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with the Swiss in the year 1792. The Helvetic body, knowing they were too weak to refift, submitted patiently to this usurpation; but soon after an insurrection which took place in the Pays-de-Vaud, and which, it is not improbable, was produced by the inftigation of the agents of France, afforded an opportunity for an interference which foon terminated in the subjection of almost the whole of Switzerland to the French yoke, and almost the entire overthrow of its form of government. In the month of December, the French directory took upon them to demand of the government of Berne, what they termed the restoration of the rights of that people, and the assembling the states of the Pays-de-Vaud. This demand they immediately prepared to enforce by arms, and general Meynard was ordered to march with a body of 15,000 men, to support the claims of the discontented in that country. The supreme council of Berne, fearful of entering into a contest with the powerful armies of France, on the 5th of January, 1798, issued a proclamation enjoining the citizens of the Pays-de-Vaud to assemble in arms, to renew the oath of allegiance, to proceed to reform the abuses of the governmert, and to affert and re-establish a! their ancient rights. The malcontents, however, encouraged by the protection of the French army, proceeded to open hoftilities, and seized on the castle of Chignon. The government of Berne now had recourse to arms, and ordered a body of 20,000 troops, under the command of colonel Weiss, to disperse the insurgents. But the contest was soon decided by the French army under general Meynard, which immediately advanced while the Swiss retreated, and, by the beginning of February, had taken possession of the whole of the Pays-de-Vaud.

The council of Berne ftill attempted to negotiate with the French directory; but at the same time assembled an army of about 20,000 men, the command of which they gave to M. d'Erlach, formerly a fieldmarshal in the service of France. This force was joined by the quotas of the other Swiss cantons, amounting to about 5,500 men. The directory, however, required that the ancient magiftrates of Berne should be dismified from their offices, and the constitution of the state changed to one more agreeable to democratic principles and the new system of liberty and equality. These conditions the government of Berne abso. lotely refused to submit to, and sent off orders to break off all further negotiations. The directory, alarmed at this appearance of firmness and resistance, and fearing they were not sufficiently prepared, fent general Brune to take the command of their army in the Pays-de-Vaud, with orders to conclude an armistice until he should receive a sufficient reinforcement. Brune, immediately upon his arrival, announced to the senate of Berne, that he came prepared to adjust all differences amicably, and requefted that they would fend commissioners to treat with him. These were accordinglý sent, and an armistice concluded for eight days. But on the ed of March, two days, it is affirmed, before the truce agreed on had expired, the castle of Domach, at the northern extremity of the canton of Soleure, was attacked and carried by the French ; and, at the fame time, 13,000 men were marched under the walls of Soleure, which capitulated to general Schawenbourg on the first fummons. Friburg was immediately after reduced by general Brune, and the Swiss army was

The French generals immediately advanced towards Berne, where all was confusion both in the city and in the army, the left division of which had mutinied, deserted their posts, and put to death some of their officers.

forced ro retreat.

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rabble of undisciplined peasants, raised by the landsfarm, or lery of the country en masse. About 8,000 of the regular forces were ftationed at Neweneg, and 6,400 held the position of Frauenbrun, against which ge. neral Schawenbourg advanced from Soleare, at the head of 18,000 mer. On the morning of the 5th of March both posts were attacked by the French. The troops of Neweneg repulsed the enemy, but those as Frauenbrun, after a vigorous rehttance, were compelled to retreat M. d'Erlach rallied his men at Uteren, where a second engagement took place, but with no better success on the part of the Swiss. They after. wards, however, made a stand at Grauholtz, about a league and a half from Berne; but were thence driven to the gates of the capital, where, after another severe battle, they were entirely defeated ; and on the evening of the 5th general Brune entered the city of Berne by capitulation. The divisions of the Swiss army stationed at Neweneg and Guminen re. treated, and the foldiers of the latter column, in a fit of rage and de. spair, murdered their officers, and among others their unfortunate general D'Erlach,

The defeat of the Bernese was followed by the submision of nearly the whole of Switzerland ; though the democratic republics dill made a kand, defeated general Schawenbourg, and forced him to retire with the loss of 3,000 men, after he had confented to a treaty by which he en. gaged not to enter the smaller cantons.

After this revolution the Swiss confederacy changed its constitution, and even its name. Provincial governmenis, under the direction of the French generals, were established in the different districts, and the whole assumed the name of the Helvetic republic. Contributions and requisi. tions were levied, as usual, by the French commissioners, and the most fhocking enormities perpetrated. During the campaign of 1799, the northern parts of Switzerland became the feat of war between the Auftrians and French, and the cantons of Schaffhausen and Zurich, especially the latter, suffered the severelt distress from the ravages of the content. ing armies. What will be the future state of Switzerland it is not easy to say. Should the allies be fo successful as to force the French to eva. cuate the country, renounce their influence over it, and leave it entirely to itself, its ancient conftitution and government will probably be re. ftored; but it must no doubt be long before it will be able to regain its former tranquillity and happiness.

1

SPAIN.

SITUATION AND EXTENT.

Miles.

Degrees.
Length 700?

between {

10 and 3 East longitude, Breadth 500

46 and 4+ North latitude. Containing 150,763 square miles, with sixty-nine inhabitants to each. BOUNDARIES.] It is bounded on the West by Portugal and the As

lantic Ocean; by the Mediterranean on the Eat ; by the Bay of Biscay and the Pyrenean mountains, which separate is from France, on the North; and by the strait of the sea at Gibraltar da the South,

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ANCIENT NAMES AND DIVISIONS.] Spain formerly included Portugal, and was known to the ancients by the name of Iberia, and Hesperia, as well as Hispania. It was, about the time of the Punic wars, divided into Citerior and Ulterior, the Citerior contained the provinces lying north of the river Ebro ; and the Ulterior, which was the largest part, comprehended all that lay beyond that river. Innumerable are the internal changes that it afterwards underwent; but they are less accu. rately known than those of any other European country.

CLIMATE, SOIL, AND WATER.] Except during the equinoctial rains, the ait of Spain is dry and serene, but excessively hot in the southern provinces in June, Joly, and Auguft. The vast mountains that run through Spain, are, however, very beneficial to the inhabitants, by the refreshing breezes that come from them in the southernmost parts ; though those towards the north and north-east are in the winter very cold.

Such is the moisture of the hills, bounded on the north by the Bay of Biscay, and to the south by snowy mountains, that the utmost care is not fufficient to preserve their fruits, their grain, their instruments of iron, from mould, from rot, and from ruft. Both the acerous and the putrid fermentation here make a rapid progress. Besides the relaxing humidity of the climate, the common food of the inhabitants contributes much to the prevalence of most diseases which infect the principality of Aftu. ria. Yet, although subject to such a variety of endemical diseases, few. countries can produce more instances of longevity; many live to the age of a hundred, some to a hundred and ten, and others much longer The fame observation may be extended to Galicia, where, in the parish

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of Cape Finisterre. No Englishman ought to be unacquainted with Mouni Calpe, now called the Hill of Gibraltar, and, in former times, one of the Pillars of Hercules; the other, Mount Abyla, lying oppofite to it in Africa.

Among the mountains of Spain, Montserrat is particularly worthy the attention of the curious traveller ; one of the most fingular in the world, for situation, shape, and composition. It ftands in a vast plain, about thirty miles from Barcelona, and nearly in the centre of the principality of Catalonia. It is called by the Catalonians Monte-ferrado, or the sawed mountain ; and is so named from its fingular and extraordinary form; for it is broken and divided, and crowned with an infinite number of fpiring cones, or pine heads, so that it has the appearance, when seen at a distance, of the work of 'man, but, upon nearer approach, is feen to be evidently the production of nature. It is a spot so admirably adapted for retirement and contemplation, that it has, for many ages, been inhabited only by monks and hermits, whose first vow is never to forsake it. When the mountain is firft perceived at a distance, it has the appearance of an infinite number of rocks cut into conical forms, and built one upon another to å prodigious height, and seems like a pile of grotto work, or Gothic [pires. Upon a nearer view, each cone appears of itself a mountain : and the whole composes an enormous mass about 14 miles in circumference. The Spaniards compute it to be two leagues in height*. As it is like no other mountain, so it ftands quite unconnected with any, though not fat distant from fome that are very lofty. convent is erected on the mountain, dedicated to our Lady of Montserrat, to which pile grims resort from the farthest parts of Europe. All the poor who come here are fed gratis for three days, and all the fick received into the hospital. Sometimes, on particular festivals, feven thousand persons arrive in one day ; but people of condition pay a reasonable price for what they eat. 'On different parts of the mountain are a number of hermitages, all of which have their little chapels, ornaments for saying mass, water cisterns, and most of them little gardens. The inhabitant of one of these hermitages, which is dedicated to St. Benito, has the privilege of making an annual entertainment on a certain day, on which day all the other hermits are invited, when they receive the Sacrament from the hands of the mountain vicar, and, after divine service, dine together. They meet also at this hermitage on the days of the faints to whom their several hermitages are dedicated, to fay mass, and commune with each other. But at other times they live in a very solitary and recluse manner, perform various penances, and adhere to very rigid rules of abftinence. They never eat fesh; nor are they allowed to keep within their walls either dog, cat, bird, or any living thing, left their attention Mould be withdrawn from heavenly to earthly affe&ions. The number of professed monks there is 76, of lay bros shers 28, and of finging boys 25; besides physicians, furgeons, and ser. vants. Mr. Thickneffe, who has published a very particular description of this extraordinary mountain, was informed by one of the hermits, that he often faw from his habitation the islands of Minorca, Majorca, and Yvica, and the kingdoms of Valencia and Murcia.

RIVERS AND LAKES.] The principal rivers of Spain are the Douro, formerly Durius, which falls into the Atlantic Ocean, below Oporto in Portugal ; the Tajo or Tagus, which falls into the Atlantic Ocean

* Mr. Swinburne estimates its height at only 3,300 feet; and observes that the arms of the convent are, the Virgin Mary fitting at the root of a rock balf cut through by a faw.

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