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tilda came to Copenhagen, she received her with all the appearance of friendship and affection, acquainting her with all the king's faults, and at the same time telling her that the would take every opportunity, as a mother, to assist her in reclaiming him. By this conduct she became the depository of all the young queen's secrets, whilst at the same time it is faid the placed people about the king, to keep him constantly engaged in all kinds of riot and debauchery, to which she knew he was natue rally too much inclined: and at length it was so ordered, that a mistress was thrown in the king's way, whom he was persuaded to keep in his palace. When the king was upon his travels, the queen-dowager used frequently to visit the young queen Matilda, and, under the mark of friendship and affection, told her often of the debaucheries and excelles which the king had fallen into in Holland, England, and France, and often persuaded her not to live with him. But as soon as the king returned, the queen reproaching him with his conduct, though in a gentle manner, his mother-in-law immediately endeavoured to persuade the king to give no ear to her courtels, as it was presumption in a queen of Denmark to direct the king. Queen Matilda now began to discover the designs of the queen-dowager, and afierwards lived upon very good terms with the king, who for a time was much reclaimed.
The young queen also now assumed to herself the part which the queen-dowager had been complimented with in the management of public affairs. This irritated the old queen ; and her thoughts were now entirely occupied with schemes of revenge, which the at length found means to gratify in a very ample manner. About the end of the year 1770, it was observed that Brandt and Struensee were particularly regarded by the king; the former as a favourite, and the latter as a minilter; and that they paid great court to queen Matilda, and were supported by her. This opened a new scene of intrigue at Copenhagen ; all the discarded placemen paid their court to the queen-dowager, and the became the head and patroness of the party. Old count Molke, an artful displaced statesman, and others who were well versed in intrigues of this nature, perceiving that they had inexperienced young persons to contend with, who, though they might mean well, had not fufficient knowledge and capacity to conduct the public affairs, very foon predicted their ruin. Struensee and Brandt wanted to make a reform in the administration of public af. fairs at once, which should have been the work of time; and thereby made a great number of enemies, among those whose interest it was that things Mould continue upon the former footing. After this, queen Matilda was delivered of a daughter ; but as foon as the queen-dowager faw her, the immediately turned back, and, with a malicious smile, declared that the child had all the features of Struensee: on which her friends published it among the people, that the queen must have had an intrigue with Struensee; which was corroborated by the queen's often speaking with this minister in public, A great variety of evil reports were now propagated againft the reigning queen; and another report was also induttrioully spread, that the governing party had formed a design to fuperfede the king, as being incapable of governing; that the queen was to be declared regent during the minority of her fon; and that Struensee was to be her prime-minister. Whatever Struensee did to reform the abuses of the late ministry was represented to the people as so many attacks upon, and attempts to destroy, the government of the kingdom. By such means the people began to be greatly incensed against this minister: and as he also attempted to make a reform in the military, he gave great offence to the troops, at the head of which were some of the crea
tures of the queen-dowager, who took every opportunity to make their inferior officers believe that it was the design of Struensee to change the whole fyftem of government. It must be admitted that this minister seems in many respects to have acted very imprudently, and to have been too much onder the guidance of his paffions; his principles also appear to have been of the libertine kind.
Many councils were held between the queen-dowager and her friends, upon the measures proper to be taken for effectuating their designs : and it was at length resolved to surprise the king in the middle of the night, and force him immediately to sign an order, which was to be prepared in readiness, for committing the persons before mentioned to separate prisons, to accuse them of high treason in general, and in particular of a design to poison or dethrone the king; and if that could not be properly supported, by torture or otherwise, to procure witnesses to confirm the report of a criminal commerce between the queen and Struensee. This was an undertaking of so hazardous a nature, that the wary count Molke, and most of the queen dowager's friends, who had any thing to lofe, drew back, endeavouring to animate others, but excusing them. selves from taking any open and active part in this affair. However, the queen-dowager at last procured a sufficient number of active inftruments for the execution of her designs. On the 16th of January, 1772, a masked ball was given at the court of Denmark. The king had danced at this ball, and afterwards played at quadrille with general Gahler, his lady, and counsellor Struensee, brother to the count. The queen, after dancing as usual one country-dance with the king, gave her hand to count Struensee during the remainder of the evening. She retired about two in the morning, and was followed by him and count Brandt. About four the lame morning, prince Frederic, who had also been at the ball, went with the queen dowager to the king's bed-chamber, accompanied by general Lichitedt, and count Rantzau. They ordered his majesty's valet-de-chambre to awake him; and, in the midst of the surprise and alarm that this unexpected intrusion excited, informed him that queen Matilda and the two Struensees were at that instant busy in diawing up an act of renunciation of the crown, which they would immediately after compel him to fign; and that the only means he could use to prevent to imminent a danger was to fign those orders, without loss of time, which they had brought with them, for arresting the queen and her accomplices. It is said that the king was not easily prevailed upon to fign these orders ; but at length complied, though with reluctance and hesitation. Count Rantzau, and three officers, were dispatched at that untimely hour to the queen's apartments, and immediately arrested her. She was put into one of the king's coaches, in which she was con. veyed to the castle of Cronenburg, together with the infant princess, attended by lady Mostyn, and escorted by a party of dragoons. In the mean time, Struenfee and Brandt were also seized in their beds, and imprisoned in the citadel. Struensee's brother, some of his adherents, and most of the members of the late adminiftration, were seized the fame night, to the number of about eighteen, and thrown into confinement. The government after this seemed to be entirely lodged in the hands of the queen-dowager and her son, supported and affifted by thote who had the principal share in the revolution; while the king appeared to be little more than a pageant, whole person and name it was necessary occafionally to make use of. All the officers concerned in the revolution were immediately promoted, and an almost total change took place in ail the departments of adminiftration. A new council was appointed, in which
prince Frederic prefided, and a commission of eight members, to examine the papers of the prisoners, and to commencé a process against them. The son of queen Matilda, the prince royal, who was entered into the fifth year of his age, was put under the care of a lady of quality, who was appointed governess, under the superintendency of the queen-dowager. Struensee and Brandt were put in irons, and very rigorously treated in prison : they both underwent long and frequent examinations, and at length received sentence of death. They were beheaded on the 28th of April, having their right hands previously cut off: but many of their friends and adherents were afterwards set at li. berty. Struenfee at firsi abfolutely denied having any criminal intercourse with the queen : but this he afterwards confessed: and though he is said by some to have been induced to do this only by the fear of tor. ture, the proofs of his guilt in this respect were esteemed notorious, and his confessions full and explicit. In May, his Britannic majesty fent a small squadron of ships to convey that princess to Germany, and appointed the city of Zell, in his electoral dominions, for the place of her future residence. She died there of a malignant fever, on the 10th of May, 1775, aged 23 years and 10 months.
In 1780, his Danislı majesty acceded to the armed neutrality proposed by the empress of Rutlia. He appears at present to have Tuch a debility of understanding as to disqualify him for the proper management of public affairs. On the 16th of April, 1784, another court revolution took place. The queen dowager's friends were removed, a new council formed under the auspices of the prince-royal, some of the former old members restored to the cabinet, and no regard is to be paid for the future to any instrument, unless signed by the king, and counter. signed by the prince royal.
The conduct of this prince is ftamped with that consistency of behavicur which enables him to pursue, with unremitting zeal, the prudent and benevolent measures which he has planned for the benefit of his grateful country. The restoration of the peasantry to their long-luft liberty, and the abolition of many grievances under which they laboured, have already been mentioned. To thole may be added the exertions he makes for the general diffusion of knowledge; the patronage he affords to locieties of learning, arts, and science ; the excellent measures he has adopted for the suppreilion of beggars, with whom the country was over. run; and the encouragement of industry, by the most extensive inquiries into the state of the poor throughout the kingdom; the wife regulations he has introduced into the corn trade, equally beneficial to the landed interest and to the poor; and the judicious laws, which under his influence have been made to encourage foreigners to settle in Iceland. The princets of Hetle-Caflel, his confort, is said to pofless the most amiable dispositions and goodness of heart.
Count Schimmelmann, minister of fate finances and commerce, has the merit of accomplishing the abolition of the flave-trade among the subjects of Denmark. His plan was approved by the king on the 22d of February, 1792, and is to be gradual; and in 1803 all trade in negroes is to cease on the part of the Danish subjects. The dilinterettedness of this minifter, who potfelles large estates in ihe Danish Wett-India ifands, recommends his exertions to greater praite. The above ordinance does not seem to have caused any discontent in Denmark among the Welt-India merchants, and it is not thought it will cause any in the islands.
A scheme for defraying the national debt has been suggested and followed. One million has already been discharged.
Denmark, to its honour, formally refused to join in the alliance of potentates against France.
Chriftian VII reigning king of Denmark and Norway, LL. D. and F.R.S. was born in 1749; in 1766 he was married to the princess Carolina Matilda of England; and has iflue-1. Frederic, prince-royal of Denmark, born January 28, 1768, and married in 1790, to the princess Mary-Anne-Frederica, of Hesse.—2. Louisa-Augufta, princess-royal, born July 7, 1771, and married May 27, 1786, to Frederic, prince of SleswickHolstein, by whom the has issue.
Brothers and fifters to the king.--1. Sophia Magdalene, born July 3, 1746; married to the late king of Sweden, Gustavus II.--2. Wilhelmina, born July 10, 1747 ; married Sept. 1, 1764, William, the present prince of Helse-Caffel.-3. Louisa, born Jan. 30, 1750; married Aug. 30, 1766, Charles, brother to the prince of Hesse-Caffel.-4. Frederic, born Da 28, 1753,
His DANISH MAJESTY'S GERMAN DOMINIONS, HOLSTEIN, a duchy of Lower Saxony, about 100 miles long and 50 broad, and a fruitful country, was formerly divided between the empress of Ruffia (termed Ducal Holstein), the king of Denmark, and the imperial cities of Hamburg and Lubec; but on the 16th of November, 1773, Dacal Holstein, with all the rights, prerogatives, and territorial sovereignty, was formally transferred to the king of Denmark, by virtue of a treaty between both courts. The duke of Holstein Gottorp is joint fovereign of great part of it, with the Danish monarch. Kiel is the capital of Ducal Holstein, and is well built, has a harbour, and neat public edifices. The capital of Danish Holstein is Gluckstadt, a well-built town and fortress, but in a marshy situation, on the right of the Elbe, and has fome foreign commerce.
Altena, a large, populous, and handsome town, of great traffic, is commodiously situated on the Elbe, in the neighbourhood of Hamburg. It was built in that fituation, that it might share in the commerce of the former. Being declared a free port, and the staple of the Danish EastIndia company, the merchants also enjoying liberty of conscience, great numbers flocked to Altena from all parts of the North, and even from Hamburg itself.
The famous city of Hamburg is situated on the verge of that part of Holftein called Stormar; but is an imperial, free, and Hanseatic city. It has the fovereignty of a small district round it, of about ten miles circuit: it is one of the most flourishing commercial towns in Europe: and though the kings of Denmark ftill lay claim to certain privileges within its walls, it may be considered as a well-regulated commonwealth. The number of its inhabitants is said to amount to 180,000; and it contains a variety of noble edifices, both public and private. It has two spacious harbours, formed by the river Elbe, which runs through the town; and 84 bridges are thrown over its canals. Hamburg has the good fortune of having been peculiarly favoured in its commerce by Great Britain, with which it carries on a confiderable trade, which has been very greatly increased in consequence of the war with France and Holland. The Hamburgers maintain twelve companies of foot, and one troop of dragoons, befides an artillery company.
Lubec, an imperial city, with a good harbour, once the capital of the Hanfe towns, and still a rich and populous place, is also in this duchy. h is governed by its own magiftrates. It has 20 parish-churches, belides : large cathedral. Lutheranism is the established religion of the whole duchy.
In WestphALIA; the king of Denmark has the counties of Olden, burg and Delmenhorst, containing about two thousand square miles; they lie on the south side of the Weser; their capitals have the same name; the first has the remains of a fortification, and the last is an open place, Oldenburg gave a title to the first royal ancestor of his prefent Danish najefty. The country abounds with marshes and heaths; its horses are the best in Germany.
LAPLAND. THE northern fituation of Lapland, and the division of its property, roquire that it should be treated of under a distinct head, and in the same method observed with respect to other countries. SITUATION, EXTENT, DIVISION, ?
The whole country of Lapland from the North Cape in 71° 30' N. lat. to the White Sea, under the arctic circle. Part of Lapland belongs to the Danes, and is included in the government of Wardhuys ; part to the Swedes, which is by far tha most valuable; and some parts in the east to the Russians. The dimenfions of each of these parts are by no means accurately ascertained. An estimate of that belonging to the Swedes may be seen in the table of die mensions given in the account of Sweden ; but other accounts say that it is about 100 German miles in length, and 90 in breadth : it comprehends all the country from the Baltic to the mountains that separate Norway from Sweden. 'The Ruflian part lies towards the east, between the lake Enarak and the White Sea. Those parts, notwithstanding the rudeness of the country, are divided into smaller districts, generally taking their names from rivers : but, unless in the Swedish part, which is subject to a prefect, the Laplanders can be said to be under no regular government. Swedish Lapland, therefore, is the object chiefly considered by authors in describing this country. It has been generally thought that the Laplanders are the descendants of Finlanders driven out of their own country, and that they take their name from Lappes, which fignifies exiles. The reader, from what has been said in the Introduction, may easily conceive, that in Lapland, for some months in the summer, the sun never fets; and during winter it never rises; but the inhabitants are so well affifted by the twilight and the aurora-borealis, that they never discontinue their work through darkness.
CLIMATR.] In winter it is no unusual thing for their lips to be frozen to the cup in attempting to drink; and, in some thermometers, spirits of wine are concreted into ice : the limbs of the inhabitants very often mortify with cold: drifts of snow threaten to bury the traveller, and cover the ground four or five feet deep. A thaw sometimes takes place; and then the frost that succeeds presents the Laplander with a smooth level of ice, over, which he travels with a rein-deer in a Nedge with inconceivable fwiftness. The heats of summer are exceflive for å fhort time; and the cataracts which dash from the mountains often present to the eye the moft picturesque appearances. MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, Lakes, ? Lapland is a vast mass of monn.
tains, irregularly crowded together;