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from Fenry VII. upon the death of queen Elizabeth, to the English crown, after showing considerable abilities in the government of Scotland. This 'union of the two crowns, in fact, destroyed the independ. ency, as it impoverished the people, of Scotlands for, the seat of government being removed to England, their trade was checked, their agri. culture' neglected, and their gentry obliged to seek for situations in other countries. James, after a splendid but troublesome reign over his three kingdoms, left them, in 1625, to his son, the unfortunate Charles I. That prince by his despotic principles and conduct induced both his Scottish and Englisu subjects to take up arms againft him; and, indeed, it was in Scotland that the sword was first drawn against Charles. But when the royal party was totally defeated in England, the king put himself into the power of the Scottisu army; they at first treated him with respect, but afterwards delivered him up to the English parliament, on condition of their paying 400,000 pounds to the Scots, which was said to be due to them for arrears. However, the Scots afterwards made several bloody but unsuccessful attempts to restore his son, Charles II. That prince was finally defeated by Cromwell, at the battle of Worcester, 1651, after which, to the time of his restoration, the common-wealth of England and the protector gave law to Scotland.

The state of parties in England, at the accession of queen Anne, was such, that the Whigs once more had recourse to the Scots, and offered them their own terms, if they would agree to the incorporate unioni as it

It was long before the majority of the Scotch parliament would listen to the proposal : but, at latt, partly from conviction, and partly through the effects of money distributed among the needy nobility, it was agreed to; since which event, the history of Scotland becomes the same with that of England.

now stands.

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Great Britain contains 79,712 square miles, with 119 inhabitants to each. CLIMATE AND THE longest day in the northern parts contains

BOUNDARIES. S 17 hours and 30 minutes; and the shortest in the southern near eight hours. It is bounded on the North by that part of the iDand called Scotland ; on the East by the German Ocean; on the West by St. George's Channel ; and on the South by the Eng. lish Channel, which parts it from France; and contains 49,450 square miles.

The situation, by the sea washing it on three fides, renders England liable to a great uncertainty of weather, so that the inhabitants on part of the sea-coafts are often visited by agues and fevers. On the other hand it prevents the extremes of heat and cold, to which other places, lying in the same degree of latitude, are subject; and it is, on that ac

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want, friendly to the longevity of the inhabitants in general, especially those who live on a dry soil. To this situation likewise we are to ascribe that perpetual verdure for which England is remarkable, occafioned by refreshing showers and the warm vapours of the sea.

NAME AND DIVISIONS, Antiquaries are divided with regard to ANCIENT AND MODERN. Į the etymology of the word England ; some derive it from a Celtic word, fignifying a level country, but the common etymology appears to be preferable, according to which it is derived from Anglen, a province now subject to his Danish majesty, which furnihed a great part of the original Saxon adventurers into this island. In the time of the Romans, the whole island went by the name of Britannia. The word Brit, according to Mr. Camden, fignified painted or stained ; the ancient inhabitants being famous for painting their bodies: other antiquaries, however, do not agree in this etymology. The western tract of England, which is almost feparated from the rest by the rivers Severn and Dee, is called Wales, or the land of strangers, because inbabited by the Belgic Gauls, who were driven thither by the Romans, and were strangers to the old natives.

When the Romans provinciated England, they divided it into,

1. Britannia Prima, which contained the southern parts of the kinga dom.

2. Britannia Secunda, containing the western parts, comprehending Wales. And

3. Maxima Cæfarienfis, which reached from the Trent far northward as the wall of Severus, between Newcastle and Carlisle, and sometimes as far as that of Adrian in Scotland, between the Forth and Clyde.

To these divifions fome add the Flavia Cæsariensis, which they suppose to contain the midland counties.

When the Saxons invaded England, about the year 450, and when they were established in the year 582, their chief leaders appropriated to themselves, after the manner of other northern conquerors, the countries which each had been the most instrumental in conquering; and the whole formed a heptarchy, or political confederacy, consisting of seven kingdoms. In time of war, a chief was chosen from the seven kings, by public consent ; so that the Saxon heptarchy appears to have somewhat resembled the conftitution of Greece, during the heroic ages.

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West Saxons continued. Wilts..



Abingdon [Lancaster

7 Lancaster York..

York 5. Northumberland, Durham...

Durham founded by Ida in j Cumberland.

Carlisle 574, and ended in Westmoreland..

Appleby 792...

Northumberland and Scot

land, to the Frith of Newcastle [ Edinburgh

J 6. Eaft Saxons, found. S Effex

ed by Erchewin in Middlesex, and part of London
527, and ended in 746 Hertford ..

The other part of Hertford, Hertford
Gloucester ..






7. Mercia, founded by Lincoln.


Cridda in 582, and
ended in 874.......









j Chester It is the more necessary to preserve these divisions, as they account for different local customs, and many very effential modes of inheritance, which to this day prevail in England, and which took their rife from different inftitutions under the Saxons. Since the Norman invasion, England has been divided into counties, a certain number of which, excepting · Middlesex and Cheshire, are comprehended in fix circuits, or annual progreffes of the judges, for adminiftering justice to the subjects who are at a distance from the capital. The circuits are ; CIRCUITS. COUNTIES.


Chelmsford, Colchester, Harwich,

Malden, Saffron Walden, Bocking,

Braintree, and Stratford,

Hertford ... Hertford, St. Alban's, Ware, Hitchin, Home cir

Baldock, Bishop's Stortford, Berkcuit.

hamstead, Hemsted, and Barnet. Kent

Maidstone, Canterbury, Chatham,

Rochester, Greenwich, Woolwich,
Dover, Deal, Deptford, Fevertham,
Dartford, Romney, Sandwich,


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Sheerness, Tunbridge, Margate,

Gravelend, and Milton.
Southwark, Kingston, Guildford,

Croydon, Epsom, Richmond,
Wandsworth, Battersea, Putney,
Farnham, Godalmin, Bagshot, Eg-

ham, and Darking.
Chichester, Lewes, Rye, East Grin.

stead, Hastings, Horsham, Midhurst, Shoreham, Arundel, Winchelsea, Battel, Brighthelmftone,

and Petworth. 7 Aylesbury, Buckingham, High Wick

ham, Great Marlow, Stoney-Strat

ford, and Newport Pagnel. Bedford, Ampthill, Wooburn, Dun

stable, Luton, and Biggleswade. Huntingdon, St. Ives, Kimbolton,

Godmanchester, St. Neot's, Ram

sey, and Yaxley. Cambridge, Ely, Newmarket, Roy

fton, and Wisbech. Bury, Ipswich, Sudbury, Leostoff,

part of Newmarket, Aldborough, Bungay, Southwold, Brandon, Halelworth, Mildenhall, Beccles, Framlingham, Stowmarket, Woodbridge, Lavenham, Hadley, Long Melford, Stratford, and Easter

bergholt. Norwich, Thetford, Lynn, Yar

mouth. Oxford, Banbury, Chipping-Norton,

Henley, Burford, Whitney, Dor

chefter, Woodstock, and Thame. Abingdon, Windsor, Reading, Wal

lingford, Newbury, Hungerford, Maidenhead, Farringdon, Wantage,

and Oakingham. Gloucester, Tewksbury, Cirencester,

part of Bristol, Camden, Stow, Berkley, Dursley, Lechdale, Tetbury, Sudbury, Wotton, and

Marshfield. Worcester, Evesham, Droitwich,

Bewdley, Stourbridge, Kiddermin

ster, and Pershore. Dionmouth, Chepftow, Abergavenny,

Caerleon, and Newport. Hereford, Leominster, Weobley,

Ledbury, Kyneton, and Rofs. Shrewsbury, Ludlow, Bridgnorth,

Wenlock, Bishop's Castle, Whitchurch, Ofweltry, Wem, and

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Stafford, Litchfield, Newcastle-under

Line, Wolverhampton, Rugdy

Burton, Utoxeter, and Stone. Warwick, Coventry, Birmingbar

Stratford upon Avon, Tamworth

Aulcefter, Nuneaton, and Athertot Leicester, Melton-Mowbray, Athby

de-la-Zouch, Bosworth, and Ha

borough. Derby, Chesterfield, Wirksworth

Alhbourne, Bakewell, Balfover

and Buxton. Nottingham, Southwell, Newark

East and West Retford, Mansfield

Tuxford, Workfop, and Blithe. Lincoln, Stamford, Boston, Grant

ham, Croyland, Spalding, New Sleaford, Great Grimsby, Gaink

borough, Louth, and Horncaftle. Oakham and Uppingham. Northampton, Peterborough, D24

ventry, Higham-Ferrers, Brack.
ley, Oundle,

Oundle, Wellingborough, Thrapston, Towcefter, Rockings ham, Kettering, and Rothwell

. Winchester, Southampton, Port

mouth, Andover, Basingstoke, Christchurch, Petersfield, Lyming. ton, Ringwood, Rumsey, Alresford and Newport, Yarmouth and Cowes,

in the Ille of Wight. Salitbury, Devizes, Marlborough,

Malmibury, Wilton, Chippenham,
Calne,Cricklade, Trowbridge, Brad.

ford and Warminster. Dorchester, Lyme, Sherborne, Shaftel

bury, Poole, Blandford, Bridport, Weymouth, Melconibe, Wareham,

and Winburn. Bath, Wells, Bristol in part, Taunton,

Bridgewater, Ilchester, Minehead, Milbourn-Port, Glastonbury, Wel. lington, Dulverton, Dunster, Watchet, Yeovil, Somerton, Az. bridge, Chard, Bruton, Shepton

Mallet, Croscomb, and Frome. Exeter, Plymouth, Barnstable, Bid

deford, Tiverton, Honiton, Darimouth, Tavistock, Toptham, Okehampton, Ashburton Crediton, Moulton, Torrington, Totnels, A1

minster, Plympton, and Ilfracomb, Launceston, Falmouth, Truro, Salt

ash, Bodmyn, St. Ives, Padiluw,



V. Weftern cir.





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