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ing in a frightful manner. The like happens frequently to bears, who attempt to swim to the island to prey upon the sheep.
It was the opinion of Kircher, that the Malestrom is a sea vortex, which attracts the flood under the shore of Norway, and discharges it again in the Gulf of Bothnia; but this opinion is now known to be erroneous, by the return of the shattered fragments of whatever happens to be fucked down by it. The large stems of firs and pines rise again so fhivered and splintered that the pieces look as if covered with brižles. The whole phenomena are the effects of the violence of the daily ebb and flow, occafioned by the contraction of the stream in its course between the rocks. PEOPLE, LANGUAGE, RELIGION,
The Norwegians are a people AND CUSTOMS OF Norway. S of an intermediate character between the fimplicity of the Greenlanders and Icelanders, and the more polished manners of the Danes. Their religion is Lutheran ; and they have bishops, as those of Denmark, without temporal jurisdiction. Their viceroy, like his master, is absolute : but the farmers and common people in Norway are much less oppressed than those in Denmark.
The Norwegians in general are strong, robust, and brave; but quick in resenting real or supposed injuries. The women are handsome and courteous; and the Norwegian modes of living greatly resemble those of the Saxon ancestors of the present English. Every inhabitant is an artisan, and supplies his family in all its necessaries with his own manufactures; fo that in Norway there are few who are by profellion batters, fhoe-makers, tailors, tanners, weavers, carpenters, smiths, or joiners. The lowest Norwegian peasant is an artist and a gentleman, and even a poet. They often mix with oat-meal the bark of the fir, made into a kind of flour; and they are reduced to very extraordinary shifts for fupplying the place of bread or farinaceous food. The middling Norwegians lead that kind of life which we may say is furnished with plenty, but they are neither fond of luxury, nor do they dread penury: and this middle state prolongs their lives surprisingly. Though their dress is in many respects accommodated to their climate, yet, by custom, inftead of guarding against the inclemency of the weather, they outbrave it ; for they expose themselves to cold, without any covering upon their breasts or necks. A Norwegian of a hundred years of age is not accounted past his labour; and in 1733, four couples were married, and danced before his Danish majesty at Fredericshall, whose ages, when joined, exceeded 800 years.
The funeral ceremonies of the Norwegians contain vestiges of their former paganism : they play on the violin at the head of the coffin, and while the corpse is carried to the church, which is often done in a boat. In some places the mourners ask the dead person, why he died? whether his wife and neighbours were kind to him ? and other such questions ; frequently kneeling down and asking forgivenels, if ever they had offended him.
COMMERCE.] We have little to add to this head, different from what will be observed in our account of Denmark. "The duties on their exports, most of which have been already recounted, amount to about 100,000 rix-dollars a year.
STRENGTH AND REVENUE.] By the best calculations, Norway can furnish out 14,000 excellent seamen, and above 30,000 brave soldiers, for the service of their king. The royal annual revenue from Norway amounts to near 200,0001.; and, till his present majesty's accession, the army, instead of being expenfive, added considerably to his income, by the
HISTORY] We must refer to Denmark likewise for this head. T ancient Norwegians certainly were a very brave and powerful peop and the hardieft seamen in the world. If we may believe their historie they were no firangers to America long before it was discovered 1 Columbus. Many customs of their ancestors are yet difcernible Ireland and the north of Scotland, where they made frequent descen and some settlements, which are generally confounded with those of t1 Danes. From their being the most turbulent, they are become now ! mott loyal, subjects in Eurnpe: their former character is no doubt be ascribed to the barbarity and tyranny of their kings, when a . parate people. Since the union of Calmar, which united Norway 1 Denmark, their history, as well as interests, are the same with those <Deninark.
DENMARK* Proper, or JUTLAND, exclufive of thi
Islands in the Baltic.
EXTENT AND SITUATION.
54 and 38 nonth latitude.
Containing 15,744 square miles, withr 139 inhabitants to each. BOUNDARIES AXD }
IT is divided on the north from Norway by the DIVISIONS. Scaggerac Sea, and from Sweden on the east by the Sound; it is bounded on the south by Germany and the Baltic; and the German Sea divides it from Great Britain on the weft.
Denmark Proper is divided into two parts; the pen insula of Jutland, anciently called Cberfonefus Cimbrica, and the iftands at the entrance of the Baltic mentioned in the table. It is remarkable, that, though all these together constitute the kingdom of Denmark, yet not any one of them is feparately called by that name, Copenhagen, the metropolis, is in the island of Zealand.
AIR, CLIMATE, soil, STATE OF AGRICULTURE, &c.] One of the largest and most fertile of all the provinces of this kingdom is Jutland, which produces abundance of all sorts of grain and pasturage, and is a kind of magazine for Norway on all occafions. A great number of 1mall cattle are bred in this province, and afterwards transported inta Holstein, to be fed for the use of Hamburgh,
ec, and Amsterdam. Jutland is every where interspersed with hills, and on the eaft side has fine woods of oak, fir, beech, birch, and other trees; but the west Gide being less woody, the inhabitants are obliged to use turf and heath for fuel. Zealand' is for the most part a fandy fuil, but rather fertile in grain and pasturage, and agreeably variegated with woods and lakes of water. The climate is more temperate here, on account of the vapours from the surrounding sea, than it is in many more foutherly parts of Europe. Spring and autumn are feasons scarcely known in Denmark, on account of the sudden transitions from cold to heat, and from heat to cold, which distinguish the climate of this kingdom. In all the northern provinces of Denmark, the winters are very levere, so that the inha.
See Mallet's Denmark, p. 1, to 18, vol. v. + Meaning where longest and broadeit, - a method which the author has every where obierved; and it seems to be the practice of other writers on the fubie&t. Great allow. ances muit cherefore he made in most countries, as the readers will perceive by looking on the maps. jatlaid, for instanceis 114 miles wiere broadest, though in fundry tehet uts it is not a
bitants often pass arms of the sea in sledges upon the ice ; and during the winter all the harbours are frozen up.
The greatest part of the lands in Denmark and Holstein are fiefs ; and the ancient nobility, by grants which they extorted at different times from the crown, gained such power over the farmers, and those who relided upon their eftates, that at length they reduced them to a state of extreme flavery, so that they were bought and fold with their lands, and were etteemed the property of their lords. Many of the noble landholders of Slefwick and Holstein have the power of life and death. The situation off the farmers has, indeed, been made fumewhat more agreeable by some modern edicts; but they are still, if such an expression may be allowed, chained to their farms, and are disposed of at the will of their lords. When a farmer in Denmark or Holftein happens to be an industrious man, and is situated upon a poor farm, which by great diligence he has laboured to cultivate advantageously, as soon as he has performed the toilfome talk, and expects to reap the profits of what he has sown, his landlord, under pretence of taking it into his own hands, removes him from that farm to another of his poor farms, and expects that he should perform the same laborious talk there, without any other emolument than what he may think proper to give him. This has been so long the practice in this country, that it necessarily throws the greatest damp upon the efforts of industry, and prevents thofe improvements in agriculture which would otherwise be introduced : the consequence of which is, that nine parts in ten of the inhabitants are in a state of great poverty. But if the farmers had a security for their property, the lands of Denmark might have been cultivated to much greater advantage than they are at present, and a much greater number of people supported by the produce of agriculture.
ANIMALS.) Denmark produces an excellent breed of horses, bcth for the faddle and carriage; about 5000 are sold annually out of the country, and of the horned cattle, 30,000. Besides numbers of black cattle, they have theep, hors, and game; and the fea coafts are generally well supplied with fish.
POPULATION, MANNERS, AND CUSTOMS ] By an actual enumeration made, in 1759, of his Danish majefty's fubjects in his dominions of Denmark, Norway, Holttein, the islands in the Baltic, and the counties of Oldenburgh and Delmenhors in Westphalia, they were said to amount to 2,444,000 fouls, exclusive of the Icelanders and Greenlanders. The most accurate account of the population is that made under the direction of the famous Struensee; by which, Jutland numbered 358,136 Iceland
283,406 | Duchy of Sleswick 243,605 Funen 143,988 Duchy of Holstein
134,665 Norway 723,141 Oldenburgh
62,854 Idlands of Ferro 4,75+ Delmenhorit
Sum total 2.017,027 Several of the smaller islands included in the district of Fionia, which may contain a few thousands, are omitted in this computation.
However disproportioned ihis number may leem to the extent of his Danish majesty's dominions, yet, every thing confidered, it is far greater than could have been expcéted from the uncultivated fiate of his politika fions. But the trade. of Denmark has been to shackled by the corruption and arbitrary proceedings of its minifters, and the merchants are 10 t«r.
might be rendered rich and flourishing, is at present one of the moft indigent and distressed states in Europe, and these circumstances prevent Denmark from being so populous as it otherwise would be, were the administration of government more mild and equitable, and proper encouragement given to foreigners, and to those who engage in agricultural and other arts.
The ancient inhabitants of Denmark poffeffed a degree of courage which approached even to ferocity; but, by a continual series of tyranny and oppression, their national character is much changed, and from a brave, enterprising, and warlike people, they are became indoleat, timid, and dull of apprehension. They value themselves extremely upon those titles and privileges which they derive from the crown, and are exceedingly fond of pomp and show. They endeavour to imitate the French in their manners, dress, and even in their gallantry ; though they are naturally the very contrast of that nation. The Danes, like other northern nations, are given to intemperance in drinking, and convivial entertainments; but their nobility, who begin now to visit the other courts of Europe, are refining from their provincial habits and vices.
RELIGION.] The religion of Denmark is Lutheran ; and the kingdom is divided into fix dioceses : one in Zealand, one in Funen, and four in Jutland ; besides four in Norway, and two in Iceland. These dioceses are governed by bithops, whose duty it is to superintend the other clergy; nor have they any other mark of pre-eminency than a distinction in their ecclefiaftical dress ; for they have neither cathedrals nor ecclefiaftical courts, nor the smallest concern with civil affairs : their morals, however, are to good, that.they are revered by the people. They are paid by the state, the church lands having been appropriated to the government at the reformation.
LANGUAGE AND LEARNING.] The language of Denmark is a dialect of the Teutonic; but High Dutch and French are ipoken at court; and the nobility have lately made great advances in the English, which is now publicly taught at Copenhagen as a neceitary part of education. A company of English comedians occasionally visit that capital, where they find tolerable encouragement.
The university of Copenhagen has funds for the gratuitous support of 398 students ; these fundz are said to amount to 300,000 rix-dollars. But the Danes in general have made no great figure in literature ; though astronomy and medicine are highly indebted to their Tycho Brahe, Borrichius, and the Bartholines ; and the Round Tower and Chriftian's Haven display the mechanical genius of a Longomontanus, They begin now, however, to make some promising attempts in history, poetry, and the drama. But it appears, that, in general, literature receives very little countenance or encouragement in Denmark; which may be considered as the principal caule of its being so little cultivated by the Danes.
Cities AND CHIEF BUILDINGS.] Copenhagen, which is situated on the fine island of Zealand, was originally a fettlement of failors, and first founded by some wandering fishermen in the twelfth century, but is now the metropolis, and makes a magnificent appearance at a distance. It is very strong, and defended by four royal cattles or forts. It contains ten parith churches, besides nine others belorging to the Calvinists and other persuasions, and some hospitals. Copenhagen is adorned by some public and private palaces, as they are called. Its streets are 186 in number : and its inhabitants amount to 100,000. The houses in the principal streets are built of brick, and those in the lanes chiefly of timber. Its
university has been already mentioned. But the chief glory of Copenhagen is its harbour, formed by a large canal flowing through the city, which admits only one ship to enter at a time, but is capable of containing 500). Several of the streets have canals, and quays for ships to lie close to the houses ; and its naval arsenal is said to exceed that of Venice. The road for shipping begins about two miles from the town, and is defended by 90 pieces of cannon, as well as the difficulty of the navigation. Yet, notwithstanding all these advantages, there is little appearance of industry or trade in this city; and Copenhagen, though one of the finest ports in the world, cannot boast of its commerce. The public places are filled with officers either in the land or sea service; and the number of forces kept up is much too large for this little kingdom. The police of Copenhagen is extremely regular, and people may walk through the whole city at midnight with great safety. Indeed, it is usually almost as quiet here at eleven o'clock at night as in a country
The royal palace of Christiansburg, one of the most commodious and most sumptuoully furnished in Europe, was built in the reign of Chriftian VI. and is said to have coft, in building only, considerably above a milion fterling; but this palace was reduced to a heap of alhes by a dreadful fire, which happened on the 26th of February 1794. The royal library, which stood detached from the principal pile, and contained between two and three hundred thousand volumes, was, however, fortunately preserved. The finest palace belonging to his Danish majesty lies about twenty English miles from Copenhagen, and is called Fredericīburgh. It is a very large building, moated round with a triple ditch, and calculated, like most of the ancient residences of princes, for defence against an enemy. It was built by Christian IV. and, according to the architecture of the times, partakes. of the Greek and Gothic fiyles. In the front of the grand quadrangle appear Tuscan and Doric pillars; and on the summit of the building are spires and turrets. Some of the rooms are very splendid, though furnithed in the antique talte. The knights' hall is of great length. The tapestry represents the wars of Denmark, and the ceiling is a most minute and laboured performance in sculpture. The chimney-piece was once entirely covered with plates of silver, richly ornamented; but the Swedes, who have often landed here, and even besieged the capital, tore them all away, and rifled the palace, notwithttanding its triple moat and formidable appearance, About two miles from Ellineur is another small royal palace, Hat roofed, with twelve windows in front, said to be built on the place formerly occupied by the palace of Hamlet's father. In an adjoining garden is fhown the very spot where, according to tradition, that prince was poisoned.
Jagersburg is a park which contains a royal country seat called the Hermitage, remarkable for the disposition of its apartments and the quaintnels of its furniture, particularly a machine which conveys the dishes to and from the king's table in the second flory: The chief ecclefaltical building in Deninark is the cathedral of Roschild, where the kings and queens of Denmark were formerly buried, and their monuments fill remain. Joining to this cathedral, by a covered pallage, is a royal . palace, built in 1733.
Elfineur is well built, contains 5000 inhabitants, and, with respect to commerce, is only exceeded by Copenhagen. It is firongly fortified