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The great duchy of Tuscany belonged to the emperor of Germany, who governed it by deputies to the year 1240, when the famous distinc sions of the Guelphs, who were the partisans of the pope, and the Gibellines, who were in the emperor's interest, took place. The popes then persuaded the imperial governors in Tuscany to put themselves under the protection of the church; but the Florentines in a short time formed themselves into a free commonwealth, and bravely defended their liberties against both parties by turns. Faction at laft shook their freedom ; and the family of Medici, long before they were declared either princes or dukes, in fact governed Florence, though the rights and pri. vileges of the people seemed fill to exist. The Medici, particularly Cof. mo, who was deservedly called the Father of his Country, being in the fecret, shared with the Venetians in the immense profits of the Eaft-India trade, before the discoveries made by the Portuguese. His revenue in ready money, which exceeded that of any fovereign prince in Europe, enabled his successors to rise to sovereign power; and pope Pius V. gave one of his descendants (Cofino, the great patron of the arts) the title of great duke of Tuscany in 1570, which continued in his family to the death of Gafton de Medicis in 1737, without issue. The great-duchy was then claimed by the emperor Charles VI. as a fief of the empire, and given to his fon-in-law, the duke of Lorrain (afterwards emperor, and father of Joseph II.) in lieu of the duchy of Lorrain, which was ceded to France by treaty. Leopold, his second fon (brother and fuccessor to the emperor Joseph II.) upon the death of his father, became grand-duke. When he succeeded to the imperial crown, his fon Ferdipand entered upon the sovereignty of the grand-duchy of Tuscany, who has now succeeded his father in the empire of Germany. Leghorn, which belongs to him, carries on a great trade: and several ships of very confiderable force are now stationed on the Tuscan coasts to prevent the depredations of the infidels,
No country has undergone greater vicissitudes of government than Naples or Sicily, chiefly owing to the inconftancy of the natives, which feems to be incorporated with their air, Christians and Saracens by turns conquered it. The Normans under Tancred drove out the Saracens, and, by their connections with the Greeks, established there, while the rest of Europe was plunged in monkih ignorance, a most respectable monarchy, flourishing in arts and arms. About the year 1166, the popes being tben all-powerful in Europe, their intrigues broke into the fucceffion of Tancred's line, and Naples and Sicily at laft came into the posfeffion of the French; and the house of Anjou, with some interruptions and tragical revolutions, held it till the Spaniards drove them out in 1504, and it was then annexed to the crown of Spain.
The government of the Spaniards under the Austrian line was so oppreslive, that it gave rise to the famous revolt, headed by Mafsaniello, a young fisherman, without shoes or stockings, in the year 1647. His success was fo furprising, that he obliged the haughty Spaniards to abolith the oppressive taxes, and to confirm the liberties of the people. Be. fore these could be re-established pertectly, he turned delirious, through his continual agitations of body and mind, and he was put to death at the head of his own mob. Naples and Sicily continued with the Spanjards till the year 1700, when the extinction of the Austrian line opened a new scene of litigation. In 1706, the archduke Charles, afterwards Emperor, took possession of the kingdom. By virtue of various treaties, which had introduced Don Carlos, the king of Spain's foo, to the posledion of Parma and Placentia, a new war broke out in 1733, be tween the houses of Austria and Bourbon, about the possession of Na. ples; and Don Carlos was received into the capital, where he was pro
4. Vi&or-Emanuel-Cajetan, duc d'Aoste, born July 24, 1759 ; married, April 25, 1789, Maria-Theresa, niece to the present emperor.
5. Maurice-Joseph-Maria, duc de Montserrat, born September 12, 1762.
. claimed king of both Sicilies: this was followed by a very bloody can. paign, but the farther effufion of blood was stopt by a peace berwen France and the emperor, to which the courts of Madrid and Naples a first demurred, but afterwards acceded in 1736, and Don Carlos r. mained king of Naples. Upon his accession to the throne of Spain, in 1759,-it being found, by the inspection of physicians, and other trials that his eldest lon was by nature incapacitated for reigning, and his fe cond being heir-apparent to the Spanish monarchy, -he refigned the crown of Naples to his third son, Ferdinand IV, who married an archduchess of Austria*.
The Milanefe, the faireft portion of Italy, went through several hands; the Vicontis were succeeded by the Galeazzos and the Sforzas; but fell at last into the hands of the emperor Charles V. about the year 13:25, who gave it to his son, Philip 11. king of Spain. It remained with that crown till the French were driven out of Italy, in 1703, by the Imperia alifts. They were dispossessed of it in 1745; but by the emperor's ceffion of Naples and Sicily to the present king of Spain, it returned to the house of Austria, who governed it by a viceroy, till the late conquest of it by the French, and the establishment of the new Cisalpine republic, of which it forms the principal part.
The duchy of Mantua was formerly governed by the family of Gonzaga, who, adhering to France, the territory was forfeited, as a fief of the einpire, to the house of Austria. Guaitalla was separated from it in 1748, and made part of the duchy of Parma.
The first duke of Parma was natural son to pope Paul III. the duchy having been annexed to the holy see in 1515, by pope Julius II. Tie defcendants of the house of Farnese terminated in the late queen-dowa. fter of Spain, whose fon, his present catholic majesty, obtained the duchy, and his nephew now holds it, with the duchy of Placentia.
The Venetians were formerly the most formidable marine power in Europe. In 1194 they conquered Conftantinople itself, and held it for some time, together with a great part of the continent of Europe and Asia.
They were more than once brought to the brink of destruction by the confederacies formed against them among the other powers of Europe, effe. cially by the league of Cambray in 1509, but were as often saved by the difunion of the confederates. The discovery of a passage to India, by the Cape of Good Hope, gave the first blow to their greatness, as it loft them the Indian trade. By degrees the Turks took from them their most valuable pofleflions on the continent; and so late as the year 1715
* Ferdinand IV. king of the Two Sicilies, third son of his late Catholic majeAs the king of Spain, born Jan. 12, 1751, afcended the throne October 5, 1759; and matics, April 7, 1768, to the arcbduchess Maria. Carolina-Louisa, fitter to the late emperor, by whom he has had issue 15 children, !o of whom are living: among whom are,
1. Maria-Theresa, present empress of Germany, born June 6, 1771.
2. Therefa-Clementina, born November 23, 1975; married, September 17, 1700, the archduke Ferdinand.
3. Francis-Januarius, prince royal, born August 17, 1777; married Mariz-Ciepa tina, the archduchess, September, 1790.
they lof the Morea. In 1797 the French seized upon the city of Ve. nice, abolished its government, and soon after ceded it by treaty to the emperor, with a considerable part of its continental territory.
The Genoese for some time disputed the empire ef the Mediterranean fea with the Venetians, but were feldom of nerer able to maintain their own independency by land, being generally protected, and sometimes fubjected, by the French and Imperialists. Their doge, or first magiitrate, used to be crowned king of Corsica, though it does not clearly appear by what title. The successful effort they made in driving the victorious Auftrians out of their capital, during the war, which was terminated by the peace of Aix-la Chapelle, in 1748, has few parallels in
hiftory, and serves to show the effect of despair under oppression. Ge. -noa has lately been revolutionised by France, and a new form of republican government eftablished there.
The history of the papacy is connected with that of Christendom it. . felf. The most folid foundations for its temporal power were laid by the famous Matilda, countess of Tuscany, and heiress to the greatest part of Italy, who bequeathed a large portion of her dominions to the
famous pope Gregory VII. (who, before his accession in 1073, was so the well known by the name of Hildebrand). It would be too tedious here
to enter into a detail of the ignorance of the laity, and the other causes that operated to the aggrandisement of the papacy, previous to the
Reformation. Ever since that æra, the state of Europe has been peluch, that the popes have had more than once great weight in its
public affaits, chiefly through the weakness and bigotry of temporal princes.
The papal power is evidently now neatly extinct. Even before the present times, when innovation and revolution have made such rapid trides, the pope was treated by Roman.catholic princes with very little more ceremony than is due to him as bishop of Rome, and possessed of a temporal principality. In the present war, though he acted with conliderable caution and moderation, he co-operated with the allied powers against France: in consequence of which, the French made an incurfiou in to his territories, where they met with little resistance, and compelled him to sign a peace on such terms as they thought proper to dictate. He paid a considerable contribution in money ; and consented that such of the moit valuable ftatues and pictures in Rome, as commiffioners appointed for that purpose should select, should be carried away, and conveyed to Paris. But about the latter end of December, 1797, a riot happening at Rome, in which the French general Duphot was killed, the French army, under general Berthier, marched against that city, entered it without resistance, and, on the 15th of February, 1798, the tree of liberty was planted, the papal goverament abolished, and the Roman people declared by the French commander to have entered on the rights of sovereignty, and to constitute what was termed the Roman republie. On the 20th of March the new constitution was published, and the government declared to be vested in five consuls, coma poging a directory under the direction of the French general, as cominander in chief, 32 senators, corresponding to the council of ancients in France, and 72 tribunes, called the representatives of the people.
The pope remained in Rome when the French entered it, and suffer. ed himself to be made a prifoner by them. They confined him to his own rooms, and put the seal of confiscation on every thing lie had ;-but In a few days they resolved that he should be sent from Rome, and on the norning of the 20th of February he left that city, accompanied by
Subdivisions. Chief Towns. Sq. M.
Crim and Little Tarta. Precop the north coat of ry, and the ancient Bachiserai 26,200 the Black Sea are Taurica Cherfone. Skaffa the provinces of .
fus * Budziac Tar
Oczakow 12,000 Beffarabia
part of the ancient
j Tergovisto - 10,500 Bulgaria, the east part Widdin
of the ancient My- Nicopoli
South of the Danube Servia, the west part
Belgrade of Mysia
cient Illyricum - J Serajo • • - 8,640 On the Bosphorus and
Conitantinople, N. 1. Hellefpont Romania, olim Thrace 41. E. 1.29. 21. 200
Contessa Smth of Mount Rho. dope, or Argentum, Theffaly, now Janua
Salonichi the north part of the
Larissa ancient Greece
3,420 now Livadia
On the Adriatic Sea or
Gulf of Venice, the ancient Illyricum
(Ragusa Republic + Ragufa --- · 430 The Russians, in 1783, seized the Crimea, the principal part of this divifion ; that by a treaty, signed Jarúary 9, 1792, the Turks ceded it to them, with the Ife of, Tarks have now only the Turtar nations beyond the river Cuban, and fiom the 'Black
The republic of Ragusa, though reckoned by geographers part of Turkey in Eutopt, is not under the Turkish government. It is an aristocratical fate, forned nearly
Tamin, and that part of Cuban which is bounded by the river of that name. The