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GERMANY.

SITUATION AND EXTENT.

Miles.
Degrees.

Sq. Miles.
Length 600

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between Breadth 520 S

{

45 and 55 North Jak: } 181,631. GERMANY and BOHEMIA contain 191,573 square miles, with 135

inhabitants to each.

BOUNDARIES. THE Empire of Germany, properly so called, is

bounded by the German Ocean, Denmark, and the Baltic on the North; by Poland and Hungary, including Bohemia, on the Last; by Switzerland and the Alps, which divide it from Italy, on the South; and by the dominions of France and the Low Countries, on the West, from which it is separated by the Rhine, Moselle, and the Maese.

GRAND DIVISIONS.] The divisions of Germany, as laid down even by modern writers, are various and uncertain. We shall therefore adhere to those that are most generally received. Germany formerly was divided into the Upper, or Southern, and the Lower, or Northern. The emperor Maximilian, predecessor and grandfather to the emperor Charles V. divided it into ten great circles; and the division was confirmed in the diet of Nuremberg, in 1552; but the circle of Burgundy, or the seventeen provinces of the Low Countries, being now detached from the Empire, we are to confine ourselves to nine of those divisions, as they now subsist.

or these, three are in the north, three in the middle, and three in the south.

Upper Saxony
The northern circles

Lower Saxony
Westphalia

Upper Rhine
The circles in the middle

Lower Rhine
Franconią

Austria
The southern circles

Bavaria
Swabia.

1. UPPER SAXONY CIRCLE.

.}

Divisions. Subdivisions.

Chief Towns. Sq.M.
Pomerania, in the Pru
Prus.Pomerania, N.E.

y
Stettin, E.1. 14-

4820 North

Swed. Pomer. N. W. Stralsund 2994 Brandenburg in

the middle,sub. Altmark, west to its own elec- Michellemark

Berlin, Potsdam 10,910 tor, the king of Newinark, east

Frankf.Custrin.

UStendel

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Divisions. Subdivisions.

Chief Towns.

Wirtenberg Saxony Proper, in Duchy of Saxony, N. Bautzen Gorlits the south, sub. to Lusatia, marq. east

Dres. E.lon.1 its own elector (Misnia, marq. south $6. N. lat. 51

Meissen
Thuringia, langr. west

Erfurt
Saxe Meinungen Meinungen
Saxe Zeitz

Zeitz
Saxe Altenb.S.E. Altenburg
The duchies of Saxe Weimar, W.

Weimar
Saxe Gotha, W.

Gotha
Saxe Eisn. S. W.

Eisnach
Saxe Saalfeldt

Saalfeldt.
Schwarts. W. Subject to Schwarisburg
The counties of Belchin. N. their respec- Belchingen

Mansfel. N. tive counts Mansfeldt.

Hall, mid, snb. to Prus. Hall The duchies of Saxe Naumburg, subject to its own duke

Naumburg
The counties of Stolberg, north-west

Stolberg
Hohenstein, west

Northansen

Dessad, Zerbst, Principality of Anhalt, north

Beraberg Kothens Bishopric of Saxe Hall, west

Hall
Voigtland, south, subjects

Plawen

6 to te elector of Saxony ?

7 Mersburg, middle, subject Mersburg Dachy of

s! Ŝ to the elector of Saxony 2

-2. Lower SAXONY CIRCLE. ITolstein Proper,

Kiel, sub. to HolHolstein

stein Gottorp

18. Ditmarsh, west Đ.north

Meldorp 7 sub.to
Stormaria, south
of the

Gluckstadt | Denm.
Hamburg, a so-

Hamburg, E. 1. 10-35. Elbe. vereign state

N. 1. 54. an Imperial ci Wagerland, east

Labec, an Imperial city. Lauenburg Duchy, north of the Elbe, sub

Lauenburg
ject to Hanover
D. Brunswic

Bruu. E.I. 10-32.
Subject to the duke Proper,

N. lat. 52-30 of Brunswic Wol- D. Wolfenbuttle Wolfenbuttle 60 fonbuttle

C. Rheinstein, south Rheinstein
C. Blanckenburg

Blanckenburg
Subject to the clec- (D. Calenberg

Ilanover tor of Hanover, D. Grubenhagen Grubenhagen K. of G. Britain Gottingen

Gottingen

so Luneburg D. sub. D. of Luneb. Proper Luneburg

Zell, E.lon. 10 to llanover sD. D, Zell

No. lat. 52-32 Bremen D. and Verden D), säib. to Bremen, E. lon, 9. N.lar Hanover, north

53-30. an Imperial city

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3. WESTPHALIA CIRCLE,
Embden C. or East Fries. Embden, an Im-

720 sub, to the king of Prussia

perial city North Di- Oldenburg, C. , sub. to the Oldenburg vision. Delmenhurst | K. of Den. Delmenhurst Hoye ? subject to Hoye

624 Dicpholt Hanover Diepholt

220 Munster B.sub. to its b.

Munster,E.lon. 1 3600

7-10. N.lat.52. Paderborn B.sub.toits bp. Paderborn

800 Osnaburg B.sub.to its bp. Osnaburg

870 Lippe C. sub. to its count Lippe, Pyrmont 400 D.

Minden

495 vision.

sub.toʻPru. C.

Ravensberg 525 Westphalia D. sub. to the Arensburg 1444

elector of Cologn Tecklenb. C. sub. to thcir

Tecklenburg 810 Ritberg C. respective Ritberg

120 Schauenb C. counts

Schauenburg Cleves D. sub. to the king { Cleves, E.lon.5-2 of Prussia

3 Berg. D. 7 sub. to the elec- Dusseldorf

Juliers D. S tor Palatine Juliers, Aix 1300 Middle Di Mark C. sube to Prussia

Ham

980 vision, Liege B. sub. to its own bp.

2
56.N.lat.50 40.

Huy
Benth. C. sub. to Hanover Bentheim

418 (Steinfort C. sub), to its count) (Steinfort

114

630

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Hesse Marpurg, landg. N.
Hesse Darmstadt, landg.
Each of the above subdi-

visions are subject to their
respective landgraves.
Ilesse licinberg
Hesse Rhinefeldt

Homberg
Rhinefeldt

180

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Each county subject to its

own count of the House
of Nassau.

}

Divisions.
Subdivisions.

Chief Towns. Sq. M.
Nassau Dillenburg

Dillenburg
Nassau Diets

Dicts
Nassau Hadamar

Hadamar
Nassau Kerberg

Kerberg
Nassau Siegen

Siegen
Counties in the
Nassau Idstein

Idstein

1200 Wetteraw, south Nassau Wielburg

Wielburg
Nassau Wisbaden

Wisbaden
Nassau Bielsteid

Bielsteid
Nassau Otweiler

Otweiler
Nassau Usingen

Usingen

Frankfort on the Maine, Territory of Frankfort, a sovereign state E. lon. 8-30. N. lat. 50- 190

10. an Imperial city County of Erpach, sub. to its own count. Erpach, east

230

Spire on the Rhine, an Bishopric of Spire, a sovereign state

245

Imperial city Duchy of Zweybrucken, or Deuxponts,

Deuxponts in the Palat. 700 subject to the duke of Deuxponts County of Catzenelbogen sub, to Hesse Cassel, Catzenelbogen on the Lhon.

Waldeck, sub. to its own count Waldeck S63
Solms, sub. to its own count

Solms
Hanau, sub. to Hesse Cassel Hanau

432 Isenburg, sub.to its own count Isenburg Counties of Sayn

Sayn
Wied

Wied
Witgenstein

Witgenstein
Hatzfield

Hatzfield
Westerburg

Westerburg.
Abbey of Fulda, subject to its abbot

Fulda 621 Hirschfeld, subject to Hesse Cassel

Hirschfeld.
5. LOWER RHINE CIRCLE.
Divisions.

Chief Towns.
Palatinate of the Rhine, on

Heidelberg op the Neckar, E.

lon, 8-40. N. lat. 49-20. both sides that river, sub.

Philipsbury, Manheim, and to the elector Palatine

Frankendal on the Rhine.
Divisions. Subdivisions.

Chief Towns.
Cologne

Cologne, on the Rhine, E.

lon. 6-40. N. lat. 50-50. Archbishoprics and electorates Mentz

Bonn, on the Rhine 196+

Mentz, on the Rhine, As? of

1705 chaffenb. on the Maine Triers

Triers on the Moselle 1765

Worms on the Rhine, ? Bishopric of Worms, a sovereign state

13+

an Imperial city Duchy of Simmeren, sub. to its own duke. Simmeren. Rhinegravestein

Rhinegravestein
Meurs, subject to Prussia Meurs
Counties of

Veldentz, subject to the elec-
tor Palatino

Veldentz
Spanheim

Creutznach
Leyningen

Leyningen.

} 2616

Subject to their

respective
electors.

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406

640

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56

Subdivisions.

Chicf Towns. Principality of Henneberg, N.

Henneberg Duchy of Coburg, N. subject to its duke

- Coburg
Duchy of Hilburghausen, subject to its duke - Hilburghausen
Burgravate of Nuremberg, S.E. an inde- Ş Nuremberg, an
pendent state

Imperial city S
Territory of the great-master of the Teu-
tonic order, Mergentheim, S. W.
Rheineck, W.

Rheineck
Bareith, E, sub. to its own mar. Bareith
Papenheim, S. sub. to its own C. Papenheim

Wertheim
Counties of

Wertheim, W.
Cassel, middle
Schwartzburg, subject to its own Schwartzburg
count

middle
Holach, S.W.

Holach

188

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Cassel

120

220

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8. BAVARIA CIRCLE. Subdivisions.

Chief Towns. Duchy of Ba-) Subject to the Munich, E. long. 11-32. N. lat. varia Proper

elector Pala- 48-5. Landschut, Ingoldstadt, on the Da- tine as suc- north-west: Donanert (Ratis, nubc

cessor to the N. an Iinperial city.] Amberg Palatinate of

late elector [Sultzbach], north of the DaBavaria

of Bavaria nube Fressingen, subject to its bishop. Fressingen Bishopric

8500

210

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