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is pleased to exact from the states of the kingdom, when they are an, Dually assembled at Prague. They may perhaps amount to 500,9001. a year.

Arns.] The arms of Bohemja are, argent, a lion gules, the tail moved, and passed in saltier, crowned, langued, and armed, Or.

Historr.) The Bohemian nobility used to clect their own princes, though the emperors of Germany sometimes imposed a king upon them, and a length usurped that throne themselves. In the year 1438, al: bert II. of Austria, received three crowas, Hungary, the empire, and Bohemia.

In 1414, John Huss, and Jerome of Prague, two of the first reformers, and Bohemians, were burnt at the council of Constance, though the emperor of Germany had given them his protection. This occasioned an in surrection in Bohemia: the people of Prague threw the einperor's officers out of the windows of the council-chainber; and the famous Zisca, assembling an army of 40,000 Bohemians, defcated the emperor's forces in several engagements, and drove the imperialists out of the kingdom. 'The divisions of the Hussites among themselves enabled the emperor to regain and keep possession of Bohemia, though an attempt was made to throw off the imperial yoke, by electing, in the year 1618, a protestant king in the person of the prince palatine, son-in-law to James I. of England. The misfortunes of this prince are well known. Ile was driven from Bohemia by the emperor's generals, and being stripped of his other dominions, was forced to depend on the court of England for a subsistence. Since the war of thirty years which desolated the whole empire, the Bohemians have remained subject to the House of Austria.

HUNGARY,

SITUATION AND EXTENT,

{ 41-50 and 19-55 Norridat.} 36,060 {

Miles.
Degrees.

Sq. Miles Length 300

16-35 long.

between Breadth 200

Containing 87,575 square miles, with 57 inhabitants to cach. Boundaries.] THAT part of Hungary which belongs to the llouse.

of Austria (for it formerly included Transylvania,
Sclavonia, Croatia, Morlachia, Servia, Walachia, and other countries)
Is bounded by Poland on the North ; by 'Transylvaniaand Walachia
East; by Sclavonia South; and by Austria and Moravia West,
The kingdom of Hungary is usually divided into Upper and Lower

Hungary.
UPPER IIUNGARY NORTH OF THE DANUDŁ.

Chief Towns,
Presburg, situated on the Danube, Tokay, N. 'E,
E, long. 17-30. N. lat. +8-20,

Zotmar, N. É. Newhausel, N. W

Unguar,' N E popoldstadt, N. W.

Montgatz, N.E. Chremnitz, N. W.

Waradio, Great, E, schemnitz, in the middle

Segedin, S, E. Esperies, N.

Agria, in the middle, Zuschaw, N.

Pest, on the Danube, opposite to

Buda.

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Lower IIUNGARY, SOUTII OF THE DANCBE.

Chief Towns. Buda, on the Danube, E. long. 19-20.Altenburg, W. opposite to the N. lat. 47-40.

island of Schut. Gran, on the Danube, abovc Buda. Weissenburg, or Alba Regalis

, sito Comorra, on the Danube, in the ated E. of the lake called the island of Schut.

Platten Sea. Raab, on the Danube, opposite to Kanisba, S. W. of the Platten Sea, the island of Schut.

Five churches, N. of the river

Drave.

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To which may be added Temeswar; which has been considered as distinct from Hungary, because it was formerly governed by an independent king; and it has several times been in possession of the Turks; but the Austrians gaining possession of it, it was incorporated into the kingdom of Hungary in 1778. The province of Temeswar is ninety-four mie long, and sixty-seven broad, containing about 3850 miles: it has beta divided into four districts, C'sadat, Temeswar, Werschcz, and Lurze. Temeswar, the principal town, is situated E. long. 22-15. N. lat. 45-5+

AIR, SOIL, AND PRODUCE.] The air, and consequently the climate of the southern parts of Hungary, is found to be unbealthful, owing so its numerous lakes, stagnated waters, and marshes; but the northern par? being mountainous and barren, the air is sweet and wholesome. So I country in the world can boast a richer soil than that plain which entends 300 miles, from Presburg to Belgrade, and produces corn, gras, esculent plants, tobacco, saffron, asparagus, melons, hops, pulse, millet, buck-whcat, delicious wine, fruits of various kinds, peaches, mulberry trees, chesnuts, and wood: corn is in such plenty, that it sells for oirsixth part of its price in England.

RIVERS.) These are the Danube, Drave, Save, Teysse, Merish, au the Temes.

WATER.) Hungary contains several lakes, particularly four amun the Carpathian mountains, of considerable extent, and abounding ! tish. The Hungarian baths and mineral waters are esteemed the murs sovereign of any in Europe; but their magnificent buildings, raised the Turks when in possession of the country, particularly those ci Buda, are suffered to go to decay.

MOUNTAINS.] The Carpathian mountains, which divide Hungary from Poland on the north, are the chief in Hungary; though many detached mountains are found in the country. Their tops are gener rally covered with wood, and on their sides grow the richest grapes the world.

METALS AND MINERALS.] Hungary is remarkably well stock with both. It abounds not only with gold and silver miqes, but it plenty of excellent copper, vitriol, iron, orpiment, quicksilver, chr! socolla, and terra-sigillata. Beture Hungary became the seat of destru tive wars between Turks and Christians, or fell under the powot the House of Austria, those mines were furnished with proper works at Horkmen, and produced vast révenues to the native princes. The Hur garian gold and silver employed mint-houses, not only in Hungary, bu in Germany, and the continent of Europe ; but all those mines are nuv. greatly diminished in their value, their works being destroyed or dem. lished: some of them, however, still subsist, to the great emolum, of the natives, i

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VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS.) Hungary is remarkable for a fine breed of horses, generally mouse-coloured, and highly esteemed by military officers, so that great numbers of them are exported. "There is a remarkable breed of large rams in the neighbourhood of Presburg. In general its other vegetable and animal productions are the same with those of Germany and the neighbouring countries. The Hungarian wines, however, particularly those of Tokay, are preferable to those of any other country, at least in Europe. POPULATION, INHABITANTS, MAN- -7 It was late before thenor

NERS, CUSTOMS, AND DIVERSIONs. Šthern barbarians drove the Romans out of Hungary; and some of the descendants of their legionary forces are still to be distinguished in the inland parts, by their speaking Latin. Before the Turks obtained possession of Constantinople, Hungary was one of the most populous and flourishing kingdoms in Europe: and if the House of Austria should give the proper encouragement to the inhabitants to repair works, and clear their fens, it might become so again, The population of Hungary, exclusive of Transylvania, Sclavonia, and Dalmatia, was estimated, in 1776, by the celebrated Busching, to be 3,170,000; and Mr. Windish, an Hungarian, in his Geography of Hungary, published in 1780, says, " the population, according to a new accurate examination, is 3,170,000, excluding Transylvania, Sclavonia, and Dalmatia.” But the committee appointed by the Diet of 1791 to inquire into things of this nature, "some of whose notes,” says Mr. Townson, a late intelligent traveller in this country, “I have had in my hands, estimate the population of Hungary in its greatest extent, but always excluding Transylvania, at about 8,000,000, which they add, is 1777 souls per square mile. In No.61 of Mr. Slotzer's Staats Anzeigen, there is a detailed account, which makes the total population 7,417,415.”

The Hungarians are a brave, generous, and hardy race of men; their manners are peculiar to themselves; and they pique themselves on being descended from those heroes who formed the bulwark of Christendom against the infidels. In their persons they are well made. Their furcaps, their close-bodied coats girded by a sash, and their cloak or mantle, which is so contrived as to buckle under the arm, so that the right-hand may be always at liberty, give them an air of military dignity. The men shave their beards, but preserve their whiskers on their upper lips. Their usual arms are the broad sword, and a kind of pole-axe, besides their fire-arms. The ladies are reckoned handsomer than those of Austria ; and their sable dress, with sleeves strait to their arms, and their stays fastened before with gold, pearl, or diainond little buttons, are well known to the French and English ladies. Both men and wonen, in what they call the mine towns, wear fur and even sheep-skin dresses, The inns upon the roads are most miserable hovels, and even those sel. dom to be met with. The hogs, which yield the chief animal food for the peasants, and their poultry, live in the same apartment with their owners. The gout and fever, owing to the unwholesomeness of the air, are the predominant diseases in Hungary. The natives in general are indolent, and leave trade and manufactures to the Greeks and other strangers settled in their country, the flatness of which renders travelling commodious either by land or water. The diversions of the inhabitants are of the warlikc and athletic kind. They are in general a brave and magnanimous people. Their ancestors, even since the beginning of the present century, were so jealous of their liberties, that rather than be ty-Taonised over by the House of Austria, they often put themselves under the protection of the Ottoman court; but their fidelity to the late emne

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press-queen, notwithstanding the provocation they received from ho House, will be always remembered to their honour.

The inhabitants of Temeswar, a province lately incorporated in: the kingdom of Hungary, are compared at 450,000. There are in this country many furaons, or gypsies, supposed to be real descendants of the ancient Egyptians. They are said to resemble the ancient Egyp tians in their teatures, in their propensity to melancholy, and in main of their maniers and customs; and it is asserted that the lascious dances of Isis, the worship of onions, many fanous Egyptian supra tions and specifics, and the Egyptian method of latching eggs by me of dung, are still in use among the female gypsies in Temeswar,

RELIGION.] The established religion of the Hungarians is the Roma catholic, though the major part of the inhabitants are protestants, ut Greeks; and they now enjoy the full exercise of their religious liberties,

ARCIBIS HIO PRICS IND BISHOPRIC».] The archbishopries are Presburg, Gran, and Colotza. The bishopries are Great Waradır., Agria, Vesprin, Raab, and Five Churches.

LANGUAGE.] As the Hungarians are mited with Germans, Sclavenians, and Walachians, they hate a variety of dialects, and one c them is said to resemble the Hebrew. The better and the middlemost ranks speak German ; and alnrost all, even of the common people, speak Latin, citler pure or barbarous, so that the Latin may be said 10 be diere süll a living language.

UNIVERSITIES.) In the universities (if they can be properly 30 cal}. ed) of Firnan, Buba, Raab, and Caschaw, are professors of the several arts and sciences, who used generally to be Jesuits; so that the Lutherans and Calvinists, who are more numerous than the Roman catholics in Hungary, go to the German and other universities. ANTIQUITIES AND CURIOSITIES, The artificial curiosities of

NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL. S this country consist of its bridges, baths, and mines. The bridge of Esscek, built over the Danube, and Drave, is, properly speaking, a continuațion of bridges, five miles in length, fortitied with towers at certain distances. It was an important pass during the wars between the Turks and Hungarians. A bridge of boats runs over the Danube, half a mile long, between Buda and Pest; and about twenty Ilungarian miles distant from Belgrade are the remains of a bridge crected by the Romans, judged to be the mir: magnificent of any in the world. The baths and mines bere bare nothing to distinguish them from the like works in other countries.

One of the most remarkable natural curiosities of Hungary is a caverti in a mountain near Szelitzc: the aperture of this cavern, which fronts the south, is cighteen tatlıoms high, and cight broad: its subterraneous passages consist entirely of solid rock, stretching away farther south thar has yet been discovered; as far as it is practicable to go, the height is found to be titty fathoms, and the breadih twenty-six. Many wonderful particulars are related of this cavern. Astonishing rocks are comme in Hungary, and some of its churches are of admirable architecture. Cities, towyS, FORTS, AND OTHER / These are generally decay

EDIFICES, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. S ed fron their ancient mas. nificence; but many of the fortifications are still very strong, and kept in good order. Presburg is fortified. In it the llungarian recalia are kept. The crown, in the year 1781, was removed to Vienna by order of the emperor Joseph II. ' But this measure gave so great ottence, and excited such violent discontents, that it was sent back to Buda in 17.00, Where it was received with the most extravagant testimonies of joy, to whole city and suburbs being illuminated. This crown was sent, in the year 1000, by pope Sylvester II. to Stephen, king of Hungary, and was pade after that of the Greek emperors : it is of solid gold, weighing nine marks and three ounces, ornamented with fifty-three sapphires, fifty rubies, one large emerald, and three hundred and thirty-eight pearls. Besides these stones, are the images of the apostles and patriarchs. The pope added to this crown a silver patriarchal cross, which was afterwards inserted in the arms of Hungary. At the ceremony of the coronation a bishop carries it before the king. From the cross is derived the title of apostolic king; the use of which was renewed under the reign of the empress-queen Maria-Theresa. The sceptre and the globe of the kingdom are of Arabian gold; the mantle, which is of fine linen, is said to be the work of Gisele, spouse of St. Stephen, who, they say, embroidered in gold the image of Jesus Christ crucified, and many other images of the patriarchs and apostles, with a number of inscriptions. The sword is two-edged, and rounded at the point. Buda, formerly the capital of Hungary, retains little of its ancient magnificence, but its strength and fortifications; and the same may be said of Pest, which lies on the opposite side of the Danubc. Raab is likewise a strong city, as are Gran and Comorra. Tokay has been already mentioned for the excellency of its wines.

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COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES.) After having mentioned the natural produce of the country, it is sufficient to say, that the chief manufactures and esports of the natives consist of metals, drugs, and salt.

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT.) The Hungarians dislike the term of queen, and cven called the late empress-queen, king Theresa. Their government preserves the remains of many checks upon

the regal power. They have a dict or parliament, which assembly consists of iables or houses ; the first composed of magnates, or the great officers of the crown, princes, counts, barons, and archbishops ; and the second of the abbots, prelates, and deputies from the chapters and each of the iwo-and-fitty counties, into which the kingdom is divided. These houses, however, form but one body, as their votes are taken together, The diet, besides being convened on all great national events, should ineet at stated times. Under Matthias Corvinus, and Ferdinand I. it was decreed they should be annual; and under Leopold I. that they should be triennial; which was confirmed by Charles VI. and is still considered as the constitutional period. But sovereigns and their ministers often wish to get rid of these incumbrances; and lately, from 1764 to 1790, no dict was held; though many important affairs had happened within this period. It ought not to sit inore than two months. There is likewise a Hungary-office, which resembles our chancery, and which resides at Vienna ; as the stadtholder's council, which comes pretty near the British privy-council, but has a municipal jurisdiction, does at Presburg. Every royal town has its senate; and the Gespansehafts resemble our justices of the peace. Besides this, they have an exchequer and nine chambers, and other subordinate courts.

MILITARY STRENGTH.) The emperor can bring into the field at any time, 50,000 Hungarians in their own country, but seldom draws out of it above 10,000; these are generally light-horse, and well known in modern times by the name of Hussars. They are not near so large as the German horse; and therefore the hussars stand up on their short stirrups when they strikc. Their expedition and alertness have been found so serviceable in war, that the greatest powers in Europe have troops that Eu by the same name. Their foot are called Ileydukes, and wear feathers

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