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Length too} between {95 and 19 East longitude.

ITALY.
SITUATION AND EXTENT.
Miles,

Degrees.
38 and 47 North latitude.

7 Containing 116,967 square miles with 170 inhabitants in each.' THE form of Italy renders it very difficult to ascertain its extent and dimensions ; for, according to fomé accounts, it is, from the frontiers of Switzerland, to the extremity of the kingdom of Naples, about 750 miles in length; and from the frontiers of the duchy of Savoy, to those of the doininions of the states of Venice, which is its greateft breadth, about 400 miles, though in some parts it is scarcely 100.

BOUNDARIES.] Nature has fixed the boundaries of Italy ; for 10. wards the East it is bounded by the Gulf of Venice, or Adriatic Sea; on the South and West by the Mediterranean Sea ; and on the North, by the lofty mountains of the Alps, which divide it from France and Switzerland.

The whole of the Italian dominions, comprehending Corhica, Sar. dinia, the Venetian and other islands, are divided and exhibited in the following table :

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6619 1401

24

6600 135

ROR.

191

1225

Piedmont

98 Turin
To the KING
Montserrat

446
40

22 Casal
Alessandriné
of SARDINIA,

204

27 20 Aleflandria Oneglia

132

7 Oneglia Sardinia I.

57 Cagliari To the KINGS Naples

22,000 275 100 Napies of NAPLES. { Sicily I.

9400 180 92 Palermo Milan To the EMPE

5431 155

70 Milan Mantua

700 47

27 Mantus Mirandola

1201

10 Mirandola

S N. 41. 54 Tuscany

6640 1151

94 Florence Maila

82 16 To their

1 Mafia Modena

2560 65 respective

39 Modena Parma prince's.

48

37 Parma Piombino

JOO

18 Piombino
Monaco

24
IZ

4 Monaco
Lucca

286
28

15 Lucca Republic s. St. Marino

8

St. Marino
Genoa

2400 160

53 Genoa Venice To the EMPE

S434 175

951

Venice
Istria

12451

32 Capo d'Istria
ROR,
Dalmatia P.

1400 135
-Savoy

3572

87 60 Chamberry
Corsica I.

1520 90 38 Baltia
Ines of Dalmatia - 1364
| Cephalonia

428 40 18 Cephalonia
To FRANCE Corfu, o: Corcyra 1941 31
Zant, or Zacynthus

120

23 St. Maura

56

7 St. Maura.
Little Cephalonia 141 7 7 3
L(Ithaca olim)
Total

97,6721 * Several of the late Venetian islands have fince been taken by the Turkil and Ruffian feets.

20 Zara

10 Corfu 12 Zant

12

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Sott AND AIR.] The happy foil of Italy produces the comforts and luxuries of life in great abundance; each diftrict has its peculiar excel. lency and commodity; wines, the most delicious fruits, and oil, are the molt general productions. As much corn grows here as ferves the in habitants ; and were the ground properly cultivated, the Italians might export it to their neighbours. The Italian cheeses, particularly those called Parmesans, and their native filk, form a principal part of their commerce. There is here a great variety of air : and some parts of Iraly bear melancholy proofs of the alterations that accidental causes make on the face of nature ; for the Campana di Roma, where the ana cient Romans enjoyed the most falubrious air of any place perhaps on the globe, is now almoft peftilential, through the decrease of inhabitants, which has occafioned a ftagnation of waters, and putrid exhalations. The air of the northern paris, which lie among the Alps, or in their Beighbourhood, is keen and piercing, the ground being in many places covered with snow in winter. The Apennines, which are a ridge of mountains that longitudinally almoft divide Italy, have great effects on its climate ; the countries on the south being warm, those on the north mild and temperate. The fea breezes refresh the kingdom of Naples fo much, that no remarkable inconveniency of air is found ihere, notwith standing its fouthern situation. In general, the air of Italy may be said to be dry and pure.

MOUNTAINS.] 'We have already mentioned the Alps and Apennines, which form the chief mountains of Italy. The famous volcano of Mount Vesuvius lies in the neighbourhood of Naples.

RIVERS AND LAKES.] The rivers of Italy are the Po, the Var, the Adige, the Trebia, the Arno, and the Tiber, which runs through the city of Rome. The famous Rubicon forms the southern boundary be tween Italy and the ancient Cisalpine Gaul.

The lakes of Italy are the Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Isco, and Garda, in the north ; the Perugia, or Thrasimene, Bracciana, Terni, and Ce.. lano, in the middle.

SEAS, GULFS, OR BAY5, Capes, without a knowledge of these, PROMONTORIES, AND STRAITS. neither the ancient Roman au. thors, nor the history or geography of Italy, can be underfood. The feas of Italy are the gulph of Venice, or the Adriatic sea ; the seas of Naples, Tuscany, and Genoa; the bays or harbours of Nice, Villa Franca, Onea glia, Finale, Savona, Vado, Spezzia, Lucca, Pifa, Leghorn, Piombino, Civita Vecchia, Gaeta, Naples, Salerno, Policastro, Reggio, Squilace, Tarento, Manfredonia, Ravenna, Venice, Trieste, Istria, and Fiume; Cape Spartavento, del Alice, Otranto, and Ancona; the strait of Mefe fina, between Italy and Sicily.

The gulphs and bays in the Italian islands are those of Fiorenzo, Baftia, Talada, Porto Novo, Cape Corso, Bonifacio, and Ferro, in Corsica; end the trait of Bonifacio, between Corsica and Sardinia. The bays of Cagliari and Oriftagni; Cape de Sardis, Cavello, Monte Santo, and Polo, in Sardinia. The gulfs of Meflina, Melazzo, Palermo, Mazara, Syracuse, aud Catania ; Cape Faro, Melazo, Orlando, Gallo, Trapano, Puffaro, and Alessia, in Sicily; and the bays of Porto Feraio, and Porto Longone, in the ifland of Elba.

METALS AND MINERALS.) Many places of Italy abound with mineral springs; fone hot, some warm, and many of sulphureous, chalybeate, and medicinal qualities. Many of its mountains abound in mines that produce great quantities of emeralds, jasper, agate, porphyry, lapis lazuli, and other valuable stones. Ison and copper mines are found in a few places: and a mill for forging and fabricating these metals is erected neat Tivoli, in Naples. Sardinia is said to contain mines of gold, silver, lead, iron, sulphur, and alum, though they are now neglected; and corious crystals and coral are found on the coast of Corsica. Beautiful marble of all kinds is one of the chief productions of Italy. VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL PRO. Belides the rich vegetable pro

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DUCTIONS, BY SEA AND LAND. ) ductions mentioned under the article of soil, Italy produces citrons, and such quantities of chesnuts, cherries, plums and other fruits, that they are of liule value to the proprietors.

There is little difference between the animal productions of Italy, either by land or sea, and those of France and Germany already meztioned.

POPULATION, INHABITANTS, MAN. Authors are greatly divided

NERS, CUSTOMS, AND DIVERSIONS. J on ihe head of Italian population. This may be owing, in a great measure, to the partiality which every Italian has for the honour of his own province. The number of the king of Sardinia's subjects in Italy is about 2,300,000. The city of Milan itself, by the best accounts, contains 300,000, and the duchy is proportionably populous. As to the other provinces of Italy, geogra. phers and travellers have paid very little attention to the numbers of natives that live in the country, and inform us by conjecture only of those who inhabit the great cities. Some doubts have arisen whether Italy is as populous now as it was in the time of Pliny, when it contained 14,000,000 of inhabitants. It seems probable that the present inhabitants exceed that number. The Campagna di Roma, and some other of the most beautiful parts of Italy, are at present in a manner desolate ; but we are to consider that the princes and states of Italy now encourage agriculture and manufactures of all kinds; which undoubredly promotes population; fo that it may not, perhaps, be extravagant, if we aflign to Italy 20,000,000 of inhabitants; bat some calculations greatly cxceed that number * The Italians are generally well-proportioned, and have such meaning in their looks, that they have greatly affifted the ideas of their painters. The women are well shaped, and very amorous, The marriage-ries, especially of the better fori, are said to be of very little value in Italy. Every wife has been represented to have her gallant or cicisbeo, with whom she keeps company, and sometimes cohabits

, with very little ceremony, and no offence on either side. But this practice is chiefly remarkable at Venice; and indeed the representations which have been made of this kind by travellers, appear to have been mach exaggerated. With regard to the modes of life, the best quality of a modern Italian is fobriety, and they submit very patiently to the public government. With great taciturnity, they discover but little reAection. They are rather vindi&tive than brave, and more fuperftitious than devout. The middling ranks are attached to their native customs, and seem to have no ideas of improvement. Their fondness for greens, fruits, and vegetables of all kinds, contribuies to their contentmert and fatisfaction; and an Italian gentleman or peasant can be luxurious 2t a very small expense. Though perhaps all Italy does not contain many descendants of the ancient Romans, yet the present inhabitants Speak of themselves as successors of the conquerors of the world, and look upon the rest of mankind with contempi:

• Mr. Swinburne says, that in 1979, the number of the inhabitants in the kingdom. of Naples amounced to 4,249,430, exdufire of the army and naval establiment.

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The dress of the Italians is little different from that of the neighbour. ing countries, and they affect a medium between the French volatility and the folemnity of the Spaniards. The Neapolitans are commonly dressed'in black, in compliment to the Spaniards. It cannot be denied that the Italians excel in the fine arts : though they make at present but a very inconsiderable figure in the sciences. They cultivate and enjoy vocal music at a very dear rate, by emasculating their males when young : to which their mercenary parents agree without remorse.

The Italians, the Venetians especially, have very little or no notion of the impropriety of many customs that are considered as criminal in other countries. Parents, rather than their fons should throw themselves away by unsuitable marriages, or contract diseases by promiscuous amours, hire mistresses for them, for a month, or a year, or some determined time; and concubinage, in many places of Italy, is an avowed licensed trade. The Italian courtesans, or bona-robas, as they are called, make a kind of profession in all their cities. Masquerading and gaming, horse-races without riders, and conversations or assemblies, are the chief diversions of the Italians, excepting religious exhibitions, in which they are pompous beyond all other nations.

À modern writer, describing his journey through Italy, gives us : very unfavourable picture of the Italians and their manner of living. Give what scope you please to your fancy, says he, you will never ima. gine half the disagreeableness that Italian beds, Italian cooks, and Italian nastiness, offer to an Englishnan. At Turin, Milan, Venice, Rome, and perhaps two or three other towns, you meet with good ac. commodations; but no words can express the wretchedness of the other inns. No other beds than those of traw, with a mattrass of straw and next to that a dirty sheet, sprinkled with water, and consequently damp: for a covering, you have another sheet as coarse as the first, like one of our kitchen jack-towels, with a dirty coverlit. The bedstead consists of four wooden forms or benches. An English peer and peeress must

lie in this manner, unless they carry an upholsterer's top with them. There are, by the bye, no such things as curtains; and in all their inns the walls are bare, and the floor has never yet been washed fince it was first laid. One of the most indelicate customs here, is, that men, and not women, make the ladies' beds, and would do every office of a maid-forvant, if suffered. They never scower their pewter; their knives are of the same colour. In these inns they make you pay largely, and send up ten times as much as you can eat. The soup, like was, with pieces of liver swimming in it: a plate full of brains fried in the hape of fritters ; a dish of livers and gizzards ; a couple of fowls (always killed after your arrival) boiled to rags, without any the least kind of sauce or herbage : another fowl, just killed, stewed as they call it; then two more fowls, or a turkey, roasted to rags.

All over Italy, on the roads, the chickens and fowls are so stringy, you may divide the breasts into as many filaments as you can a halfpenny-worth of thread. Now and then we get a little piece of mutton or veal; and, generally speaking, it is the only eatable morsel that falls in our way. The bread all the way is exceedingly bad; and the butter francid, that it cannot be touched, or even borne within the reach of your smell. But what is a greater evil to travellers than any of the above recited, are the infinite number of gnats, bugs, Aeas, and lice, which infeft us by day and night.

RELIGION.] The religion of the Italians is Roman.catholic. The inquifition here is little more than a found ; and persons of all religions Thip. In the Introduction, we have given an account of the rise and establishment of popery in Italy, from whence it spread over all Europe ; likewise of the causes and symptoms of its decline. The ecclefiaftical government of the papacy has employed many volumes in describing it. The cardinals, who are next in dignity to his holiness, are seventy ; but that number is seldom or never complete : they are appointed by the pope, who takes care to have a majority of Italian cardinals, that the chair may not be removed from Rome, as it was once to Avignon in France, the then pope being a Frenchman. In promoting foreign pre. lates to the cardinalship, the pope regulates himself according to the nomination of the princes who profess that religion. His chief miniter is the cardinal patron, generally his nephew, or near relation, who improves the time of the pope's reign by amasling what he can. When mer in a confiftory, the cardinals pretend to controul the pope, in matters both spi. ritual and temporal, and have been sometimes knowo to prevail. The reign of a pope is feldom of long duration, being generally old men at the time of their election. The conclave is a scene where the cardinals principally endeavour to display their abilities, and where many transac. tions pass very inconsistent with their pretended inspiration by the Holy Ghoft. During the election of a pope,

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pope, in 1721, the animofilies ran fo high, that they came to blows with both their hands and feet, and threw the inkoftandithes at each other. We shall here give an exiract from the creed of pope Pius IV. 1560, before his elevation to the chair, which contains the principal points wherein the church of Rome differs from the proteftant churches. After declaring his belief in one God, and other heads wherein Chriftians in gencral are agreed, he proceeds as follows:

* I moft firmly admit and embrace the apoftolical and ecclefiafical traditions, and all other conttitutions of the church of Rome.

“ I do admit the holy seriptures in the same sense that holy motherchurch doth, whose business it is to judge of the true fenfe and interpre. tation of them; and I will interpret them according to the unanimous consent of the fathers.

" I do profefs and believe that there are seven facraments of the law, truly and properly so called, instituted by Jesus Chrift our Lord, and necessary to the salvation of mankind, though not all of them to every one; namely, baptism, confirmation, eucharif, penance, extreme poc. tion, orders, and marriage, and that they do confer grace; and that of these, baptism, confirmation, and orders, may not be repeated without facrilege. I do also receive and admit the received and approved rites of the catholic church in her solemn adminiftration of the abovefaid facraments.

I do embrace and receive all and every thing that hath been de fined and declared by the holy council of Trent concerning original fin and juftification.

“ I do also profess that in the mass there is offered unto God a true, proper, and propitiatory facrifice for the quick and the dead ; and that in the mot holy sacrament of the eucharift there is truly, really, and fube ftantially, the body and blood, together with the foul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Chrift; and that there is a conversion made of the whole lub.

* A convocation of Roman catholic cardinals, archbishops, bishops, and divinei, who assembled at Trent, by virtue of a bull from the pope, anno 1546, and devoted to him, to determine upon certain points of fuith, and to suppress what they were pleased to term the riding herefies in the church.

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