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i'n dyledwer; ae nac arwain ni i brofedigaeth eithr gwared ni rhez canys eiddot ti yw'r deyrnas, a'r gallu, a'r gogoniant, yu eas ecfudd. CITIES, TOWNS, FORTS, AND OTHER / Wales contains no
EDIFICES, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. S or towns that are reman either for populousnefs or magnificence. Beaumaris is the chief of Anglesey, and has a harbour for ships. Brecknock trades in ing: Cardigan is a large populous town, and lies in the neighbour of lead and lilver mines. Caermarthen has a large bridge, and verned by a mayor, two sheriffs, and aldermen, who wear scarlet go and other enligns of state. Pembroke is well inhabited by gentle and tradesmen; and part of the country is so fertile and pleasant, it is called Little England. The other towns of Wales have noth particular. It is, however, to be observed, that Wales, in and times, was a far more populous and wealthy country than it is at fent; and though it contains no regular fortifications, yet many of old castles are so strongly built, and so well fituated, that they mig be turned into strong forts at a small expense: witness the vigorous fence which many of them made in the civil wars between Charles and his parliament. ANTIQUITIES AND CURIOSITIES, ? Wales aboards in remains
NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL. Santiquity. Several of itsak are ftupendously large; and in some, the remains of Roman archited are plainly discernible. The architecture of others is doubtfol:
a fone appear to be partly British and partly Roman. In Brecknog Shire are some rude sculptures, upon a stone fix feet high, called Maiden-ftone; but the remains of the Druidical inftitutions, and pla of worship, are chiefly discernible in the Isle of Anglesey, the ancie Mona, mentioned by Tacitus, who describes it as being the chief fen nary of the Druidical rites and religion. Cherphilly-castle in Glam ganshire is said to have been the largest in Great Britain, excepti Windfor; and the remains of it show it to have been a most beauti fabric. One half of a round tower has fallen quite down, bat the of ovcrhangs its bafis more than nine feet, and is as great a curiosita the leaning tower of Pisa in Italy.
Among the natural curiosities of this country, are the following: a small village called Newton, in Glamorganshire, is a remarkable in nigh the sea, which ebbs and flows contrary to the tide. In Merion thire is Kader Idris, a mountain remarkable for its height, which aff variety of Alpine plants. In Flintshire is a famous well known by name of St. Wenefred's well, at which, according to the legendary of the common people, miraculous cures have been performed. spring boils with vaft impetuofity out of a rock, and is formed in beautiful polygonal well, covered with a rich arch, fupported by Tars, and the roof is molt exquifitely carved in stone. Over the se is also a chapel, a neat piece of Gothic architecture, but in a very rui: ftate. King James II. paid a visit to the well of St Wenefred 2686, and was rewarded for his picty by a present which was made of the very shift in which his great grandmother, Mary Stuart, loft head. The spring is supposed to be one of the finest in the British
The Ine of Anglesey, which is the most western county of North Wales, rounded on all sides by the Irish Sea, except on the south-eart, where it is divided Britain by a narrow ftrait, called Meneu, which in some places may be paffed we at low water. The illand is about 24 miles long, and 18 broad, and contains 74 F2 It was the ancient feat of the British Druids.
minions; and by two different trials and calculations lately made, is found to throw out about twenty-one tons of water in a minute. It never freezes, or scarcely varies in the quantity of water either in dry or rainy seasons; but in consequence of the latter it affumes a wheyish tinge. The small town adjoining to the well is known by the name of Holywell. In Caernarvonthire is the high mountain of Penmanmawr, across the edge of which the public road lies, and occasions no small terror to many travellers; from one hand the impending rocks seem every minute ready to crush them to pieces; and the great precipice below, which hangs over the sea, is so hideous, and (till very lately, when a wall was raised on the fide of the road) full of danger, that one falte itep was of dismal consequence. Snowdon hill has been found, by triangular measurement, to be 1240 yards in perpendicular height.
There are a great number of pleasing prospects and picturesque views in Wales: and this country is highly worthy the attention of the curious traveller.
COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES.] The Welch are on a footing, as to their commerce and manufactures, with many of the western and northern counties of England. Their trade is moftly inland, or with England, into which they import numbers of black cattle. Milford haven, which is reckoned the finest in Europe, lies in Pembrokeshire; but the Welch have hitherto reaped no great benefit from it, though of late considerable fums have been granted by parliament for its fortification. The making it the principal harbour in the kingdom would meet with great opposition in parliament from the numerous Cornish and Weit-country members, the benefit of whose estates must be greatly leffened by the difufe of Plymouth and Portsmouth, and other harbours. The town of Pembroke employs near 200 merchant ships, and its inhabitants carry on an extensive trade. In Brecknockshire are several woollen manufa&ures; and Wales in general carries on a great coal trade with England and Ireland.
CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT.] Wales was united and incorporated with England, in the 27th of Henry VIII.; when, by act of parliament, the government of it was modelled according to the English form; all laws, customs, and tenures, contrary to those of England, being abrogated, and the inhabitants admitted to a participation of all the English liberties and privileges, particularly that of sending members to parliament, viz. a knight for every shire, and a burgess for every firetown, except Merioneth. By the 34th and 35th of the same reign, there were ordained four several circuits for the administration of justice in the said shires, each of which was to include three shires ; so that the chief-justice of Chester has under his jurisdiction the three several fhires of Flint, Denbigh, and Montgomery. The shires of Caernarvon, Merioneth, and Anglesey, are under the justices of North Wales. Those of Caermarthen, Pembrokeshire, and Cardigan, have also their juftices; as have likewise those of Radnor, Brecknock, and Glamorgan. By the 18th of queen Elizabeth, one other justice-afistant was ordained to the former justices; so that now every one of the said four circuits has two justices, viz. one chief-justice, and a second justice-afliftant.
REVENUES.] As to the revenues, the crown has a certain though small property in the product of the filver and lead mines ; but it is said that the revenue accruing, to the prince of Wales, from his principality, does not exceed 7 or 8ocol. a year.
Akms.) The arms of the prince of Wales differ from those of Engof oftrich feathers, was occasioned by a trophy of that kind, which E4ward the Black Prince took from the king of Bohemia, when he was killed at the battle of Poictiers, and the motto is Ich dien, I serve. St. David, commonly called St. Taffy, is the tutelar saint of the Welch; and his badge is a leek, which is worn on his day, the ilt of March
. History.] The ancient history of Wales is uncertain, on account of the number of petty princes who governed it. That they were lovereign and independent, appears from the English history. It was formerly inhabited by three different tribes of Britons; the Silures, the Dimetæ, and the Ordovices. These people were never entirely subdued by the Romans, though part of their country, as appears from the ruins of castles, was bridled by garrisons. The Saxons, as has been already observed, conquered the counties of Monmouth and Hereford, but they never penetrated farther, and the Welch remained an independent people, governed by their own princes and their own lass. About the year 870, Roderic, king of Wales, divided his dominions among his three fons; and the names of these divisions were, Dimetia, or South Wales; Povesia,/ or Powis land; and Venedotia, or North Wales. This division gave a mortal blow to the independency of Wales
. About the year 112, Henry I. of England planted a colony of Flemings on the frontiers of Wales, to serve as a barrier to England
. The Welch made many brave attempts to maintain their liberties against the Norman kings of England. In 1237, the crown of England was firt fupplied with a pretext for the future conquest of Wales ; their old and infirm prince Llewellin, in order to be safe from the persecutions of his undutiful fon Gryffyn, having put himself under the protection of Henry JII. to whom he did homage.
But no capitulation could satisfy the ambition of Edward I, who refolved to annex Wales to the crown of England; and Llewellin, prince of Wales, disdaining the subjection to which old Llewellin had submitted, Edward raised an army at a prodigious expense, with which he penetrated as far as Flint, and, taking poffeffion of the Isle of Anglesey
, drove the Welch to the mountains of Snowdon, and obliged them to fubmit to pay a tribute. The Welch, however, made several efforts under young Llewellin; but, at last, in 1282, he was killed in battle. He was succeeded by his brother David, the last independent prince of Wales, who, falling into Edward's hands through treachery, was by him moft barbarously and anjuftly hanged; and Edward, from that time, pretended that Wales was arinexed to his crown of England. It was about this time, probably, that Edward perpetrated the inhuman massacre of the Welch bards. Perceiving that this cruelty was not suficient to complete his conquest, he sent his queen, in the year 1284, to be delivered in Caernarvon castle, that the Welch, having a prince born among themselves, might the more readily recognise his authority, This prince was the unhappy Edward II. ; and from him the title of prince of Wales has always fince descended to the eldest fons of the English kings. The hiftory of Wales and England becomes now the fame. It is proper, however, to observe, that the kings of England have always found it their intereft to soothe the Welch with particular marks of their regard. Their eldest sons not only held their titular dignity, but actually kept a court at Ludlow; and a regalar council, with a preldent, was pamed by the crown, for the adminiftration of all the affairs of the principality. This was thought so necessary a piece of policy, that when Henry VIII, had no son, his daughter Mary was created princess of Wales.
ISLE OF MAN. THE Mona mentioned by Tacitus was not this island, but the ide of Anglesey. Some think it takes its name from the Saxon word Mang (or among,) beceuse, lying in St George's Channel, it is almost at an equal distance from the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland; but Mona seems to have been a generical name with the ancients for any detached island. Its length from north to south is rather more than thirty miles, its breadth from eight to fifteen ; and the latitude of the middle of the island is fifty-four degrees fixteen minutes north. It is said that on a clear day three Britannic kingdoms may be seen from this island. The air here is wholesome, and the climate, only making an allowance for the situation, pretty much the same as that in the north of England, from which it does not differ much in other respects. The hilly parts are barren, and the campaign fruitful in wheat, barley, cats, rye, fax, hemp, roots, and pulse. The ridge of mountains, which, as it were, divide the island, both protects and fertilises the valleys, where there is good pasturage. The better sort of inhabitants bave good sizeable horses, and a small kind, which is swift and hardy, nor are they troubled with any noxious animals. The coasts abound with sea fowl; and the puffins, which breed in rabbit holes, are almoft lumps of fat, and esteemed very delicious. It is said that this island abounds with iron, lead, and copper mines, though unwrought; as are the quarries of marble, flate, and stone.
The Mile of Man contains seventeen parishes, and four towns on the sea coasts. Caitle-town is the metropolis of the island, and the seat of its government; Peele of late years begins to flourish; Douglas has the bet market and best trade in the island, and the richest and most populous town, on account of its excellent harbour, and its fine mole, extending into the sea. It contains about goo houses, and is a neat pleasant town, the buildings lofty, but the streets narrow and close. Ramsey has likewise a considerable commerce, on account of its spacious bay, in which ships may ride safe from all winds, excepting the northeart. The reader, by throwing his eyes on the map, may fee how conveniently this island is fituated for being the storehouse of smugglers, which it was till within these few years, to the inexpressible prejudice of his Majesty's revenue ; and this necessarily leads us to touch upon the history of the island.
Daring the time of the Scandinavian rovers on the seas, who have been before mentioned, this island was their rendez-vous, and their chief force was here collected; from whence 'they annoyed the Hebrides, Great Britain, and Ireland. The kings of Man are often mentioned in history; and though we have no regular account of their succession, and know bat few of their names, yet thoy undoubtedly were for some ages masters of those seas. About the year 1263, Alexander II. king of Scotland, a spirited prince, having defeated the Danes, laid claim to the fuperiority of Man, and obliged Owen or John, its king, to acknowledge him as lord paramount. It seems to have continued tributary to the kings of Scotland, till it was reduced by Edward I.; and the kings of England, from that time, exercised the superiority over the island; though we find it ftill possessed by the posterity of its Danish princes,