechdale, Tetbury, Sudbury, Wotton, and
Marshfield. Worcester, Evesham, Droitwich,
Bewdley, Stourbridge, Kiddermin
ster, and Pershore. Dionmouth, Chepftow, Abergavenny,
Caerleon, and Newport. Hereford, Leominster, Weobley,
Ledbury, Kyneton, and Rofs. Shrewsbury, Ludlow, Bridgnorth,
Wenlock, Bishop's Castle, Whitchurch, Ofweltry, Wem, and
Stafford, Litchfield, Newcastle-under
Line, Wolverhampton, Rugdy
Burton, Utoxeter, and Stone. Warwick, Coventry, Birmingbar
Stratford upon Avon, Tamworth
Aulcefter, Nuneaton, and Athertot Leicester, Melton-Mowbray, Athby
de-la-Zouch, Bosworth, and Ha
borough. Derby, Chesterfield, Wirksworth
Alhbourne, Bakewell, Balfover
and Buxton. Nottingham, Southwell, Newark
East and West Retford, Mansfield
Tuxford, Workfop, and Blithe. Lincoln, Stamford, Boston, Grant
ham, Croyland, Spalding, New Sleaford, Great Grimsby, Gaink
borough, Louth, and Horncaftle. Oakham and Uppingham. Northampton, Peterborough, D24
ventry, Higham-Ferrers, Brack.
Oundle, Wellingborough, Thrapston, Towcefter, Rockings ham, Kettering, and Rothwell
. Winchester, Southampton, Port
mouth, Andover, Basingstoke, Christchurch, Petersfield, Lyming. ton, Ringwood, Rumsey, Alresford and Newport, Yarmouth and Cowes,
in the Ille of Wight. Salitbury, Devizes, Marlborough,
Malmibury, Wilton, Chippenham,
ford and Warminster. Dorchester, Lyme, Sherborne, Shaftel
bury, Poole, Blandford, Bridport, Weymouth, Melconibe, Wareham,
and Winburn. Bath, Wells, Bristol in part, Taunton,
Bridgewater, Ilchester, Minehead, Milbourn-Port, Glastonbury, Wel. lington, Dulverton, Dunster, Watchet, Yeovil, Somerton, Az. bridge, Chard, Bruton, Shepton
Mallet, Croscomb, and Frome. Exeter, Plymouth, Barnstable, Bid
deford, Tiverton, Honiton, Darimouth, Tavistock, Toptham, Okehampton, Ashburton Crediton, Moulton, Torrington, Totnels, A1
minster, Plympton, and Ilfracomb, Launceston, Falmouth, Truro, Salt
ash, Bodmyn, St. Ives, Padiluw,
V. Weftern cir.