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The sheep are all spotted; the lambkins very beautiful, and they kill the ewes to have them before' birth, when their skins have small spors, and are (mcoch like the finest and lightest satins. Coats lined with these skins are called pelises ; and as a great number of these small animals must be killed to make the lining of one coat, this is one of the finest presents the empress can make to an ambassador.
The peninsula of the Crimea has a considerable trade in what is called Morocco leather, of various colours, which is to be had very cheap, and like facio. At Bachiferai there is a great trade of sword blades, knives, and hangers, many of which are not to be distinguished from such as are made at Damascus,
ISLANDS belonging to TURKEY in EUROPE,
being Part of Ancient Greece. shall mention these iflands chiefly for the use of such readers as are conversant with ancient history, of which they make so distinguished a part.
NECROPON T, the ancient Euboea, stretches from the fouth-east to the north-west, and on the eastern coast of Achaia or Livadia. It is ninety miles long and twenty-five broad, and contains about 1300 square miles, Here the Turkish galleys lie. The tides on its coalts are irregular; and the ifand itself is very fertile, producing corn, wine, fruit, and cattle, in such abundance, that all kinds of provisions are extremely cheap. The chief towns in the island are, Negropont, called by the Greeks Egripos, situated on the south-west coast of the island, on the narrowest part of the ftrait; and Caftel Rosso, the ancient Caryftus.
LEMNOS, or STALIMENE, lies on the north part of the Ægean Sea or Archipelago, and is almost a square of twenty-five miles in length and breadth. Though it produces corn and wine, yet its principal riches arise from its mineral earth, much used in medicine, sometimes called lerra Lemnia, or terra figillata, because it is sealed up by the Turks, who receive from it a considerable revenue.
Tenemos is remarkable only for its lying opposite to old Tra', and being mentioned by Virgil as the place to which the Greeks retird, and left the Trojans in a fatal security. It has a town of the same nane.
Scyros is about fixty miles in circumference, and is remarkablechiefly for the remains of antiquity which it contains : about three hundred Greek families inhabit it.
LESBos, or MITYLENE, is about fixty miles long, and is fanous for the number of philosophers and poets it produced, The inhabitats were formerly noted for their prodigality,
Scio, or Caros, lies about eighty miles west of Smyrna, and s about one hundred miles in circumference. This island, though roky and mountainous, produces excellent wine, but no corn. It is inhalted by 100,000 Greeks, 10,000 Turks, and about 3,000 Latins. It has 300 churches, besides chapels and monasteries ; and a Turkish garison of 1.400 men, The inhabitants have manufactures of silk, veivei, gid and filver ituffs. The island likewise produces oil and silk, and the entikk. tree, or maftic, from which the government draws its chief svenue, The women of this, and almost all the other Greek islands, hae in all ages been celebrated for their beauty, and their persons have ben the veral other islands of the Archipelago appear to have had the like ori. ginal; but the sea in their neighbourhood is so deep as not be fathomed.
The famous island of Ruodes is situated in the twenty-eighth degree of cast longitude, and thirty-lix degrees thirty minutes north latitude, about twenty miles south-west of the continent of Leffer Asia, being about fixiy miles long, and twenty-five broad. This island is healthful apd pleasant, and abounds in wine, and many of the necessaries of life; but the inhabitants import their corn froin the neighbouring country. The chief town, which also bears the name of Rhodes, is situated on the side of a hill fronting the sea, and is three miles in circumference, interspersed with gardens, minarets, churches, and towers. The harbour of Rhodes is the grand-lignor's principai harhour for shipping, and the place is esteemed among the ttrongest fori resses belonging to the Turks. The colossus of brass, which anciently food at the mouth of the harbour, and was fifty fathoms wide, was deservedly accounted one of the wonders of the world; one foot being placed on each fide of the harbour, ships passed between its legs; and it held in one hand a light-house for the direction of mariners. The face of the coloffus represented the sun, to whom this image was dedicated; and its height was about 135 feet. The inhabitants of this isand were formerly matters of the sea; and the Rhodian law was the directory of the Romans in maritime affairs. The knights of St. John of Jerufalem, after loling Palestine, took this illand from the Turks in 1308, but lost it to them in 1529, after a brave de fence, and afterwards retired to Malta.
CANDIA, the ancient Crete, is still renowned for its hundred cities, for its being the birth place of Jupiter, the seat of legillature to all Greece, and many other historical and political distinctions. It lies between thirty-five and thirty-six degrees of north latixude, being 200 miles long, and fixty broad, almost equally diftant from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and contains 3,220 square miles. The famous Mount Ida Aands in the middle of the illand, and is no better than a barren rock; and Lethe, the river of oblivion, is a torpid stream. Some of the valley's of this island produce wine, fruits, and corn ; all of them remarkably excellent in their kind. The siege of Candia, the capital of the Illand, in mudern times, was far more wonderful and bloody than that of Troy. The Turks invested it in the beginning of the year 1945; and its Vene. tian garrison, after bravely defending itself' against fikcy-fix assaults, till the latter end of September 1669, made, at laft, an honourable capitulation. The fiege cost the Turks 130,000 men, and the Venetians 80,000.
Crpkus lies in the Levant Sea, about thirty miles distant from the coafis of Syria and Palestine. It is one hundred and fifty miles long, and feventy broad, and lies at almost an equal distance from Europe and Africa. It was formerly famous for the worship of Venus, the Cyprian goddess; and, during the time of the crulades, was a rich flourishing kingdom inhabited by Chriftians. Its wine, especially that which grows at the bottom of the celebrated Mount Olympus, is the most palatable and the richest of all that grows in the Greek islands. Niccfia is the capital, in the midst of the country, and the fee of a Greek archbishop; indeed, not part of the inhabitants of the island are Greeks. Famagusta, is ancient capital, has a good harbour ; and the natural produce of the illard is fo rich, that many European nations find their account in keeping consuls refiding upon it; but the oppressions of the Turks bave de while the other parts of the globe were inhabited only by wild animals. On all these accounts, this quarter claims a superiority over the rest ; but it must be owned that a great change hath happened in that part of it called Turkey, which has lost much of its ancient splendour; and, from the most populous and best cultivated spot in Alia, is become a wild and uncultivated desert. The other parts of Asia continue much in their former condition, the foil being as remarkable for its fertility as most of the inhabitants for their indolence, effeminacy, and luxury. This effeminacy is chiefy owing to the warmth of the climate, though in some measure heightened by custom and education ; and the symptoms of it are more or less visible, as the several nations are seated nearer or farther from the north. Hence the Tartars, who live near the same la. titudes with us, are as brave, hardy, ftrong, and vigorous, as any Eu. ropean nation. What is wanting in the robust frame of their bodies, among the Chinese, Mogul-Indians, and all the inhabitants of the mott foothern regions, is in a great measure made up to them by the vivacity of their minds, and ingenuity in various kinds of work manship, which our moft kilful mechanics have in vain endeavoured to imitate.
This vast extent of territory was successively governed, in part times, by the Affyrians, the Medes, the Persians, and the Greeks; but the iinmense regions of India and China were litrle known to Alexander, or the conquerors of the ancient world. Upon the decline of those empires, great part of Afia submitted to the Roman arms; and afterwards, in the middle ages, the successors of Mahomet, or, as they were usually called, Saracens, founded in Asia, in Africa, and in Europe, a more extensive empire than that of Cyrus, Alexander, or even the Roman when in its height of power. The Saracen greatness ended with the death of Tamerlane; and the Turks, conquerors on every side, took possession of the middle regions of Asia, which they ftill enjoy. Besides the countries poffefied by the Turks and Russians, Afia contains, at present, three large empires, the Chinese, the Mogul, and the Persian, upon which the lefler kingdoms and sovereignties of Asia generally depend. The prevailing form of government, in this division of the globe, is absolute monarchy. If any of its inhabitants can be said to enjoy some share of liberty, it is the wandering tribes, as the Tariars and Arabs. Many of the Afiatic nations, when the Dutch first came among them, could not conceive how it was pofsible for any people to live under any other form of government than that of a despotic monarchy. Turkey, Arabia, Persia, part of 'Tartary, and part of India," profess Mahometanism. The Persian and Indian Mahometans are of the feet of Ali, and the others of that of Omar ; but both own Mahomet for their lawgiver, and the Koran for their rule of faith and life. In the other parts of Tartary, India, China, Japan, and the Asiatic Islands, they are generally heathens and idolaters. Jews are to be found every where in Alia. Christianity, though planted here with wonderful rapidity, by the apostles and primi. tive fathers, suffered an almost total eclipse by the conquests of the Saracens, and afterwards by the Turks; incredible indeed have been the hazards, peril, and sufferings of the catholic miffionaries, to propagate their doctrines in the most diftant regions, and among the groffert idolaters; bot their labours have hitherto failed of success, owing in a great measure to the avarice, cruelty, and injustice, of the Europeans, who refort thither in search of wealth and dominion.
The principal languages spoken in Asia are, the modern Greek, the Turkish, the Ruffian, ihe Tartarian, the Persian, the Arabic, the Ma. layan, the Chinese, and ihe Japanese. The European languages are also