« PreviousContinue »
in their caps, according to the number of enemies they pretend to have killed : both horse and foot are an excellent militia, very good at a pussuit, or ravaging and plundering a country, but not equal to regular troops in a pitched battle. The sovereign may summon the Hungarian nobility to take the field and defend their country. This service is called an insurrectio, and from it the high clergy are not exempt. In the frequent wars in which Hungary was formerly engaged, principally against the Turks, this service was rather a severe obligation. The mmber of combatants each brought into the field was in proportion to los estate. The archbishop of Gran, and the bishop of Erlau, brought each two stands of colours, and under each stand a thousand men; the archbishop of Colocza, and several bishops, a thousand cach. In the fatal battle of Mohatch, seven bishops were left on the field. A general insurrection of this kind was summoned by the emperor in the present war; but the treaty of Campo Formio having been concluded be fore the troops so raised began to act, they returned home.
Coins.] Hungary was formerly remarkable for its coinage ; and there are still extant, in the cabinets of the curious, a complete series of coins of their former kings. More Greek and Roman medals have been discovered in this country than perhaps in any other in Europe.
Arms.) The emperor, as king of Hungary, for armorial ensigns, bears quarterly, barwise, argent and gules, of eight pieces.
History.) The Huns, after subduing this country in the middle of the third century, communicated their name to it, being then part of the ancient Pannonia. They were succeeded by the furious Goths; the Goths were expelled by the Lombards; they by the Avari; wbo were followed by the Sclavi in the beginning of the 9th century. At the close of it, the Anigours emigrated from the banks of the Wolga, and took possession of the country. Hungary was formerly an assemblage of different states; and the first who assumed the title of king was Stephen, in the year 997, when he embraced Christianity. In his reign the form of government was established, and the crown rendered elective. About the year 1310, king. Charles Robert ascended the throne, and subdued Bulgaria, Servia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Sclavonia, and many other provinces ; but many of those conquests were afterwards reduced by the Venetians, Turks, and other powers. In the 15th cen tury, Huniades, who was guardian to the infant king Ladislaus, bravely repulsed the Turks when they invaded Hungary; and upon the death of Ladislaus, the Hungarians, in 1438, raised Klatthias Corvinus, son of Huniades, to their throne. Lewis, king of Hungary, in 1526, was killed in a battle, fighting against Solyman, emperor of the 'Turks. This battle proved almost fatal to llungary: but the archduke Ferdinand. brother to the emperor Charles V. having married the sister of Lewis, he claimed the title of Hungary, in which he succeeded with some difficulty; and that kingdom has ever since belonged to the House at Austria, though by its constitution its crown ought to be elective. For the rest of the Hungarian history, sce Germany,
TRANSYLVANIA, SCLAVONIA, CROATIA, AND
THESE countries appear under one division, for several reasons, and
particularly because we have no account sufficiently exact of their extent and boundaries. The most authentic is as follows :-TRANSYLPANIA belongs to the House of Austria, and is bounded on the North by the Carpathian mountains, which divide it from Poland; on the East by Moldavia and Walachia; on the south by Walachia ; and on the West by Upper and Lower Hungary. It lies between twenty-two and twenty-six degrees of East longitude, and forty-five and forty-eight of North latitude. Its length is about 180, and its breadth 120 miles; and contains nearly 14,400 square miles, surrounded on all sides by high mountains. Its produce, vegetables, and animals, are almost the same with those of Hungary. The air is wholesome and temperato ; but the wine of this country, though good, is not equal to the Hungarian. Its chief city is Hermanstadt, and its interior government still partakes greatly of the ancient feudal system, being composed of many independent states and princes, who are little more than nominally subject to the Austrians. Papists, Lutherans, Calvinists, Socinians, Arians, Greeks, Mahometans, and other sectaries, here enjoy their several religions. Transylvania is thought to add but little to the Austrian revenụe, though it experts some metals and salt to Hungary. The other large places are Sageswar, Millenback, and Newmark. All sorts of provisions are very cheap, and excellent in their kinds. Hermanstadt is a large, strong, and well-built city, as are Clausenburg and Weissenburg, The seat of goyernment is at Hermanstadt, and the governor is assisted by a council made up of Roman-catholics, Calvinists, and Lutherans. The diet, or parliament, meets by summons, and receives the commands of the sovereign, to whom of late they have been more devoted than formerly. They have a liberty of making remonstrances and representations in case of grievances.
Transylvania is part of ancient Dacia, the inhabitants of which long employed the Roman arms before they could be subdued. It was overrun by the Goths on the decline of the Roman empire, and then by the Huns. Their descendants retain the same military character. The population of the country is not ascertained; but if the Transylvanians can bring into the field, as has been asserted, 30,000 troops, the whole number of inhabitants must be considerable. At present, their military force is reduced to six regiments of 1,500 each; but it is well known that, during the last two wars in which the House of Austria was engaged, the Transylvanians did great services.' Hermanstadt is its only bishopric; and the Transylvanians at present seeni to trouble themselves little either about learning or religion, though the Roman-catholic is the established' church. Stephen I. king of Hungary, introduced Christianity there about the year 1000; and it was afterwards governed by an Hungarian vaivod or viceroy. The various revolutions in their government prove their impatience under slavery; and though the treaty of Carlowitz, in 1699, gave the sovereignty of Transylvania, as also of Sclavonia, to the House of Austria, yet the natives enjoy what we may call a loyal aristocracy, which their sovereigns do not think proper to invade. In October, 1784, on account of the real or feigned zs, assing is the sun ber of enemies they pretend la kate Bes: we waxaa excellent militia, very good at a porsur, mizarse a country, but not equal to regulas EUR 12:25 126. The sonereign may summon the Hungarian 2009.II S ve bee azi cekod their country. This service is Games is the high clergy are not exempt. In the TT 925 272 Hazary was formerly engaged, principaliy DUIS 12 113. Barric tas rather a serere obligation. The numDE FET as ac lecet into the beld was in proportion to us
Tie zarico of Gran, and the bishop of Erlau, brought CI20 Sze Cs, and order each stand a thousand men; ibo 11t Cucza 24 veral bishops, a thousand cach. In the ar sky.cach, sea besaops were left on the field. A gene
can sé 30. rus summoned by the emperor in the preSE NE; IT te T Caspo Formio having been concluded be 1.2 os3xe beqa to act, iter returned home.
CIJE ETSETE radis remarkable for its coinage ; and there PC32233 of the curious, a complete series of colds Cris More Great and Roman medals have been disC1115 Cia pertaps in any other in Europe.
11 Tze sasex, a sing of Hungary, for armorial ensigts, is oursJAV argest and gules, of eight pieces.
E:11. Toe Has, atar subduing this country in the middle of De OST, geskared their name to it, being then part of
na P02. Tser were succeeded by the rurious Gorbs;
Gios esa b; we Lombards; they by the Avari; who visai ne Xian in the beginning of the oth century. Al me dizi s tre das ers:gated from the banks of the Wolga, ani sex esce is coestry. Hangary was formerly an assemzice; 2 tbe ist wbo assumed the title of king was S 9.000 EUR 7, wizn be embraced Christianity. In his reign SIE ICT Resai ta established, and the crown rendered electe 2 F* 1910, burs Charles Robert ascended the throne, DE SITO Berena Snina, Croatia, Dalmatia, Sclavonia, and ma3 se potosi berbaas those conquests were afterwards te et e Feoktis, Turks, and other powers. In the 15th cene ter, sed do a gardian to the intani king Ladislaus, brately Szelzs sa icer invaded Hungary; and upon the death e Luis ie ligganas, in 1438, raised leithias Corvinus, sou
scab throse. Levis, king of Hungary, in 1526, 138 kuni 3 2 b, sicu zainst Solvman, emperor of the Turks. This e pesme alors fail to Hungary: but the archduke Fenlinand roues cror Charles l. haring married the sister of Lewe,
les te dik o Hurguy, in shich he succeeded with some dinarie 2: kur dora bas ever since belonged to the House
KI, or its corso tutoa jis crown ought io be elective.hu Brian Listory, se Germany.
TRANSYLVANIA, SCLAVOXIA, CROATIA, 553
HUNGARIAN DALMATIA THESE countries appear unde sur divsim. ir
particularly because we have to our suceur extent and boundaries. The most authenti se te VANIA belongs to the House of Austin. I some a by the Carpathian mountains, which der er: by Moldavia and Walachia; on the sout : 1 West by Upper and Lower Hungari. Ei se twenty-six degrees of East longitud:, a IT-T-S North latitude. Its length is abor: 16L.als SL BURE contains nearly 14,400 square mile. Surrounded 12. 35 I mountains. Its produce, vegetables, 22 ama--DES with those of Hungary. The air I WHOLESOTRE DAME wine of this country, though gooi, is not equmunIC 103 chief city is Hermanstadt, and its inteno: governandez greatly of the ancient feudal system, being CONDOSEC dent states and princes, who are inttle more time the Austrians. Papists, Lutherans, Cairimsta. NESERIELL Mahometans, and other sectaries, here ener Transylvania is thought to add but little to it exports some metals and salt to Hungar Tenere Sageswar, Millenback, and Newmark. Alas com cheap, and excellent in their kinds. Hemnet well-built city, as are Clausenburg and Thomsen yernment is at Hermanstadt, and the gove made up of Roman-catholics, Calvinst. mm parliament, meets by summons, and more vereign, to whom of late they havt seen HD They have a liberty of making remonstrum case of grievances.
Transylvania is part of ancient Deco employed the Roman arms before there run by the Goths on the decline of skins Hurs. Their descendants retain tersar pulation of the country is not a can bring into the field, as has been number of inhabitants must be cons force is reduced to six regiments : during the last two wars in whict. 2 the Transylvanians did grea: srer
in shopric; and the Transylvania
he little either about learning s: the established church.
er; Christiamty there about the by an Hungarian vaivod O government prove their me
tion treaty of Carlowitz, in luo
the also of Sclavonia, to tin tua we may call a loyal mostra
by a proper to invade. In Caiap
imperial demesnes, from the stage of villanage in which they have been sa long and so unjustly retained; and it will be happy if his example should be followed by the Bohemian nobility, and they be thereby induced 10 longer to deprive their vassals of the rights of human nature. Although the Bohemians, at present, are not remarkable either for arts or arms, ya they formerly distinguished theinselves as the most intrepid assertors of civil and religious liberty in Europe ; witness the early introduction of the reformed religion into their country, when it was scarcely known in any other; the many glorious defeats they gave to the Austrian power, and their generous struggles for independency. Their virtues may be considered as the causes of their decay, as no means were left unemployed by their despotic masters for breaking their spirit; though it is certain their internal jealousies and dissentions greatly contributed to their suhjection. Their customs and diversions are the same as in Germany.
RELIGION.) Though popery is the established religion of Bohemia, yet there are many protestants among the inhabitants, who are now tolerated in the free exercise of their religion : and some of the Morarians have embraced a visionary unintelligible protestantism, if it deserves thai name, which they have propagated by their zealous missionaries in several parts of the globe. They have a meeting-house in London, and obtained an act of parliament for a settlement in the plantations.
ARCHEISHOPRIC AND BISHOPRICS.) Prague is the only Bohemian archbishopric. The bishoprics are Koningsgratz, Breslau, and Olmutz.
LANGUAGE.] The proper language of the Bohemians is a dialect of the Sclavonian, but they generally speak German and Iligh Dutch.
UNIVERSITY.) The only university of Bohemia is that of Prague.
CITIES AND TOwns.] Prague, the capital of Bohemia, is one of the finest and most inagnificent cities in Europe, and famous for its noble bridge. Its circumference is so large, that the grand Prussian army, in its last seige, never could completely invest it. For this reason it is able
1 to make a vigorous detence in case of a regular siege. The inhabitants are thought not to be proportioned to its capaciousness, being computed not to exceed 70,000 Christians, and about 18,000 Jews. It contains ninety ! two churches and chapels, and forty cloisters. It is a place of little or no frade, and therefore the middling inhabitants are not wealthy; but the Jews are said to carry on a large commerce in jewels. Bohemia contains many other towns, soine of which are fortified: but they are neither remarkable for strength or manufactures. Olmutz is the capital of Moravia; it is well fortified, and has manufactures of woollen, irun, glase, paper, and gun-powder. Breslau, the capital of Silesia, has been already described.
COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURE$.] See Germany.
CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT.] The forms and only the forms, of the old Bohemian constitution still subsist; but the government under the emperor is iesporic. Their states are composed of the clergy, nobility, gentry, and representatives of towns. Their sovereigns of late have not been fond of provoking them by ill usage, as they have a general aversion towards the Austrians. This kingdon is frequently described as part of Germany, but with little reason, for it is not in any of the nine circles, nor does it contribute any thing towards the forces or revenues of the empire, nor is it subject to any of its laws. What gives some colour to this mistake; is that the king of Bohemia is the first secular elector of the empire, and their kings have been elected emperors of Germany fur inany years.
REVS YUes. The revenues of Bohemia are whatever the sovereiga