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prevent the crown from falling into a foreign family. The late king died on the 24th of February, 1777, and was succeeded by his daugh. ter, the present queen. One of the first acts of her majesty's reign was the removal from power of the marquis de Pombal ; an event which excited general joy throughout the kingdom, as might naturally be expected from the arbitrary and oppressive nature of his adminiftration : though it has been alleged in his favour, that he adopted fundry puba lic measures which were calculated to promote the real interests of Por. tugal.

On the 10th of March, 1792, the prince of Brasil, as presumptive heir to the crown, published an edict, declaring, that as his mother, from her unhappy fituation, was incapable of managing the affairs of govern. ment, he would place his fignature to public papers, till the return of ber health ; and that no other change should be made in the forms.

Portugal, as the ally of England, has taken a feeble part in the war againt France; but her exertions were confined to furnishing. Spain with a few auxiliary troops, and sending a small squadron to join the English feet. In August 1797, however, a negotiation for a treaty of peace between France and Portugal was entered into, and the treaty ac. tually concluded; but the French directory refused to ratify it, alleging that the queen of Portugal, fo far from showing a disposition to abide by her articles, had put her forts and principal ports into the possession of the English. Since the failure of this attempt at negotiation, Portugal has continued a member of the alliance against France ; though her aid has been very unimportant, consisting only of a small squadron, which has cruised in the Mediterranean, and assisted in the blockade of Malta.

The queen is disordered by religious melancholy ; Dr. Willis, at the request of the prince, fome time since, made a voyage to Lisbon to attempt her cure; but her recovery remaining hopeless, the government of the country rests with the prince of Brasil.

Maria-Frances- Isabella, queen of Portugal, born December 17, 1734; married, June 6, 1760, to her uncle don Pedro Clement, F. R. S. born July 5, 1717, who died May 25, 1786; began to reign February 24, 1777.

Their issue. John-Maria-Joseph-Louis, born May 13, 1767 ; married, March 20, 1785, Maria-Louisa, of Spain, born July 9, 1177.

The issue by the late king. 1. Her present majesty. 2. Anna-Frances-Antoinetta, born O&tober 8, 1736.

3. Maria-Francisca-Bendieta, born July 24, 1746; married, in 1776, to her nephew, the prince of Brasil, who died September 11, 1788.

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Length.

Breadth

446

Alphonso, fon to John IV. was then king of
misfortune to disagree at once with his wife
they, uniting their interests, not only for
crown, but obtained a dispensation from

ch latitude,
which was aétually consummated.

aft longitude. by a second marriage, had sons, the e

habitants in each.' cessor, and father to the late king

its extent and for

its, from them were of much service in !

se kingdom of Naples, about contrary, he almoft ruined the

ntiers of the duchy of Savoy, to tle of Almanza, in 1707.- $ of Venice, which is its greated his son Joseph, whose reig in fome parts it is scarcely 100. for his people. The fat a fixed the boundaries of Italy; for to. pital, and look his ki,

by the Gulf of Venice, or Adriatic Sea; itration was not diftin

the Mediterranean Sea ; and on the North, or the reputation wl' of the Alps, which divide it from France and domestic blood, In September, 1' de Italian dominions, comprehending Corlica, Ser. cscaped with

and other islands, are divided and exhibited in the len. The fa consequence conspired, ITALY

Square
proper e

Miles.
NTRIES' NAMES.

Cuer CITIES.
clared.
Jesuit
Piedmont

6619 140 98 Turin
Montserrat
from

40 22 Casal
KING
Alessandriné

204 27 20 Aleflandria
Oneglia

132

7 Sardinia I.

57 Cagliari phe KINC Naples

22,000 275 TL

Naples
MAPL ES. Sicily I.

9400 180 92 Palermo
Milan
poche EMPE.

5431) 155

9o Milan Mantua

700 47 27

Mantua
Mirandola

19

10 Mirandola Pope's dominions. 14 348 235 143 ROME { E. Long: 13.4. Tuscany

94

Florence
Mafla
To their

82 16

11 Mafia
Modena
respective

2560 65

39 Modena
Parma
prince's.

1225
48

37 Parma
Piombino

1001

18 Piombino Monaco

2.4

4 Monaco Lucca

286

28 Republics. St. Marino

8

St. Marina
Genoa

2400 160

55 Genga
To the EMPE.

Venice
Itria

1245

32 Capo d'Itria Dalmatia P.

1400 135

20 Zara -Savoy

3572 87 60 Chamberry Corsica I.

1520 90

3S Bastia
Ines of Dalmatia 1364
Cephalonia

428 401 18 Cephalonia
To FRANCE Corfu, o: Corcyra 194 31

1o Coifa Zant, or Zacynthus

12/Zant St. Maura

56

7 St. Maura.
Little Cephalonia 141 7 3
L(Ithaca olim)
Total

97,672 * Several of the late' Venetian ini anda have lince been taken by the Turkin and Ruflian Acets.

wh

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6600 135

ROR.

120

6640 1151

22
12

15 Lucca

8434 175

95 Venice

&OR,

I 20

23

12

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PORTUGAL

falling into a foreign family. The late king

1717, and was focceeded by his daugh. the frit acts of her majesty's reign uguis de Pombal; an event which dom, as mighe naturally be er. sture of his administration : he adopted fundry pube real' interelts of Par.

crfumptire beit

from her Overs.

of

happy foil of Italy produces the comforts and dance; each dilt riêt has its peculiar excel. - most delicious fruits, and oil, are the

corn grows here as serves the in:

cultivated, the Italians might Italian cheeses, particularly those ulk, form a principal part of their ac variety of air : and some parts of of the alterations that accidental causes for the Campana di Roma, where the ana moft falubrious air of any place perhaps on the eftilential, through the decrease of inhabitants, .d a ftagnation of waters, and putrid exhalations. urthern parts, which lie among the Alps, or in their -, is keen and piercing, the ground being in many places th snow in winter. The Apennines, which are a ridge of as that longitudinally almoft divide Italy, have great effects on mate; the countries on the south being warm, chofe on the north ald and temperate. The sea breezes refresh the kingdom of Naples fo much, that no remarkable inconveniency of air is found there, notwithtanding its fouthern fituation. In general, the air of Italy may be faid to be dry and pure.

MOUNTAINS.) We have already mentioned the Alps and Apennines, which form the chief mountains of Italy. The famous volcano of Mount Vesuvios lies in the neighbourhood of Naples.

RIVERS AND LAKES.] The rivers of Italy are the Po, the Var, the Adige, the Trebia, the Arno, and the Tiber, which runs through the city of Rome. The famous Rubicon forms the southern boundary between Italy and the ancient Cisalpine Gaul.

The lakes of Italy are the Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Isco, and Garda, in the north; the Perugia, or Thrasimene, Bracciana, Terni, and Cea lano, in the middle. SEAS, GULFS, OR BAYS, CAPES, 1 Without a knowledge of these, PROMONTORIES, AND

STRAITS. S neither the ancient Roman au. thors, nor the history or geography of Italy, can be understood. The feas of Italy are the gulph of Venice, or the Adriatic sea; the feas of Naples, Tuscany, and Genoa; the bays or harbours of Nice, Villa Franca, Onea glia, Finale, Savona, Vado, śpezzia, Lucca, Pifa, Leghorn, Piombino, Civita Vecchia, Gaeta, Naples, Salerno, Policastro, Reggio, Squilace, Tarento, Manfredonia, Ravenna, Venice, Trieste, Istria, and Fiume; Cape Spartavento, del Alice, Otranto, and Ancona; the strait of Meffina, between Italy and Sicily.

The gulphs and bays in the Italian ihands are those of Fiorenzo, Baftia, Talada, Porto Novo, Cape Corso, Bonifacio, and Ferro, in Cortica; and the ftrait of Bonifacio, between Corsica and Sardinia. The bays of Cagliari and Orittagni; Cape de Sardis, Cavello, Monte Santo, and Polo, in Sardinia. The gulfs of Mellina, Melazzo, Palermo, Mazara, Syracuse, aud Catania; Cape Faro, Melazo, Orlando, Gallo, Trapano, Peffaro, and Aleíña, in Sicily; and the bays of Porto Feraio, and Porto Longone, in the ifland of Elba.

METALS AND MINERALS.] Many places of Italy abound with mineral {prings; fome hot, some warm, and many of sulphureous, chalybeate, and medicinal qualities. Many of its mountains abound in mines that produce great quantities of emeralds, jasper, agate, porphyry, lapis lazuli

, and other valuable ftones, Iron and copper mines are found in a few

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Alphonso, fon to John IV. was then king of Portugal. He had the misfortune to disagree at once with his wife and his brother Peter; and they, uniting their interests, not only forced Alphonso to resign his crown, but obtained a dispensation from the pope for their marriage, which was aétually consummated. They had a daughter ; but Peter, by a second marriage, had sons, the eldet of whom was John, bis suc. cessor, and father to the late king of Portugal. John, like his father, joined the grand confederacy formed by king William ; but neither of them were of much service in humbling the power of France. On the contrary, he almoft ruined the allies, by occasioning the loss of the battle of Almanza, in 1707.- John died in 1750, and was succeeded by his son Joseph, whose reign was neither happy to himself, nor fortunate for his people. The fatal earthquake, in 1755, overwhelmed his ca. pital, and Mook his kingdom to the centre. His succeeding adminiAtration was not distinguified by the affection that it required at home, or the reputation which it sustained abroad. It was deeply ftained with domestic blood, and rendered odious by excessive and horrible cruelty. In September, 1758, the king was attacked by asasins, and narrowly escaped with his life, in a solitary place near his country palace of Belen. The families of Aveira and Tavora were destroyed by torture, in consequence of an accusation being exhibited againit them of having conspired against the king's life. But they were condemned without proper evidence, and their innocence has been since authentically de. clared. From this supposed conspiracy is dated the expulsion of the Jesuits (who were conjectured to have been at the bottom of the plot) from all parts of the Portuguese dominions. The marquis de Pombal

, who was at this time the prime minister of Portugal, governed the kingdom for many years with a moft unbounded authority, and which appears to have been sometimes directed to the most cruel and arbitrary purposes.

In 1762, when a war broke out between Spain and England, the Spa niards, and their allies, the French, attempted to force bis Faithful Majesty into their alliance, and offered to garrison his fea-towns againt the English, with their troops. The king of Portugal rejected this proposal, and declared war against the Spaniards, who, without resistance

, entered Portugal with a confiderable army, while a body of French threatened it from another quarter. Some have doubted whether any of these courts were in earnest upon this occasion, and whether the whole of the pretended war was not concerted to force England into a peace with France and Spain, in consideration of the apparent danger of Por. tugal. It is certain, that both the French and Spaniards carried on the war in a very dilatory manner, and that, had they been in earneft, they might have been masters of Lisbon, long before the arrival of the English troops to the afliitance of the Portuguese. However, a fer English battalions put an effe&tual stop, by their courage and conduct, w the progress of the invasion. Portugal was faved, and a peace was cocluded at Fontainbleau, in 1763. Notwithstanding this eminent fervice performed by the English to the Portuguese, who often had bec saved before in the like manner, the latter, ever fince that period, not be said to have beheld their deliverers with a friendly eye. most captious distinctions and frivolous pretences have been incenie! by the Portuguese ministers, for cramping the English trade, and ds priving them of their privileges.

His Portuguese majefty having no fun, bis eldest daughter was mar. ried, by diffenfation from the pope, to don Pedro, ber uwa unele,

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prevent the crown from falling into a foreign family. The late king died on the 24th of February, 1777, and was succeeded by his daugh ter, the present queen. One of the first acts of her majesty's reign was the removal from power of the marquis de Pombal ; an event which excited general joy throughout the kingdom, as might naturally be ex. pected from the arbitrary and oppreffive nature of his adminiftration : though it has been alleged in his favour, that he adopted fundry puba lic measures which were calculated to promote the real interests of Portugal.

On the 10th of March, 1792, the prince of Brasil, as presumptive heir to the crown, published an edict, declaring, that as his mother, from her unhappy fituation, was incapable of managing the affairs of government, he would place his signature to public papers, till the recurn of ber health ; and that no other change should be made in the forms.

Portugal, as the ally of England, has taken a feeble part in the war against France; but her exertions were confined to furnishing Spain with a few auxiliary troops, and sending a small squadron to join the English Aleet. In August 1797, however, a negotiation for a treaty of peace between France and Portugal was entered into, and the treaty ac. tually concluded; but the French directory refused to ratify it, alleging that the queen of Portugal, so far from showing a disposition to abide by her articles, had put her forts and principal ports into the poffeffion of the English. Since the failure of this attempt at negotiation, Portugal has continued a member of the alliance against France ; though her aid has been very unimportant, consisting only of a small squadron, which has cruised in the Mediterranean, and asisted in the blockade of Malta.

The queen is disordered by religious melancholy ; Dr. Willis, at the request of the prince, some time since, made a voyage to Lisbon to attempt her cure; but her recovery remaining hopeless, the government of the country rests with the prince of Brasil.

Maria-Frances- Isabella, queen of Portugal, born December 17, 1734; married, June 6, 1760, to her uncle don Pedro Clement, F. R. S. born July 5, 1717, who died May 25, 1786; began to reign February 24, 1777.

Their issue. John-Maria-Joseph-Louis, born May 13, 1767; married, March 20, 1785, Maria-Louila, of Spain, born July 9, 1177.

The issue by the late king. 1. Her present majesty. 2. Anna-Frances-Antoinetta, born O&tober 8, 1736.

3. Maria-Francisca-Bendicta, born July 24, 1746; married, in 1776, to her nephew, the prince of Brafil, who died September 11, 1788,

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