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tion to the number and force of these checks, the monarchies of Europe, such as Ruffia, France, Spain, and Denmark, differ from one another. Besides monarchies, in which one man bears the chief sway, there are in Europe aristocracies or governments of the nobles, and democracies or governments of the people. Venice is an example of the former ; Holland, Switzerland, and some states of Italy, afford examples of the latter. There are likewise mixed governments, which cannot be affigned to any one class. Great Britain, which partakes of all the three, is the most singular instance of this kind we are acquainted with. The other mixed governments of Europe are composed only of two of the fimple forms, such as Poland, and several states of Italy; all which shall be explained at length in their proper places.
The Christian religionis eftablished throughout every part of Europe, except Turkey; but from the various capacities of the human mind, and the different lights in which speculative opinions are apt to appear, when viewed by persons of different educations and paffions, that religion is divided into a number of different sects, but which may be comprehended under three general denominations; ift, The Greek church; 2d, Popery; and, 3d, Protestantism; which latt is again divided into Lutheranism and Calvinism, so called from Luther and Calvin, the diftinguished reformers of the fixteenth century.
The languages of Europe are derived from the fix following: the Greek, Latin, Teutonic or old German, the Celtic, Sclavonic, and Gothic.
GRAND DIVISIONS OF EUROPE.
This grand division of the earth is fituated between the 10th degree west, and the 65th degree east longitude from London, and between the 36th and 720 degree of north latitude. It is bounded on the north by the Frozen Ocean ; on the east, by Afia; on the south, by the Me diterranean sea, which divides it from Africa; and on the west, by 'the Atlantic Ocean, which separates it from America; being 3000 miles long, from Cape St. Vincent in the west, to the mouth of the river Ohy in the north-east; and 2500 broad from north to south, from the North Cape in Norway, to Cape Caglia, or Metapan, in the Morea, the mott southern promontory in Europe. It contains the following kingdoms and states :
Miles. H. M.
Calvinifts, Luth. &c.
270 N. W. 0 26 aft. Calvinifts & Papifts.
5+0 N. 0 24 bef. Lutherans. Denmark
240 180 Copenhagen .. 500 N. E. 0 50 bef. Lutherans.
1500 1100 Petersburgh 1140 N. E. 2 4 bef. Greek church.
760 E. 1 24 bef. Pap. Luth. & Calv.
540 E. 0 49 bef. Lutherans & Calvin. Germany 600 500 Vienna, 610 E. 1 5 bef Pap. Luth. & Calv. Bohemia 300 950 Prague
4 bef. Papists. Holland
150 100 Amsterdam 180 E. 0 18 bef. Calvinifts.
200 200 Bruffels.. 180 S. E. 0 16 bet. Papifts.
200 S.E. 0 9 bef. Papis.
800 S. 0 17 aft. Papifts.
820 S. E. 0 52 bef. Papists.
870 S. E. 1 O bef. Papifts. Hungary 300 200 Buda..
780 S. E. 1 17 bei. Pap. & Protestants.
1320 S. E, 1 58 bef.
400 240 Athens. 1360 S. E. 1 37 bef.
660 420 S Conftan
This includes the Crim Tartary, now ceded to Russia; for the particulars of which, see Russia,
Exclusive of the BRITISH ISLES before mentioned, EUROPE con
tains the following principal ISLANDS.
Chief Towns Subjek to In the Northern Iceland..
Skalholt Denmark. Ocean ..
í Zealand, Funen, Allen, Falster, Lang-
Port Mahon (Ditto
Cagliari.... K. of Sard
Palermo K.of 2 Sic. Adriatic or S Lufiena, Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Leu-?
Tenedos, Scyros, Mitylene, Scio, Sa-
Turkey. Levant Seas..
rin, &c. being part of ancient and
modern Greece.... Minorca was taken from Spain by General Stanhope, 1708, and confirmed to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht, 1713; but was belieged and taken by the Spaniards February 15, 1782, and confirmed to them by the definitive treaty of peace, figned at Paris, September 3, 1783. It has since been again taken by the English, November 15, 1798.
DENMARK. I Shall, according to my plan, begin this account of his Danish majesty's dominions with the most portherly situations, and divide them into four parts: ift, East and West Greenland, Iceland, and the islands in the Atlantic Ocean; 2d, Norway, 3d, Denmark Proper; and, 4th, his German territories.--The dimensions of these countries may be seen in the fullowing table.
9,600 135 98 Wyburg.
Copen-N. Lat. 55.41. 60 601
HAGEN. JE. Lon. 12. 40. 769 38 321 Odensce. 220 27
Funen Islands at the
12 50 13
8 Borge. 5-4 15
| Sonderborge. S9 14 5 Stege.
160 20 12 Roftcomby. 46,000 4351 135 Skaiholt. $71,400 750 170 Bergen. 29,400 285 172 Wardhuys. 1,260 62 32 Oldenburgh. 1,000 52 32 Gluckstadt.
Langland of the
Femeren Baltic Sea.
| Borsholin In the North Seas.. Iceland Nand
Danish Lapland Westphalia ...... Oldenburgh Lower Saxony .... Stormar.
The reader may perceive, that in the preceding table no calculation is made of the dimenfions of East and West Greenland ; because, in fact, they are not yet known, or known very imperfectly: we shall proceed to give the lateft accounts of them, and from the best authorities that have come to our hands.
EAST AND WEST GREENLAND, ICELAND, AND THE
ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN.
EAST GREENLAND, THE most northerly part of his Danish majesty's dominions, or, as others call it, New Greenland, and the country of Spitzbergen, lies between 11 and 25 deg. E. long. and 76 and so 'deg. N. lat. according to captain Phipps's observations in his voyage, 1773. Though it is now claimed by Denmark, it certainly was discovered by fir Hugh Willoughby in 153; and is supposed to be a continuation of Old Greenland. It obtained the name of Spitzbergen (or craggy mountains) from the height and ruggedness of its rocks. Few animals or vegetables are to be found here, and the fish and fowl are said to forsake the coast in winter. The Ruflians of Archangel have, within the last thirty years, formed settlements for hunting in several places of the island of Spitzbergen. The Aurora Borealis, or northern lights, reflected from the snow, enable them to pursue the chase during the long winter's night that reigns in thele gloomy regions; and they take a great number of sea-lions, which serve them for food. There is a whale fishery, chiefly profecuted by the Dutch and British vessels, on its coasts. It likewise contains two harbours; one called South Haven, and the other Maurice Bay. The inland parts are upinhabited.
WEST GREENLAND LIES between the meridian of London, and 53 deg. W. long, and beIween 60 and 76 deg. N. lat.
INHABITANTS.) By the latest accounts from the missionaries employed for the conversion of the Greenlanders, their whole number does not amount to above 957 constant inhabitants. Mr. Crantz, however, thinks the roving fouthlanders of Greenland may amount to about 7000. There is a great resemblance, in aspect,''manners, and dress, between those people and the Esquimaux Americans, from whom they naturally differ but little, even after all the endeavours of the Danish and Germán mirfionaries to convert and civilife them. They are low of ftature, few exCeeding five feet in height, and the generality are not so tall. The hair of their heads is long, straight, and of a black colour; but they have seldom any beards, because it is their constant practice to root them out. They have high breasts and broad shoulders, especially the women, who are obliged to carry great burdens from their younger years. They are very light and nimble of foot, and can also use their hands with much ikill and dexterity. They are not very lively in their tempers; but they are good-humoured, friendly, and unconcerned about futurity. Their moft agreeable food is the flesh of rein-deer ; but that is now scarce among them; and their best provisions are fish, seals, and sea-fowl. Their drink is clear water, which stands in the house in a large copper veffet, or in a wooden tub, which is very neatly made by them, ornamented with fish
men make their hunting and fishing implements, and prepare the woodwork of their boats; and the women cover them with tkins. The men hunt and fish : but when they have towed their booty to land, they trouble themselves no farther about it; nay it would be accounted beneath their dignity even to draw out the filh upon the fore. The women are the butchers and cooks, and also the curriers to dress the pelts, and make cloaths, shoes, and boots, out of them ; so that they are likewise both shoemakers and taylors. The women also build and repair the houses and tents, so far as relates to the masonry, the men doing only the carpenter's work. They live in huts, during the winter, which is incredibly levere ; but Mr. Crantz, who has given us the latest and best accounts of this country, says, that in the longett summer days it is so hot, from the long continuance of the lun's rays, that the inhabitants are obliged to throw off their summer garments. They have no trade, though they have a most improvable fishery upon their coats; but they employ all the year either in fishing or hunting; in which they are very dexterous, particularly in catching and killing feals.
CURIOSITIES.] The taking of whales in the seas of Greenland, among the fields of ice that have been increasing for ages, is perhaps one of the boldeft enterprises of man. These fields or pieces of ice are frequently more than a mile in length, and upwards of 100 feet in thickness; and when they are put in motion by a storm, nothing can be more terrible: the Dutch had 13 Thips crushed to pieces by them in one season.
There are several kinds of whales in Greenland; fomc white, and others black. The black fort, the grand bay whale, is in mott esteem, on account of his bulk, and the great quantity of fat or blubber he affords, which turns to oil. His tongue is about 18 feet long, inclosed in long pieces of what we call whalebone, which are covered with a kind of hair like horse-hair : and on each side of his tongue are 250 pieces of this whalebone. The bones of his body are as hard as an ox's bones, and of no use. There are no teeth in his mouth;, and he is usually between 60 and so feet long; very thick about the head; but grows lets from thence to the tail.
When the seamen fee a whale-spout, the word is immediately given, a fall! a fall! when every one haliens from the ship to his boat, fix of eight men being appointed to a boat, and four or five boats usually belong to one Nip:
When they come near the whale, the harpooner firikes him with his barpoon (a barbed dart), and the montter, finding himself wounded, dives swiftly down into the deep, and would carry the boat along with him if they did not give him line fast enough. To prevent the wood of the boat taking fire by the violent rubbing of the rope on the side of it, one wets it conftantly with a mop. After the whale' has run fome hundred fathoms deep, he is forced to come up for air, when he makes such a terrible noise with his spouting, that some have compared it to the tiring of cannon. As foon as he appears on the surface of the water, some of the harpooners fix another harpoon in him, whereupon he plunges again into the decp; and when he comes up a fecond time, they pierce him with spears in the vital parts, till he spouts out streams of blood instead of water, beating the waves with his tail and fins till the fea is all in a foam, the boats continuing to follow him fome leagues, till he has loft his strength; and when he is dying he turns himself upon his back, and is drawn on thore, or to the thip, if they be at a distance from the land. There they cut him in pieces, and, by boiling the blubber, extract the oil, it' they have conveniences on shore; otherwise they barrel up