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they are, however, in some interftices, separated by rivers and lakes, which contain an incredible number of islands, some of which form delightful habitations, and are believed by the natives to have been the terrestrial paradise: even roses and other flowers grow wild on their borders in the summer ; though this is but a Mort gleam of temperature, for the climate in general is excessively fevere. Dufky forests, and noisome unhealthy moraffes, and barren plains, cover great part of the flat country, so that nothing can be more uncomfortable than the state of the inha. bitants.
METALS AND MINERALS.] Silver and gold mines, as well as those of iron, copper, and lead, have been discovered and worked in Lapland to great advantage; beautiful crystals are found here, as are some amethysts and topazes ; also various forts of mineral ftones, furprisingly polished by the hand of nature; valuable pearls have likewise been sometimes found in the rivers, but never in the seas. QUADRUPEDS, BIRDS, FISHES,
We must refer to our accounts AND INSECTS.
of Denmark and Norway for great part of this article, as the animals are common to all the three countries. The zibelin, a creature resembling the marten, is a native of Lapland; and its skin, whether black or white, is highly esteemed. The Lapland hares grow white in the winter; and the country prodnces a large black cat, which attends the natives in hunting. By far the most remarkable, however, of the Lapland animals, is the rein-deer, which nature seems to have provided to recompense the Laplanders for the privation of the other comforts of life. This animal, the most useful perhaps of any in the creation, resembles the stag, only it somewhat droops the head, and the horns project forward. All who have described this animal have taken notice of the crackling noise that they make when they move their legs, which is attributed to their separating and afterwards bringing together the divisions of the hoof. The under part is entirely covered with hair, in the same manner that the claw of the Ptarmigan is with feathery brifles, which is almoft the only bird that can endure the rigour of the climate. The hoof however is not only thus protected; the fame neceffity which obliges the Laplanders to use snow shoes makes the extraordinary width of the rein-deer's hoof to be equally convenient in pasling over snow, as it prevents their sinking too deep, which they continually would, did the weight of their body rest only on a small point. This quadruped hath therefore an instinct to use a hoof of such a form in a ftill more advantageous manner, by feparating it when the foot is to touch the ground so as to cover a larger surface of snow. The instant however the leg of the animal is raised, the hoof is immediately contracted, and the collision of the parts occasions the snapping noise. Probably the crackling which they perpetually make may serve to keep them together when the weather is remarkably dark. In summer, the reindeer provide themselves with leaves and grass, and in the winter they live upon moss; which they have a wonderful fagacity at finding, and, when found, Icrape away the snow that covers it with their feet. The scantinels of their fare is inconceivable, as is the length of the journies which they can perform without any other support. They fix the rein-deer to a kind of fledge, Ihaped like a small boat, in which the traveller, well secured from cold, is laced down ; with the reins, which are fastened to the horns of the animal, in one hand, and a kind of bludgeon in the other, to keep the carriage clear of ice and snow. The deer
, whose harnelling is very fimple, sets out, and continues the jouris at little or no trouble in directing him. At night they look out for their own provender; and their milk often helps to support their mafter, Their inftin&t in choosing their road, and directing their course, can only be accounted for by their being well acquainted with the country during the summer months, when they live in the woods. Their flesh is a well-tasted food, whether fresh or driel; their fhin forms excellent cloathing both for the bed and the body; their milk and cheese are nutritive and pleasant; and their intestines and tendons supply their masters with thread and cordage. When they run about will in the fields, they may be shot at as other game. But it is said, that if one is killed in a flock, the survivors will gore and trample him to pieces; therefore single ftragglers are generally chosen. With all their excellent qualities, however, the rein-deer have their inconveniences.
It is difficult in summer to keep them from ftraggling: they are sometimes buried in the snow; and they frequently grow restive, to the great danger of the driver and his carriage. Their furprising speed (for they are said to run at the rate of 200 miles a day) seems to be owing to their impatience to get rid of their incumbrance. None but a Laplander could bear the uneasy posture in which he is placed, when he is confined in one of these carriages or pulkhas; or would believe, that, by whispering the rein-deer in the ear, they know the place of their destination,
People, CUSTOMS, AND MANNERS.] The language of the Laplanders is of Finnish origin, and comprehends so many dialects, that it is with difficulty they understand each other. They have neither writ. ing nor letters among them, but a number of hieroglyphics, which they make use of in their Rounes, a fort of sticks that they call Piftave, and which serve them for an almanack. These hieroglyphics are also the marks they use instead of signatures, even in matters of law. Misfionaries from the Christianised parts of Scandinavia introduced among them the Christian religion ; but they cannot be said even yet to be Christians, though they have among them fome religious seminaries, instituted by the king of Denmark. Upon the whole, the majority of the Laplanders practise as gross superstitions and idolatries as are to be found among the most uninstructed pagans ; and so absurd, that they scarcely deserve to be mentioned, were it not that the number and oddities of their liuperstitions have induced the northern traders to believe that they are thilful in magic and divination. For this purpose their magicians make use of what they call a drum, made of the hollowed trunk of a fir, pine, or birch tree, one end of which is covered with a skin; on this they draw, with a kind of red colour, the figures of their own gods, as well as of Jesus Christ, the apostles, the sun, moon, stars, birds, and rivers ; on these they place one or two brass rings, which, when the drum is beaten with a little hammer, dance over the figures ; and, according to their progrefs, the forcerer prognosticates. These frantic operations are generally performed for gain, and the northern ship-mafiers are fuch dupes to the arts of thele impostors, that they often buy from them a magic cord, which contains a number of knots, by opening of which according to the magician's directions, they are told they may obtain what wind they want. This is also a very com. mon traffic on the banks of the Red Sea, and is managed with great addreis on the part of the forcerer, who keeps up the price of his knotted talisman. The Laplanders ftill retain the worship of several of the Teutonic gods, and have among them many remains of the Druidical
institutions. They believe the transmigration of the foul, and have festivals set apart for the worship of certain genii, called Jeuhles, who they think inhabit the air and have great power over human actions ; but being without form or substance, they allign to them neither images por ftatues.
Agriculture is not much attended to among the Laplanders. They are chiefly divided into Lapland fishers, and Lapland mountaineers. The former ålways make their habitations on the brink or in the neighbourhood of some lake, from which they draw their subaftence. The others seek their support upon the mountains and their environs, poffefling herds of rein-deer more or less numerous, which they use according to the season, but go generally on foot. They are excellent and very industrious herdsmen, and are rich in comparison of the Lapland fithers. Some of them possess fix hundred or a thousand rein-deer, and have often money and plate besides. They mark every rein-deer on the ears, and divide them into classes ; so that they instantly perceive whether any one has ftrayed, though they cannot count to fo great a number as that to which their stock often amounts. Those who porsess but a small flock give to every individual a proper name.
The Lapland fishers, who are also called Laplanders of the Woods, because in summer they dwell upon the borders of the lakes, and in winter in the forests, live by fithing and hunting, and choose their situation by its convenience for either. The greatest part of them, however, have Some rein-deer. They are active and expert in the chase : and the introduction of fire-arms among them has almost entirely abolished the use of the bow and arrow. Befides looking after the rein-deer, the fishery, and the chase, the men employ themselves in the construction of their canoes, which are small, light, and compact. They also make Hedges, to which they give the form of a canoe, harness for the rein-deer, cups, bowls, and various other utensils, which are sometimes neatly carved, and sometimes ornamented with bones, brass, or horn. The employment of the women confifts in making nets for the fishery, in drying fith and meat, in milking the reindeer, in making cheese, and tanning hides; but it is understood to be the business of the men to look after the kitchen, in which it is said the women never interfere.
The Laplanders live in huts in the form of tents. A hut is from about twenty-five to thirty feet in diameter, and not much above fix in height. They cover them, according to the season and the means of the poffeffor, some with briars, bark of birch or of linden,-others with turf, coarse cloth, or felt, or the old skins of rein-deer. The door is of felt, made like two curtains which open asunder. A little place surrounded with stones is made in the middle of the hut for the fire, over which a chain is fufpended to hang the kettle upon. They are scarcely able to fand upright in their huts, but constantly fit upon their heels round the fire. At night they lie down quite naked; and, to separate the apartments, place upright sticks at small distances. They cover themselves with their clothes, or lie upon them. In winter they put their naked feet into a fur bag. Their household furniture consists of iron or copper kettles, wooden cups, bowls, spoons, and sometimes tin or -even filver balons ; to which may be added the implements of fishing and hunting. That they may not be obliged to carry such a number of things with them in their excursions, they build in the forests, at certain distances, little huts, made like pigeon-houses, and placed upon the trunk of a tree, cut off at the height of about fix feet from the root. In these elevated huts they keep their goods and provi
fions; and though they are never shut, yet they are never plundered. The rein-deer supply the Laplanders with the greatest part of their provisions: the chale and the fishery supply the rest. Their principal dishes are the flesh of the rein-deer, and puddings which they make of their blood, by putting it, either alone or mixed with wild berries, into the stomach of the animal from whence it was taken, in which they cook it for food. But the flesh of the bear is confidered by them as their most delicate meat. They eat every kind of fish, even the sea. dog; as well as all kinds of wild animals, not excepting birds of prey and carnivorous animals. Their winter provisions confift chiefly of Beth and fith dried in the open air, both of which they eat raw, without any fort of dressing. Their common drink is water, sometimes mixed with milk; they make also broths and fith-soups. Brandy is very scarce with them, but they are extremely fond of it.' Whenever they are inclined to eat, the head of the family spreads a carpet on the ground; and the men and women squat round this mat, which is covered with dishes. Every Laplander always carries about him a knife, a spoon, and a little cup for drinking. Each has his portion separately given him, that no person may be injured ; for they are great eaters. Before and after the meal they make a short prayer; and as soon as they have done eating, each gives the other his hand.
In their dress, the Laplanders use no kind of linen. The men wear close breeches, reaching down to their shoes, which are made of untanned skin, pointed and turved up before ; and in winter they put a little hay in them. Their doublet is made to fit their shape, and open at the breaft. Over this they wear a close coat with narrow sleeves, the skirts of which reach down to the knees, and which is fastened round them by a leathern girdle, ornamented with plates of tin or brass. To this girdle they tie their knives, their inftruments for making fire, their pipes, and the rest of their smoaking apparatus. Their clothes are made of fur, of leather, or of cloth: the clote coat of cloth or leather, always bordered with fur, or bindings of cloth of different colours. Their caps are edged with fur, pointed at top, and the four seams adorned with litis of a different colour from that of the cap. The women wear breeches, shoes, doublets, and close coats, in the fame manner as the men; but their girdle, at which they carry likewise the implements for smoaking tobacco, is commonly embroidered with brass wire. I heis close coat has a collar, which comes up tomewhat higher than that of
Besides these, they wear handkerchiefs, and little aprons, made of painted cloth, rings on their fingers, and ear-rings, to which they sometimes hang chains of filver, which pass two or three times round the neck. They are often dretsed in caps folded after the mannes of turbands. They wear also caps fitted to the shape of the head : and as they are much addicted to finery, they are all ornamented with the embroidery of brass wire, or at least with list of different colours.
Lapland is but poorly peopled, owing to the general barrenness of its Toil. The whole number of its inhabitants may amount to about 60,000. Both men and women are in general contiderably shorter than more southern Europeans. Maupertuis measured a woman who was fuchling her child, whole height did not exceed four feet two inches and about a half; they make however a much more agrecable appearance than the men, who are often ill-Ihaped and ugly, and their heads too large for their bodies. Their women are complaisant, chaste, often well made, and extremely nervous ; which is also obfervable among the men, although more sarely. li frequently happens that a Lapland woman will faint away.
or even fell into a fit of frenzy, on a spark of fire flying towards her, an unexpected noise, or the sudden fight of an unexpected object, though in its own nature not in the least alarming ; in short, at the moft trifling things imaginable. During these paroxisms of terror, they deal about blows with the first thing that presents itself; and, on coming to themselves, are utterly ignorant of all that has passed.
When a Laplander intends to marry, he, or his friends, court the father of the fair one with brandy; and when, with some difficulty, he gains admittance to his fair one, he offers her a beaver's tongue, or fome other eatable, which she rejects before company, but accepts in private. Cohabitation often precedes marriage, but every admittance to the fair one is purchased from the father, by her lover, with a bottle of brandy; and this prolongs the courtship sometimes for three years. The priest of the parish at last celebrates the nuptials ; but the bridegroom is obliged to serve his father-in-law for four years after. He then carries his wife and her fortune home.
COMMERCE.) Little can be said of the commerce of the Laplanders. Their exports confift of fith, rein-deer, furs, baskets, and toys; with some dried pikes, and cheeses made of rein-deer milk. They receive for these rix-dollars, woollen cloths, linen, copper, tin, flour, oil, hides, needles, knives, spirituous liquors, tobacco, and other neceffaries. Their mines are generally worked by foreigners, and produce no inconsiderable profit. The Laplanders travel in a kind of caravan, with their families, to the Finland and Norway fairs. The reader may make some estimate of the medium of commerce among them, when he is told, that fifty squirrel-Ikins, or one fox-skin, and a pair of Lapland shoes, produce one riz-dollar ; but no computation can be made of the public revenue, the greatest part of which is allotted for the maintenance of the clergy. With regard to the security of their property, few disputes happen; and their judges have no military to enforce their decrees, the people having a remarkable aversion to war; and never being, so far as we know, employed in any army.
EXTENT AND SITUATION.
56 and 69 North Latitude. Breadth 500
10 and 30 East Longitude. Containing 220,000 square miles, with 14 inhabitants to each. BOUNDARIES AND ? This country is bounded by the Baltic sea, DIVISIONS.
the Sound, and the Categate, or Scaggerac, on the south; by the impassable mountains of Norway on the west ; by Danish or Norwegian Lapland on the north ; and by Mufcovy on the east. It is divided into seven provinces : 1. Sweden ProJer. 2. Gothland. 3. Livonia. 4. Ingria." (These two laft provinces belong now, however, to the Ruffians, having been conquered by Pe ter the Great, and ceded by posterior treaties.) 5. Finland. 6. Swedish Lapland; and, 7. The Swedish islands. The Lakes and unimproved parts of Sweden are so extensive, that the habitable part is confined to narrow bounds. The following are the dimensions given us of this kingdom.