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the same time Dr. M‘Nevin, counsellor Emmett, and some other active members of the societies, were taken into custody. A warrant had been iffaed againt lord Edward Fitzgerald, but he escaped; he was afterwards, however, discovered in the place of his concealment, when, on the police officers entering the room, the unhappy nobleman made a desperate defence: he wounded two of the principal of them, Mr. Justice Swan, and captain Ryan, dangerously; and was himself so leverely wounded, that he languished a few days only before he expired.
The seizure of the delegates gave a fatal blow to all the plans of the United Irishmen. A new directory was chosen, but their proceedings were soon disclosed by another informer, a captain Armstrong, who had pretended to enter into the conspiracy with the intention of discovering their schemes and betraying them to government. The confufion and alarm into which the rebels were thrown by the discovery of their plots, and the apprehending of their leaders, determined them to make a desperate effort, and a general insurrection was resolved on by the military committee, to take place on the 23d of March. But government being perfectly informed of the intentions of the conspirators, caused several of the principal of them to be apprehended; on the 19th and zift the city and county of Dublin were proclaimed, by the lord-lieutenant and council, in a state of insurrection; the guards of the castle and all the principal objects of attack were trebled, and the whole city in fact converted into a garrison. The infatuated multitude, however, implicidy obedient to the directions they had received from their leaders, role at the time appointed in various parts of the country, and, on the 25th, appeared in great force, their number amounting to not less than 15,000, in the neighbourhood of Wexford and Enniscorthy, and attacked and cut in pieces the whole of a party
of the North Cork militia, except colonel Foote, and two privates. They then made an attack, on the 28th, on the town of Enniscorthy, which they carried sword in hand; and on the 30th made themselves masters of Wexford, where they liberated from prison Mr. Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey, who was afterwards nominated to the chief command of their army. Under him, as their general, they attacked the town of New Rofs, but were repulsed with great daughter. They were likewise repulsed in their attacks on some other places. The royal forces, however, suffered a check on the 4th of June, when the frong post of the rebels being attacked by colonel Walpole, he was unfortunately killed in the beginning of the action, and his corps, being in a situation in which it was unable to act, was forced to retire to Arklow. Encouraged by this success, the rebel army, on the gth, presented itself before Arklow, where general Needham commanded a confiderable body of the king's troops ; but the position that general had taken, and the dispositions he made, were such that they were defeated with great loss.
On the 21st of June, general Lake made his grand attack on the ftrong pofition of the rebels on Vinegar-hill, near Enniscorthy, having gradually collected troops from every part till he had almost surrounded them. They maintained their ground obftinately for an hour and a half, but at length fled with precipitation, leaving behind them a great number of killed and wounded, and thirteen small pieces of ordnance of diferent calibres.
Immediately after this action, a large body of the king's forces advanced to Wexford, which general Moore entered so opportunely, as to prevent the town from being laid in alhes. The rebels before they any terms with rebels with arms in their hands; though to the deladet múltitude he promised pardon, op condition of delivering up their leaders and returning to their allegiance. The rebel troops immediately evacuated the town; their general, Bagenal Harvey, had quitted thea Toon after the battle of New Ross, but being discovered and taken with fome others in a cave, he was tried by a court-martial, and executed on the bridge of Wexford.
In the beginning of June alarming commotions likewise took place id the North of Ireland, and the insurrection soon became almost general in the counties of Down and Antrim ; but on the izth the rebels received a complete defeat at Ballynahinch, where they loft upwards of four hundred men. They fought with great obstinacy, and their leader Munro was taken prisoner, and afterwards executed.
The English government, in the mean time, though not disfatisfied with the conduct of lord Camden, resolved to give Ireland a military lord-lieutenant; and the marquis Cornwallis arrived at Dublin in that capacity on the 20th of June, and immediately assumed the reins of government. The conduct of his lord ship was temporate and judicious.
On the 17th of July he sent a message to the house of commons by lord Catlereagh, intimating that he had received his majesty's commands to acquaint them “ that he had signified his gracious intention of granting a general pardon for all offences committed on or before a certain day, upon such conditions, and with such exceptions, as might be compatible with the general safety.”—But these offers of mercy to the repentent were not to preclude measures of vigour against the obstinate.”
A special commission was now opened in Dublin for the trial of the principal delinquents, several of whom were tried and executed. Among them Mr. Oliver Bond was tried, conviêled, and condemned, and in his fate the other conspirators began to foresee their own. The rebellion appeared to be completely crafted; the fugitive rebels were every where returning to their allegiance, and delivering up their arms, and no hope remained of any effe&tual aslistance from France. In this situation a negociation was opened between the Irih government and the fate prisoners, the issue of which was, that government consented to pardon Mr. Bond, and defift from any farther prosecution of the
other leaders of the conspiracy, who on their parts engaged to make a full confession of all the proceedings and plans of the fociety; after which they were to be permitted to transport themselves to any country not at war with his majesty. The information they communicated was laid before the Irisla house of commons, and has furnished materials for the brief account here given. Mr. Oliver Bond survived his pardon oaly a few days, and Mr. Arthur O'Connor, Dr. M-Nevin, and the reft, after having been a considerable time confined in Ireland, were removed to prisons in Scotland, where they still remain.
After the failure of the expedition under general Hoche, France, fortunately for Great Britain, made no attempt to alift the Irish insurgente till it was too late; and the aid they then fent was very feeble and in
adequate to the end proposed. On the 22d of Augué, some frigates and transports from France appeared in Killala Bay, and landed about
a thousand men, with a quantity of arms and ammunition. The number of insurgents who joined the invaders was not confiderable ; but the French general Humbert, by his conduct, proved himself an officer of ability, and worthy of command where there was a fairer prospect of !uccess. He advanced without loss of time to Caflebar, where general Lake was collecting his forces, attacked, and compelled him to retreat with the loss of six pieces of cannon and a few men, after which he advanced towards Tuam; but on the 9th of September the marquis Cornwallis came up with the French in the vicinity of Castlebar, when they retreated, and the next morning, after a flight refiftance, surrendered at discretion. The rebels who had joined them were dispersed, and a great nember of them killed or taken. Another effort was afterwards made by the French to support, or rather to rekindle the flames of rebellion in Ireland. On the 17th of September a fleet failed from France, consisting of one ship of the line (the Hoche) and eight frigates, with troops and ammunition on board, destined for Ireland; but this armament was completely defeated by the squadron under the command of Sir John Borlase Warren, as has been already related in our summary of the affairs of England.
The few remaining troops of rebels, who were dispersed among the woods and mountains, now successively laid down their arms. A chief of the name of Holt, at the head of a number of banditti, continued for some time to commit depredations in the mountainous parts of the county of Wicklow; but at last it was believed that he made terms with government, and was permitted to save his life by relinquifhing for ever his native country.
Every estimate of the namber of those who loft their lives in this de plorable contest muft necessarily be vague and uncertain. Some have dtated it at thirty thousand, while others have swelled it to a hundred thousand -of whom they fay, nine tenths were of the insurgents; the lofs of the royalists being about ten thousand men. Slaughter and desolation have at length procured a kind of peace; but the great problem is to discover by what means the flames of discord may be prevented from bursting out afresh. As the most effectual preventative of a repetition of these calamities, government has recommended, and appears determined to effect, a legislative union of the two kingdoms. A proposition for such ap union was submitted to the parliament of England and Ireland on the same day (January 22, 1799), and in both houses of the English parliament, the address, which is considered as an approbation of the measure, paffed without division. A fimilar address was carried in the Irish house of lords by a majority of thirty-three, but rejected in the commons by a majority of two, which the next day increased to fix against the measure, which was therefore laid aside for that time. Government, however, by no means totally abandoned it; for in the beginning of the next feffion, on the 15th of January, 1800, the proposition was again submitted to the parliament of Írèland; when the address in the house of lords passed without a debate, and, after an animated discussion in the commons, which lasted till the noon of the following day, was approved by a majority of forty-two. The articles of this anion, which have since been voted, import,
“That the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland (hall, ja pon the ift day of January, which shall be in the year of our Lord 1801, and for ever after, be united into one kingdom, by the name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland;"_" that of the peers of Ireland at the time of the union, four spiritgal lords, by rotation of seffions, and twenty-eight temporal peers for life, shall be the number to sit and vote in the house of lords; and one hundred commoners (viz. two for each county of Ireland, two for the city of Dublin, two for the city of
towns, and boroughs), be the number of the representatives of Ireland in the house of commons of the parliament of the United Kingdom."
It is also provided by these articles “ that, for the space of twenty years after the union shall take place, the contribution of Great Britain and Ireland respectively towards the expenditure of the united Kingdom in each year fhall be defrayed in the proportion of fifteen parts for Great Britain, and two parts for Ireland,” this proportion of the expiration of that time to be subject to revision and regulation from other confiderations.
That this plan of union will be ultimately carried into effet, little doubt appears now to remain. How far it will prove a remedy for the distressed condition and discontents of the poor, time must discover. At first view it seems difficult to say how a legislative union can remove the cause of the civil commotions which have lately diftracted that unfortunate kingdom; how it can lessen religious prejudices, or prevent, what it seems rather calculated to increase, the expenditure of Irish property at a distance from the country whence it is derived. Yet multit not be denied that unity in government has many advantages, and is indeed effentially necessary; and that a close connection and firm consolidation of the three kingdoms, with an impartial and equal diftribution of protection and rights, fairly granted and faithfully maintained, most tend to infuse new life into every part of the united nation, while it adds to the prosperity, the wealth, and the power of the whole.
F R A N C E.
gone over the British illes, we shall now return to the continent, beginning with the extensive and powerful country of France, being the nearest to England, though part of Germany and Poland lies to the northward of France.
SITUATION and ExtenT.
West and 8 East longitudes
and Containing 160,374 square miles, with 155 inhabitants to each. Boundaries.] It is bounded by the English Channel and the Ne. therlands on the
North; by Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, Faf; by the Mediterranean and the Pyrenean
mountains, which divide ir from Spain, South; and by the Bay of Biscay, Weft.
Divisions.] The ancient provinces of this kingdom were divided by the first national assembly into 83 departments, as follow:
These are the original eighty-three departments into which France was divided by the first national assembly. But, by later decrees, the department of Rhône and Loire has been divided into two departments : the department of the RHÔNE, the chief town Lyons; and that of the Loire, the chief town Montbrisson. Corsica has likewise been divided into two departments : Golo, the chief town Bastia ; and LIAMONE, the chief town Ajaccio. Savoy has also been annexed to the republic, under the name of the department of Mont BLANC,—the chief town Chamberry; as has likewise a part of Switzerland, lately belonging to