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the opposite fide of the pass, for some time refused to pay it; but in the treaty of 1720, between Sweden and Denmark, under the guarantee of his Britannic majesty George I. the Swedes agreed to pay the same rates as are paid by the subjects of Great-Britain and the Netherlands. The first treaty relative to it was by the emperor Charles V. on behalf of his subjects in the Low Countries. The toll is paid at Elîneur, a town fituated on the Sound, at the entrance of the Baltic Sea, and about 18 miles distant from Copenhagen. The whole revenue of Denmark, including what is received at Ellineur, amounts at present to above 5,000,000 of rixdollars, or 1,002,000l. sterling yearly.

The following is a list of the king's revenues, exclusive of his private eftates :

Rix-dollars at

4s. each. Tribute of hard corn, or land-tax....

1,000,000 Small taxes, including poll-tax, pound rents, excise, mar

riages, &c..... Custom-house duties

154,000 Duties of the Sound

200,000 Duties of Jutland, from falt-pits

27,000 Tithes and poll-tax of Norway

770,000 Tolls of Bergen, Drontheim, Christiansand, and Christiana.. 160,000 Other tolls ...

552,000 Revenue from mines

300,000 Revenue from Sieswick, Holstein, Oldenburg, and Delmenhorst ....

690,000 Taxes on acorns and mast from beech..

20,000 Tolls on the Weser ....

7,500 Post-office ..

70,000 Farms of Iceland and Ferro

35,000 Farms of Bornholm ....

14,800 Oyster Fishery

22,000 Stamp-paper


} 950,000

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Sum total, 5,012,300

In English money, 4.1,002,460

By a lift of the revenue taken in 1730, it then only amounted to Englith money £.454,700.

ARMY AND NAVY.] The three last kings of Denmark, notwithstanding the degeneracy of the people in martial affairs, were very respecte able princes, by the number and discipline of their troops, which they kept up with a vast care. The present military force of Denmark confifts of 70,000 men, cavalry and infantry, the greatest part of which is a militia who receive no pay, but are registered on the army-lift, and every Sunday exercised. The regular troops are about 20,000, and mostly foreigners, or officered by foreigners; for Frederic III. was too refined a politician to trust his security in the hands of those he had tricked out of their liberty. Though this army is extremely burdensome to the nation, yet it costs little to the crown; great part of the infantry lie in Norway, where they live upon the boors at free quarter; and in Denmark the peasantry are obliged to maintain the cavalry in victuals and lodging, and even to furnish them with money. The present feet of Denmark is composed of 36 ships of the line, and 18 frigates ;


but many of the ships being old, and wanting great repairs, it is supposed they cannot fit out more than 25 ships on the greatest emergency. This fleet is generally stationed at Copenhagen, where are the dock-yards, store. houses, and all the materials necessary for the use of the marine.

They have 26,000 registered seamen, who cannot quit the kingdom without leave, nor serve on board a merchantman without permission from the admiralty; 4000 of these are kept in constant pay, and employed in the dock-yards; their pay, however, scarcely amounts to nine shillings per month; but they have a fort of uniform, with some provifions and lodging allowed for themselves and families..

ORDERS OF KNIGHTUOOD IN DENMARK.] These are two; that of the Elephant, and that of Dancburg. The former was instituted by Christian I. in the year 1478, and is deemed the most honourable ; its badge is an elephant surmounted with a castle, set in diamonds, and sufpended to a sky blue watered ribbond, worn, like the George in England, over the right shoulder ; the number of its members, besides the fovereign, are thirty, and the knights of it are addressed by the title of Excellency. The badges of the Daneburg order, which is said to have been instituted in the year 1219, and, after being long obsolete, revived in 1671 by Christian V. consist of a white ribbond with red edges, worn scarf-wise over the right houlder; from which depends a imali cross of diamonds, and an embroidered star on the breast of the coat, surrounded with the motto Pietate et Justitia. The badge is a cross pattee enamelled white, on the centre the letter C and 5 crowned with a regal crown, and this motto, Restitutor. The number of knights is not limited; and they are very numerous,

History.) We owe the chief history of Denmark to a very extraordinary phenomenon ; the revival of the purity of the Latin language in Scandinavia, in the person of Saxo Grammaticus, at a time (the 12th century) when it was lost in all other parts of the European continent, Saxo, like the other historians of his age, had adopted, and at the same time ennobled by his style, the most ridiculous abiurdities of remote antiquity. We can, however, collect enough from him to conclude that the ancient Danes, like the Gauls, the Scots, the Irish, and other northern nations, had their bards, who recounted the military achievements of their heroes;

and that their first hifiories were written in verse. There can be no doubt that the Scandinavians or Cimbri, and the Teutones (the inhabitants of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden), were Scythians by their original; but how far the tracts of land, called either Scythia * or Gaul, formerly reached, is uncertain.

Even the name of the first Christian Danish king is uncertain; and those of the people of these countries are to blended together, that it is impossible for the reader to conceive a precise idea of the old Scandinavian history. This undoubtedly was owing to the remains of their Scythian customs, particularly that of removing from one country to an. other; and of several nations or fepts joining together in expeditions by sea or land, and the adventurers being denominated after their chief lead. ers. Thus the terms Danes, Saxons, Jutes or Goths, Germans, and

By Scythia may be understood all those northern countries of Europe and Afia (now inhabited by the Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, Ruliians, and Tartars : see the Introduction), whose inhabitants overturned and peopled the Roman nopire, and continued, so late as the 13th century, to issue forth in large bodies, and naval expeditions, ravaging the more southern and fertile kingdoins of Europe. Hence, by fir William Tema pk and other historians, they are termed the Northern Hive, the Mother of Nations, the Storte drufe of Europe,

Normans, were promiscuously used long after the time of Charlemagnc. Even the short revival of literature under that prince throws very little light upon the Danish history. All we know is, that the inhabitants of Scandinavia, in their maritime expeditions, went generally under the name of Saxons with foreigners; that they were bold adventurers, rude, fierce, and martial; that, fo far back as the year of Christ 500, they infulted all the fea-coasts of Europe; that they settled in Ireland, where they built ftone houses; and that they became masters of England, and some part of Scotland; both which kingdoms still retain proofs of their barbarity. When we read the history of Denmark and that of England, under the Danish princes who reigned over both countries, we meet with but a faint resemblance of events; but the Danes, as conquerors, always give themselves the fuperiority over the English.

In the eleventh century, under Canute the Great, Denmark may be faid to have been in its zenith of glory, as far as extent of dominion can give fanction to the expreffion. Few very interesting events in Denmark preceded the year 1387, when Margaret mounted the throne; and, partly by her address, and partly by hereditary right, formed the union of Calmar, anno 1397, by which she was acknowledged sovereign of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. She held her dignity with such firmness and courage, that she was justly styled the Semiramis of the North. Her fucceflors being deftitute of her great qualifications, the union of Calmar, by which the three kingdoms were in future to be under one sovereign, lost its effect; but Norway still continued annexed to Denmark. In the Fear 1448, the crown of Denmark fell to Chriftian, count of Oldenburg, from whom the present royal family of Denmark is descended.

In 1513, Christian II. one of the greatest tyrants that modern times have produced, mounted the throne of Denmark; and having married . the fifter of the emperor Charles V. gave a full loose to his innate cruelty. Being driven out of Sweden for the bloody massacres he committed there, the Danes rebelled against him likewise; and he fled, with his wife and children, into the Netherlands. Frederic, duke of Holstein, was unanimoully called to the throne, on the deposition of his cruel nephew. He embraced the opinions of Luther; and about the year 1536, the protestant religion was established in Denmark by that wise and politic prince, Cbriftian III.

Chriftian IV. of Denmark, in 1629, was chosen for the head of the proteftant league formed against the house of Auftria; but, though brave in his own person, he was in danger of losing his dominions; when he was succeeded in that command by Gustavus Adolphus king of Sweden. The Dutch having obliged Chriftian, who died in 1648, to lower the duties of the Sound, his son Frederic III. consented to accept of an annuity of 150,000 forins for the whole. The Dutch, after this, perfuaded him to declare war against Charles Guftavus, king of Swedeng which had almost cost him his crown in 1657. Charles stormed the for. tress of Fredericftadt ; and in the succeeding winter marched his army over the ice to the island of Funen, where he surprised the Danish troops, took Odensee and Nyburg, and marched over the Great Bell to behege Copenhagen itself. Cromwell, who then governed England under the title of Protector, interposed; and Frederic defended his capital with great magnanimity till the peace of Roschild, by which Frederic ceded the provinces of Halland, Bleking, and Schonen, the iland of Bornholm, and Bahus and Drontheim in Norway, to the Swedes. Frederic sought to elude these severe terme :- but Charles took Cronenburg, and once more befieged Copenhagen by sea and land,

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The steady intrepid conduct of Frederic under these misfortunes endeared him to his subjects: and the citizens of Copenhagen made an admirable defence till a Dutch fleet arrived in the Baltic, and beat the Swedish Aeet. The fortune of war was now entirely changed in favour of Frederic, who showed on every occasion great abilities, both civil and military ; and, having forced Charles to raise the fiege of Copenhagen, might have carried the war into Sweden, had not the English fleet under Montague appeared in the Baltic. This enabled Charles to besiege Copenhagen a third time; but France and England offering their mediation, a peace was concluded in that capital, by which the island of Bornholm was restored to the Danes; but the islands of Rugen, Bleking, Halland, and Schonen, remained with the Swedes.

Though this peace did not restore to Denmark all she had loft, yet the magnanimous behaviour of Frederic under the moft imminent dangers, and his attention to the safety of his subjects, even preferably to his own, greatly endeared him in their eyes ; and he at length became absolute, in the manner already related. Frederic was succeeded, in 1670, by his son Christian V. who obliged the duke of Holstein Gottorp to renounce all the advantages he had gained by the treaty of Roschild. He then recovered a number of places in Schonen : but his army was defeated in the bloody battle of Lunden, by Charles XI. of Sweden. This defeat did not put an end to the war, which Christian obstinately continued, till he was defeated entirely at the battle of Landferoon : and having almost exhausted his dominions in military operations, and being in 2 manner abandoned by all his allies, he was forced to sign a treaty, on the terms prescribed by France, in 1679. Chriftian afterwards became the ally and subsidiary of Lewis XIV. who was then threatening Europe with chains, and, after a vast variety of treating and fighting with the Holsteiners, Hamburghers, and other northern powers, died in 1690). He was succeeded by Frederic IV. who, like his predecessors, maintaine ed his pretensions upon Holstein, and probably must have become ma. fter of that duchy, had not the English and Dutch fleets raised the siege of Tonningen, while the young king of Sweden, Charles XII. who was then no more than fixteen years of age, landed within eight miles of Copenhagen, to aflift his brother-in-law the duke of Holstein. Charles probably would have made himself master of Copenhagen, had not his Danish majesty agreed to the peace of Travendahl, which was entirely in the duke's favour. By another treaty concluded with the States General, Charles obliged himself to furnish a body of troops, who were to be paid by the confederates, and afterwards took a very active part against the French in the wars of queen Anne.

Notwithstanding this peace, Frederic was perpetually engaged in wars with the Swedes; and while Charles XII, was an exile at Bender, he - made a descent upon Swedin Pomerania, and another, in the year 17 12, upon Bremen, and took the city of Stade. His troops, however, we a totally defeated by the Swedes at Gadesbuch, and his favourite city of Altena was laid in asies. Frederic revenged himself by seizing great part of Ducal Holstein, and forcing the Swedish general, count Steinbock, to surrender himself prisoner, with all his troops. In the year 1716, the fuccefies of Frederic were so great, by taking Tonnin. gen and Stralsund, by driving the Swedes out of Norway, and reducing Wismar in Pomerania, that his allies began to suspect he was aiming at the fovereignty of all Scandinavian Upon the return of Charles of Sweden froin his exile, he renewed the war against Denmark with the molt implacable violence; but, on the death of that prince, who was

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killed at the fiege of Fredericshall, Frederic durst not refuse the offer of bis Britannic majesty's mediation between him and the crown of Sweden : in consequence of which a peace was concluded at Stockholm, which left him in poflession of the duchy of Sleswick. Frederic died in the year 1730, after having, two years before, seen his capital reduced to ashes by an accidental fire. His fon and successor, Christian Frederic, or Christian VI. made the best use of his power, and the advantages with which he mounted the throne, by cultivating peace with all his neighbours, and promoting the happiness of his subjects, whom he eased of many oppressive taxes.

In 1734, after guarantying the Pragmatic Sanction *, Chriftian sent 6000 men to the allistance of the emperor, during the dispute of the fucceffion to the crown of Poland. Though he was pacific, yet he was jealous of his rights, especially over Hamburg. He obliged the Hamburgers to call in the mediation of Prussia, to abolish their bank, to admii the coin of Denmark as current, and to pay him a million of silver marks. In 1738, he had a dispute with his Britannnic majesty about the little lordhip of Steinhorst, which had been mortgaged to the latter by a duke of Holstein-Lawenburg, and which Christian said belonged to him. Some blood was spilt during the contest, in which Christian, it is thought, never was in earnest. It brought on, however, a treaty, in which he availed himself of his Britannic majesty's predilection tor his German dominions; for the latter agreed to pay Christian a subsidy of 70,0001. sterling a year, on condition of keeping in readiness 7000 troops for the protection of Hanover. This was a gainful bargain for Denmark. Two years after, he seized fome Dutch thips, for trading without his leave to Iceland; but the difference was made up by the mediation of Sweden. Christian had so great a party in that kingdom, that it was generally thought he would revive the union of Calmar, by procuring his son to be declared successor to the crown of Sweden. Some fteps for that purpose were certainly taken ; but whatever Christian's views might have been, the design was frustrated by the jealousy of other powers, who could not bear the thoughts of seeing all Scandinavia subject to one family. Christian died in 1746, with the character of being the father of his people.

His son and successor, Frederic V. bad, in 17.13, married the princess Louisa, daughter to his Britannic majesty George II. He improved upon his father's plan for the happiness of his people, and took no concern, except that of a mediator, in the German war. It was by his intervention that the treaty of Clofter-Seven was concluded between his royal highness the late duke of Cumberland and the French general Richelieu. Upon the death of his first queen, who was mother to his present Danish majesty, he married a daughter of the duke of Brunswic-Wolfenbuttle; and died in 1766.

His fon, Christian VII. was born the 29th of January, 1749; and married his present Britannic majesty's youngest sister, the princess Carolina-Matilda. This alliance, though it wore at first a very promising appearance, had a very unfortunate termination. This is partly attributed to the intrigues of the queen-dowager, mother-in-law to the prefent king, who has a fon named Frederic, and whom the is represented as desirous of raising to the throne. When the princess Carolina-Ma

• An agreement by which the princes of Europe engaged to support the house of Auftria in favour of the queen of Hungary, daughter of the emperor Charles VI, who had

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