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them on the 30th. On the 14th of April, marshal Suwartow arrived with the first column of the Russian troops, and the successes of the allies became rapid and uninterrupted. On the 24th of the same month, the Austrians and Russians passed the Oglio, and drove the French before them. They then crossed the Adda, and Suwarrow, on the 27th, do feated Moreau at Cassans; and so decisive was his victory, that general Serrurier and three thousand men were taken prisoners, and Milan opened its gates to the conquerors on the 30th. Peschiera was taken on the 6th of May, and, on the 10th, Pizzighetone surrendered to general Kray; on the 12th the Austrians entered Bologna, and took twelve hundred prisoners ; and on the 23d they took possession of Ferrara. In Piedmont, the French, notwithstanding the efforts of Moreau, Macdonald, and Joubert, beheld themselves successively deprived of all their strong holds. The Austrians entered Turin on the 27th of May, and the citadel surrendered on the 20th of June. Mantua, after a short siege for so strong a place, surrendered on the 30th of July, the city of Alessandria on the same day; and such was the success of the campaign, that the French were obliged to abandon the whole of Italy, Genoa and a small portion of the adjoining territory only excepted. On the 25th of August a desparate battle was fought between the French and the Austrians and Russians at Novi, in the territory of Genoa, in which the French are supposed to have lost not less than ten thousand men; but this victory was purchased with a loss nearly as great on the part of the allies.
On the side of Switzerland, the affairs of the republic at first wore a less disastrous aspect-Massena having obtained some slight advantages, These, however, were soon counterbalanced by events more favourable to the allies; the French general being obliged to abandon Zurich, which was immediately occupied by the Austrian troops unde Hotze.
Italy being now rescued from the power of the French, it was resolved that Suwarrow should proceed with his army to Switzerland, to drive the French back into their own territories, and enter France; where he was to endeavour to re-establish the fallen monarchy. Tlie directory were now convinced of their danger, and made every exertion 10 reinforce their armies in Switzerland, and the most active preparations for a vigorous defence. General Massena, who commanded the republican army in that country, displayed great military genius, and evinced uncommon abilities in all his enterprises. Knowing that if Suwastow effected a junction with the troops already acting against him, he must be inevitably overpowered, he determined to attack the latter; and in a variety of actions, during four whole days between the 14th and 20th of September, repeatedly defeated the Austrian and Russian armies—many thousands being killed and taken prisoners, among the former of which was the brave Austrian general Hotze.
Suwarrow, in consequence of his arrival in Switzerland, found it impossible to join his defeated and dispirited allies; his platis were all rendered abortive; he was under the necessity of immediately withidrawing into Germany; and during his retreat over mountains covered with snow, and through roads nearly impassable, he suffered as much loss as could have ensucd after a signal defeat.
On the 13th of October, the celebrated Buonaparte, having found means to escape from Egypt, and elude the vigilance of the British cruizers, arrived in France, accompanied by general Berthier and some other officers. The recent losses which the republic had sustamed, and the imminent danger which threatened its very existence, bad greatly weakened the authority of the directory, and prepared the way for the total alteration of the constitution and government, which had probably been projected by the Abbé Sieyes, and which the popularity and enterprising spirit of Buonaparte enabled bim to carry into execution.
The first step towards this revolution was taken by the council of ancients; which on the 9th of November passed a decree consisting of five articles, the chief of which were, that the legislative body should, on the next day, be removed to St. Cloud; that Buonaparte should be commissioned to carry into execution this decree; and, for this purpose, should be appointed commandant of all the troops in Paris or its neighbourhood, of the guard of the legislative body, of that of the directory, and of the stationary national guard; that this decree should be communicated by message to the council of five hundred, and to the executive directory, and transmitted to all the communes of the republic by extraordinary couriers. After this decree had been passed, the council of ancients proceeded to publish an address to the French nation, justificatory of their own conduct, and asserting “ that the common safety, and common prosperity, were the objects of this constitutional measure : the inhabitants of Paris were desired to remain tranquil, since the presence of the legislative body would soon be restored to them, and the result would show whether the legislative body was worthy and capable of-preparing the means of happiness,”—General Buonaparte soon after appeared at the bar, accompanied by several officers of his staff, and addressed the council in a short speech, in which he represented that the republic was perishing, and they' knew it, but that the decree they had just passed had saved it :-.“ Yes,” said he, “ we will have a republic founded on true liberty, and national representation. I swear it in my name, and that of my companions in arms." Most of the members present received these acclamations with applauses; and the assembly broke up with shouts of “ Live the Republic.”
On the same day the council of five hundred having been informed, by a message from the council of ancients, of the decree passed by the latter, adjourned in consequence to the following day, when they were to meet at St. Cloud. In the sitting which was held there on the 10th, they appointed a committee of seven members commissioned to make a report on the situation of affairs. The sitting was very tumultuous, many members cxclaiming, “ No dictator! No dictatorship!"--The secretary read a letter from the director Barras, stating that “ the glory which accompanied the return of the illustrious warrior, to whom he had had the happiness to open the career of renown, the distinguished marks of confidence shown him by the legislative body, and the decree of the national representation, had convinced him that the perils of libertyøwere then surmounted, and the interest of the armies secured, and that he returned with joy to the rank of a simple citizen, happy to transfer, complete, and more respectable than cyer, the destinies of the republic, of which he had been one of the depositories.”
While some of the members were urging the propriety of choosing another director in the room of Barras, general Buonaparte entered the hall
, attended by some officers and grenadiers, and walked up towards the president. A violent agitation immediately ensued among the members, some of whom rushed precipitately from their seats, and endeavored to scize him by the collar; others cried, “ Out-law him!” and one attempted to stab him with a dagger, but the blow was warded off by a grenadier: The tumult increased to a most violent degree. All the members quitted their seats;--the president, Lucien Buone arte,
The serenteen provinces, which are known by the name of the
Netherlands, were formerly part of Gallia Belgica, and afterwards of the circle of Belgium, or Burgundy, in the German empire. They obtained the general name of the Netherlands, Pais-Bas, or Countries, froin their situation in respect of Germany.
EXTENT, SITUATION, AND BOUNDARIES, OF THE SEVENTEEN
$ 49 and 54 North latitude.
2 and 7 East longitude. They are bounded by the German Sea, on the north; by Germany, east; by Lorraine and France, south; and by the British Channel, west;
We shall, for the sake of perspicuity, and to avoid repetition, treat of the seventeen provinces under two great divisions : first, the Northern, which contains the Seven United Provinces, usually known by the name of Holland: secondly, the Southern, containing the French, and late Austrian Netherlands. "The United Provinces are, properly speaking, eight, viz. Holland, Overyssel, Zealand, Friesland, Utrecht, Groningen, Guelderland, and Zutphen; but the two latter forming only one sovereignty, they generally go by the name of the Seven United Provinccs*. SITUATION AND EXTENT OF THE SEVEN UNITED PROVINCES.
51 and 54 North latitude. ly the same
3 and 7 East longitude.
2 Containing 10,000 square miles, with 275 inhabitants to each. The following, from Templeman's Survey of the Globe, is the most satisfactory account we meet with of the geographical division, including the Texel, and other islands :
Since the conquest of Holland by the French, and the establishment of a republic on the plan of that of France, the country, including the whole Dutch territory in the Netherlands, has been divided into fifteen departments, of which the following are the names and chief towns: DEPARTMENTS.
...Bois le Duc