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moved, and count d'Aranda, an old ftatesman, a warm friend of the queen and nobility of France, succeeded to his employments, till some other arrangement could be formed. It is said, he abolished the superintendent tribunal of police, a kind of civil inquisition; and in other liberal measures appeared to see the real intereft of monarchs, which is certainly to concede with grace, in order to prevent the despair of the people from recurring to force. His influence, however, was but short; and has been succeeded by that of the duke d'Alcudia.
The irregularities committed in France, the indecent reception of the humane interference of the court of Spain in favour of the king, and the industry of the confederated sovereigns, induced the court of Spain to declare war against France on the 23d of March 1793 The iffue of this war, the treaty of peace concluded by Spain with the French republic on the 23d of July 1795, and the subsequent hoftilities with England, have already been mentioned in our historical accounts of those countries.
Charles IV. king of Spain, born Nov. 11, 1748, ascended the throne Dec. 13, 1788, (upon the death of his father, Charles 111.) and was married to Louisa-Maria Theresa, princess of Parma,' Sept. 4, 1765, by whom he has issue,
1. Charlotte, born April 25, 1775.
Brothers to the king : 1. Ferdinand, the present king of the Two Sicilies, born in 1751, married, in 1768, to the arch-duchess Mary-Cardire-Louisa, fister to Joseph II. late emperor of Germany.
2. Anthony-Pascal, born Dec. 31, 1755.
SITUATION AND EXTENT,
5 37 and 42 North latitude.
} Breadth 100
7 and 10 Weft longitude. Containing 32,000 square miles, with 72 inhabitants to each. BOUNDARIES.] It is bounded by Spain on the North and East, and
on the South and West by the Atlantic Ocean, being the most westerly kingdom on the continent of Europe. ANCIENT NAMES AND! This kingdom was, in the time of the Ro. DIVISIONS,
mans, called Lufitania. The etymology of the modern namie is uncertain. Ii most probably is derived from fome noted harbour or port, to which the Gauls (for so strangers are called in the Celtic) resorted. By the form of the country, it is naturally di. vided into three parts; the norther, middir, and southern provinces.
The northern di
The middle divi.
The southern die
SOIL, AIR, AND PRODUCTIONs.] The soil of Portugal is not in neral equal to that of Spain for fertility, especially in corn, which they import from other countries. Their fruits are the same as in Spain, but not so highly flavoured. The Portuguese wines, when old and genuine, are efteenied to be very friendly to the human constitution, and safe to drink *.
Portugal contains mines, but they are not worked ; a variety of gems, marbles, and mill-stones, and a fine mine of salt-petre near Lifbon. The cattle and poultry are but indifferent eating. The air, especially about Lisbon, is reckoned foft and beneficial to confumptive patients; it is not so scorching as that of Spain, but refreshed from the sea-breszes.
MOUNTAINS.) The face of Portugal is inountainous, or rather rocky, for the mountains are generally barren : the chief are those which di. vide Algarve from Alentejo; those of Tras os Montes ; Arrabida and Montejunto in Efremadura; Estrella in Beira; Ofa in Alentejo; and Cintra, about five leagues fouth-west of Lisbon, well known to navigators as being the most westerly part of all Europe. The cape contiguous
to it, at the mouth of the Tajo, is called the rock of Cintra, or the rock of Lisbon.
WATER AND RIVERS.] Though every brook in Portugal is reckoned a river, yet the chief Portuguese rivers are mentioned in Spain, all of them falling into the Atlantic Ocean. The Tagus or Tajo was cele. brated for it golden sand. The Minho and Douro are the bounda. daries of the province Entre Douro e Minho. Portugal contains several roaring lakes and springs; some of them are absorbent even of the lighteft fubitances such as wood, cork, and feathers; fome, particularly one about 45 miles from Lisbon, are medicinal and fanative; and some hot baths are found in the little kingdom, or rather province of Algarve.
PHOMONTORIES AND BAYS.] The promontories or capes of Portugal are Cape Mondego, near the mouth of the river Mondego; Cape Roxo, at the north entrance of the River Tajo; and Cape Efpithe!, at the south entrance of the river Tajo; and Cape St. Vincent, on the south-welt point of Algarve. The bays are those of Cadoan, or St. Ubes, south of Litbon, and Lagos Bay in Algarve.
ANIMALS.] The sea-bih, on the coast of Portugal, are reckoned excellent; on the land, the hogs and kids are tolerable eating. Their mules
The Port-wines are made in the districts round Oporto, which does not produco one half the quantity that is consumed, under that name, in the British di monina only. The merchants in this city have very spacious wine-vaults, capable of holding
or 7coo pipes, and it is lid thai 20,000 are yearly exported from Opor:o,
are fure, and serviceable both for draught and carriage; and their horses, though flight, are lively. POPULATION, INHABITANTS, MAN-? According to the best calcıNERS, AND CUSTOMS.
Slation, Portugal contains about two millions or two millions and a half of inhabitants. The number of Portuguese in all the colonies appertaining to the crown are efti. mated at about nine hundred thousand. By a survey made in the year 1732, there were in that kingdom 3,344 parishes, and 1,742, 230 lay persons (which is but 522 laity to each parish on a medium), besides above 300,000 ecclesiastics of both sexes.
The modern Portuguese retain nothing of that adventurous enterprising spirit that rendered their forefathers so illustrious 300 years ago. They have, ever since the house of Braganza mounted the throne, degenerated in all their virtues; though some noble exceptions are ftill remaining among them, and no people are so little obliged as the Por. taguese are to the reports of hiftorians and travellers. Their degeneracy is evidently owing to the weakness of their monarchy, which renders them inactive, for fear of disobliging their powerful neighbours; and that inactivity has proved the source of pride, and other unmanly vices. Treachery has been laid to their charge, as well as ingratitude, and above all, an intemperate passion for revenge. They are, if possible, more fuperftitious, and, both in high and common life, affect more state, than the Spaniards themselves. Among the lower people, thieving is commonly practised; and all ranks are accused of being unfair in their dealings, especially with strangers. It is hard, however, to say what alteration may be made in the character of the Portuguese, by the expulfion of the Jesuits, and diminution of the papal influence among them; but above all, by that spirit of independency, with regard to commercial affairs, upon Great Britain, which, not much to the honour of their gratitude, though to the interest of their own country, is now so moch encouraged by their court and miniftry.
The Portuguese are neither so tall nor so well made as the Spaniards, whose habits and customs they imitate ; only the quality affect to be more gaily' and richly dressed. The Portuguese ladies are thin, and small of ftature. Their complexion is olive, their eyes black and expressive, and their features generally regular. They are esteemed to be generous, modeft and witty. They dress like the Spanish ladies, with much awkwardness and affected gravity, but in general more magnificently; and they are taught by their husbands to exact from their servants, a homage, that, in other countries, is paid only to royal personages. The furniture of the houses, especially of their grandees, is rich and superb to excess; and they maintain an incredible number of domestics, as they never discharge any who survive after serving their ancestors. The poorer fort have scarcely any furniture at all; for they, in imitation of the Moors, fit always crofs legged on the ground. The Portuguese peafants have never reaped any advantage from the benefits of foreign trade, and of the fine and vast countries the kings of Portogal peffefied in Africa or in the East; or of those still remaining to them in South Ame. rica. The only foreign luxury he is yet acquainted with is tobacco; and when his feeble purse can reach it, he purchases a dried Newfoundland cod-fith ; but this is a regale he dares feldom aspire to. A piece of bread made of Indian corn, and a falted pilchard, or a head of garlic, to give that bread a flavour, compofe his standing dish ; and if he can get a bit of the hog, the ox, or the calf, he himself fattens, to regale of happiness in this world; and indeed whatever he pofle.led teresa this habitual penury, according to the present fiate and exertions o... intellects, would quickly be taken from him, or rather he would wil. ingly part with it, being taught by his numberless gholily camkorter, with which his country fwarms, to look forward for ease and happines to another state of existence, to which they are themselves the infaldeak guides and conductors.
To these remarks we shall fubjoin those of Mr. Murphy, a lze tri. veller in Portugal :-" The common people of Lisbon and its envirota are a laborious and hardy race. It is painful to see the trouble they are obliged to take for want of proper implements to carry on their work. Their cars have the rude appearance of the earliest ages; these vehicia are slowly drawn by two stout oxen. The corn is helled by the treal. ing of the fame animals. They have many other customs which to u appear very singular; for example, women sit with the left fide towards the horse's head when they ride. A poftillion rides on the left borfe. A tailor fits at his work like a thoemaker. A hair-dresser appears on Sun. days with a sword, a cockade, and two watches, at leait iwo watch. chains. A tavern is known by a vine-bush, a house to be let by a piece of blank paper, the door of an accoucheur by a white cross, and a Jew by his extra.catholic devotion.-A Portuguese peasant will not walk with a superior, an aged person, or a stranger, without giving him the right hand side, as a mark of respect. He never pasies by a hu nian being without taking off his hat, and faluting him in these words, The Lord
preserve you for many years! In speaking of an absent friend he always fays- I die with impatience to see him,'_ They all imagine their country is the blessed Elysium, and that Lisbon is the greatest city in the world.”
RELIGION.] The established religion of Portugal is popery, in the ftricteft fenfe. The Portuguese have a patriarch; but formerly he de. pended entirely upon the pope, unless when a quarrel fubfifted between the courts of Rome and Lisbon. The power of his holiness in Portugal has been of late so much curtailed, that it is difficult to describe the religious state of that country: all we know is, that the royal retenues are greatly increased at the expense of the religious institutions in the king. com, The power of the inquisition is now taken out of the bands of the ecclefiaftics, and converted to a state-trap for tlie benefit of the crown
ARCHBISHOPRICS AND BISHOPRICS.] The archbihoprics are shofe cf Braga, Evora, and Litbon. The first of these has ten fuffragan bishops ; the second', rivo; and the last, ten, including those of the Portuguese settlements abroad. The patriarch of Lisbon is generally a cardinal, and a person of the higher birth.
LANGUAGE.] The Portuguefe language differs but little from that of Spain, and that provincially. Their Paternoster runs thus: Padre mulia que efias nos cecs, sanctificado fiio o tu nome; virka a rostna scyna, jes feila a tha wtede, ali
O pao reja de cedida, daro lo oci aflro dia. E perdoa nos as rojos devidas, rili cemo ios perdoaz's a os nossos devedores. E noo nos dexes cahir om teniação, mas libra nu un mal. Aven.
LEARNING AND LEARNED MEN] These are so few, that they are mentioned with indienation, even by those of the Portuguese themselves who have the finalleit rincture of licerature. Some efforts, though very weak, ha:c of late been made by a few, to draw their countrymen fron this deplorable itare of ignorance. It is universally allowed, thout the
105 ce's, como 10 terra.
a is not owing to the want of genius, but of a proper education. anceftors of the present Portuguese were certainly posseffed of more knowledge with regard io astronomy, geography, and navigation,
perhaps any other European nation, about the middle of the 16th cory, and for some time after. Camoens, who himself was a great enturer and voyager, was possessed of a true, but neglected, poetical yus. UNIVERSITIES.] These are Coimbra, founded in 1291, by king Den
and wbich had fifty professors; but it has lately been put under DE new regulations; Evora, founded in 1559; and the college of e nobles at Lisbon, where the young nobility are educated in every anch of polite learning and the sciences. All the books that did be. ng to the banished Jesuits are kept here, which compose a very large stars. The English language is likewise taught in this college. Here also a military and marine academy, where young gentlemen are eduted in the science of engineering and naval tactics. CuriosITIES.) The lakes and fountains which have been already entioned, form the chief of these. The remains of some castles in the Icorih tafte are still standing. The Roman bridge and aqueduct at cimbra are almost entire, and deservedly admired. The walls of San. reen are faid to be of Roman work likewise. The church and moaftery near Lisbon, where the kings of Portugal are buried, are inexreffibly magnificent, and several monafteries in Portugal are dug out of he hard rock. The chapel of St. Roch is probably one of the finest and richest in the world; the paintings are mosaic work, so curionfly wrought with stones of all colours, as to artonish the beholders. To
hele coriofities we may add, that the king is possessed of the largest, though not the most valuable, diamond in the world. It was found in Erasi.
CATEF CITIES] Lisbon is the capital of Portugal. Of the population of this city (fays Mr. Murphy) no exact account has been recently publined, and the rapid increase of its inhabitants of late years must render any calculation of that kind very uncertain. In the year 1774, the forty parishes into which Lisbon is divided were found to contain 33,761 houses; and in the year 1790, they amounted to 38,102. Hence it appears to have increased 4,338 houses in the course of these ten years. Now, if we estimate each house on an average at fix persons, which, perhaps is within the truth, the population in the year 1790 was 28.612. To these are to be added the religious of both sexes, with their attendants, who dwell in convents and monasteries, the foldiery, the professors and students of seminaries of education, and fuch of the Galician labourers as have no fixed dwelling; their aggregate amount, if tny information be correct, is not very short of 12,000. According to this statement, therefore, the population of Lisbon exceeds 240,000. From the magnitude of the city, indeed, we should be induced to tuppofe that its population was considerably more than above ftated; for it is compared to be four miles long, by one and a half broad; but many of the houfes have large gardens; and fuch as have nct, are, in general, laid out upon a large icaie, on account of the heat of the climate.
The fatal effects of the earthquake in 1755 are fill visible in many parts of the city, and never fail to impress every spectator with an awful remembrance of that disater; according to the most accurate accounts, there were not less than 24,000 victims to it. The Portuguese have, however, availed themselves of this misfortune, and, like the English