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jesty, the king of Pruffia, and at his own defire, in the year 1790, whereby the independence and the integrity of Poland were guaratied in the moft folemn manner; that, being deprived of free-will, furrounded at the moment of the present act by an armed foreign force, and threatened with a further invasion of the Prussian troops, they are forced to com. miffion and authorise a deputation appointed to treat with the said king, to figa the treaty, fuch as it was planned and amended under the medi. ation of the Russian ambassador."

Depressed and despairing, the Polish nation, suppofing its political existence to depend on a feasonable alliance with a powerful peighbour, pat itself under the protection of Russia, which, in the treaty of alliance with Poland, had expressly ftipulated that no change or infringerent should take place in the form of government to be established without the consent of the empress or her successors : fo that Russia, without ea gaging for the perpetuity of the new form, became completely mistrefs of whatever governinent should be established in Poland.

On the 7th of February; 1794, the baron d'Ingelftrohm, who had succeeded the count de Sievers as ambassador at Warsaw, demanded : public annulling of the acts of the diets of 1788 and 1791, together with the form of the constitution then established, and the surrender of every paper, whether in public records or private cabinets, respecting that transaction. The court of Russia foon afterwards issued its mandate for the reduction of the military force to 16,000 men. This was opposed by several regiments, particularly in South Pruffia, where the infurgents, headed by the gallant Madalinski, a Polish nobleman, and brigadier of the national troops, peremptorily refused to disband. The fpirit of resistance was widely diffused, and the capital assumed a military aspect. In this situation fifteen thousand Russian troops were fent into Poland, the ambassador was instructed to deliver to the permanent council an official document, representing the danger that threatened the king, and requesting the commissioners of war to dispatch an army to oppose Madalinski; and the permanent council was desired to take into cuftody every suspected person. Both these requisitions were, however, refused; and it was pointedly replied to the latter, that, according to the laws of the republic, no Polith nobleman could be arrested, without being legally convicted.

The imperious conduct of the Russians, during their ftruggle for power, continued to harass the oppressed Poles, and to drive them to desperation. The peasants were compelled to lodge and board the Rullian foldiers, and transport them from place to place, without receiving the least remuneration, or any other reward than brutality and nfolence. It could not be expected that a gallant and high-spirited icople would long tamely subinit to such infult and injury. Their pa. triotic spirit, though latent, was not extinguilbed. li was roused into action by incessant sufferings, and by the continued efforts of the incre. pid Kosciuško, who, early in February, appeared at the head of a conliderable body of Polin insurgents, attacked the Prussians who had taken polieflion of their country, forced them to retreat, and pursued them to a considerable distance. The Russian troops having evacuated Cracow on the agd of March, Kosciusko entered that town on the night of the 241h, and next morning ordered the gates to be fut, and de. clared himself commander-in-chief of all the Polish forces. He then imposed an oath of fidelity on all the military in the city, took posiel

. fion of the public treasure, and proceeded to measures of military fe. questration. On the day on which he entered Cracow, he iflued a proclamation, couched in the most energetic terms, inviting the nation to shake off their disgraceful fetters, and to unite in forming a new confederation. The proclamation was received with unanimous applause ; and " Long live Kosciusko!" resounded from every quarter. He was conducted to the town-house and presented to the principal nobility, who had assembled there to receive him; and by them he was formally invested with the title of general. Every article for the support of his army was abundantly supplied. On the 26th, a revolutionary tribunal was established, and every fifth house was required to furnith one man armed and equipped for the defence of the constitution against the u/urping powers. The different corporations then assembled under their respective banners before the town-house, whence the magistrates led them in proceffion to the church of the Holy Virgin, where the confti. tution of the 3d of May, 1791, was publicly read with great folemnity, and an oath taken to defend it. him a prisoner. The Polish infantry defended themselves with a bravery proportioned to that of their general, and fought with a degree of valour almost approaching to fury.


In the mean time Warsaw was in a state of the higheft fermentation. In that city and its vicinity there were not less than fifteen thousand Russian mercenaries, some of whom were quartered to the amount of a hundred in a body, in several of the palaces. The most vigorous measures were adopted by the permanent council; a decree passed, de,

claring the insurgents rebels, and subjecting them to the most arbitrary " punishments; and the police were charged to seize every person suspected

of being inimical to the existing government, with the promise of mili: tary aslistance. The unpopularity of his Polish majesty daily increased, : and a guard of Rulians was appointed for his preservation. About this

time the unhappy monarch issued a proclamation, exhorting his subjects to a peaceable acquiescence, and urging the danger and destruction which attended their relistance.

The Polish nobles had no fooner taken the oaths in the presence of Kosciuko, than they departed for their respective estates, in order to arm and assemble their vaffals. Baron d'Ingelftrohm, about the same time, furrounded the diet at Warsaw with a military force, and demanded the surrender of the arsenal. This demand was fpiritedly resisted; and notice of it having been sent to Kosciusko, he, about the end of March, took the route to Warsaw with his army, and a reinforcement of 4,000 peasants, armed with pikes, &c.-On the 4th of April he was met by a detachment of 6,000 Ruflians, with a park of heavy artillery, on their march to reduce Cracow. A fierce encounter ensued. The Polish peasants being driven to desperation made a dreadful flaughter of the Ruflian plunderers. General Woronzow was taken prisoner, and abore 1,000 Ruflians killed on the spot; while the Poles loft only fixty men, and took eleven pieces of canon and all the ammunition. After the battle, Kosciuko fell back with his army towards Cracow, where he was joined by a very considerable body of'disaffected Polish troops.

On the 16th of April, baron d'Ingelftrohm demanded the surrender of the arsenal, the difarming of the military, and that twenty persons of the firt consequence should be arrested, and, if found guilty, punished with death. This occasioned a general commotion, in which the citi. zens, having procured arms from the arsenal, after an incessant combat of thirty-Six hours, drove the Russians out of the city with great Naughter. A deputation had been sent to inform the king of the attempt of the Ruflians to seize the arsenal; when the monarch had replied, “Go, and defend your honour.” The situation of the king after the conteft. became very critical, and the people were extremely jealous of every movement he made, They compelled him to promise repeatedly that

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The Ruflians under general Ferfen soon afterwards fummoned War. faw to surrender; and on being refused, afer the junction of the different corps under Ferfen, Dernfeldt, Dernifow, and Suwarrow, proceeded on the 4th of November to attack the suburb of Praga or Prague, separated from Warsaw by the Vistula, which was defended by more than a hundred pieces of cannon disposed upon thirty-three batteries. The Russians fucceeded in their assault, and the Polith generals found themfelves unable to oppose with 10,000 soldiers, which was the whole of their force, the united attack of 50,000 men. After a severe con. flict of eight hours, the resistance on the part of the Poles ceased; but the massacre of the fanguinary Suwarrow continued for two hours longer; and the pillage lasted till noon on the following day. Five thousand Poles were computed to have been flain in the assault ; the remainder were either imprisoned or dispersed. The citizens were compelled to lay down their arms; and their houses were plundered by the merciless Ruflans, who, after the battle had ceased nearly ten hours, about nine o'clock at night, set fire to the town, and again began to massacre the inhabitants. Nine thousand persons, unarmed men, defenceless wo. men, and harmless infants, perihed either in the flames or by the sword, and nearly the whole of the fuburb was reduced to ashes. In the whole of this fiege it is computed that not less than 30,000 Poles loft their lives.

The city being thus reduced under the power of the Russians, the king was for a short time restored to a kind of mock authority, by the supreme council remitting into his hands that which it had exercised. On the oth of November the Ruffian general made his triumphal en. try into Warsaw, in which the streets were lined with his troops, and the inhabitants, shut up in their houses, observed a melancholy silence, The chief magistrate delivered him the keys of the bridge of the suburb, after which he received the compliments of the king, and on the 10th went with much pomp to the caftle, to'pay his respects to his majesty. To complete the whole of this execrable scene, the first of December was set apart for a day of folemn thanksgiving, and Te Deum was fung for a triumph of barbarous oppression.

In the mean time Kosciusko was under surgical care at Nozcylack, where the utmost attention was paid to his recovery, particularly by madame Chrozazow. He was afterwards sent to Petersburg, under a very powerful military escort, and was confined in the fortress there till the death of the late empress, when the present emperor, who has on several occasions shown great liberality towards the persecuted. Poles, set him at liberty, afsigned him a pension, and allowed him his choice, either to return to his own country, or go to America. Kosciusko preferred the latter, and arrived safely in the asylumn which he chose. On his way thither he passed through England, and was received with the warmest welcome and congratulation by all the friends of freedom. He has fince left America, and is at present in France.

On the 20th of December, 1794, a courier arrived from the empress, demanding the arretation of count Ignatius Potocki, and several of the other patriots, whom the ordered to be sent to Petersburg. The same messenger brought a command from the empress to the unhappy mo. narch of Poland to repair to Grodno, who, in obedience to the sum, mons, fet off from his capital on the 7th of January, 1795.

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