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document is of about the same length. The Stele of Canopus has 74 lines of Greek to 54 on the Rosetta Stone, but as the letters are longer and wider, it is clear from this also that the Greek versions occupied about the same space. Allowing then for the difference in the size of the hieroglyphic characters, we should expect the hieroglyphic inscription on the Rosetta Stone to occupy 14 or 15 lines. When complete the stele must have been about twelve inches longer than it is now, and the top was probably rounded and inscribed, like that of the Stele of Canopus, with a winged disk, having pendent uraei, that on the right wearing 4/, the crown of Upper Egypt, and that on the left , the crown of Lower Egypt; by the side of each uraeus, laid horizontally, would be fc^O-, and above ^ 7 ta anch, "giver of life."

The inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone form a version of a Contents decree of the priesthood assembled at Memphis in honour of stone.6 Ptolemy V., Epiphanes, King of Egypt, B.C. 195, written in hieroglyphics, demotic and Greek. A facsimile 1 of them was published by the Society of Antiquariesa in 1802, and copies were distributed among the scholars who were anxious to undertake the investigation of the texts. The hieroglyphic text has been translated by Brugsch in his Inscriptio Rosettana, Principal Berlin, 1851; by Chabas, VInscription hie'roglyphique de theRoseUa Rosette, Paris, 1867; and by Sharpe, The Rosetta Stone in Stonehieroglyphics and Greek, London, 1871, etc. The Demotic text has been studied by M. de Sacy, Lettre a M. Chaptal sur I'inscription /gypt. de Rosette, Paris, 1802; by Akerblad, Letter A M. de Sacy sur /'inscription /gypt. de Rosette, Paris, 1802; by Young, Hieroglyphics (collected by the Egyptian Society, arranged by Dr. T. Young, 2 vols., fol., 100 plates, 1823-1828), pi. xff.; by Brugsch, Die Inschrift von Rosette nach ihrent agyptisch-demotischen Texte sprachlich und sachlich erkldrt, Berlin, 1850; Salvolini, Analyse Grammaticale Raisonn/e de

1 Other facsimiles are given in Lepsius, Auswahl, Bl. 18, and in Arundale and Bonomi, Gallery of Antiquities, pi. 49, p. 114.

3 The Greek version of the decree of the Egyptian Priests in honour of Ptolemy the Fifth, surnamed Epiphanes, from the stone inscribed in the sacred and vulgar Egyptian and the Greek characters, taken from the French at the surrender of Alexandria. London, 1802. Nichols.

difftrents textes des anciens Egyptiens, Vol. I., Tcxte hieroglyp/iique et d/motique de la pierre de Rosette, Paris, 1836. This work was never finished. The Greek text has been edited by Heyne, Commentatio in inscriptionem greecam monumenti trinis titulis insigniti ex Aegypto Londinum apportati, in torn. xv. of Comment. Soc. R. Sc. Gbtt., pp. 260-280; Ameilhon, Eclaircissements sur tinscription grecque du monument trouve" d Rosette, Paris, 1803; Drumann, Commentatio in inscriptionem prope Rosettam inventam, Regiomont. 1822; and Drumann, Historisch-ajitiquariscke Untersuchungen iiber Aegypten, oder die Inschrift von Rosette aus dent Griechischen ubersetst und erldutert, Konigsberg, 1823; Lenormant, Essai sur le texte grec de Vinscription de Rosette, Paris, 1842; Letronne, Recueil des inscriptions grecques et la tines d'Egyple, Paris, 1842 ; by Franz in Boeckh, Corpus Inscriptionum Grcecarum, t. iii., 1853, p. 334 ff., No. 4697, etc. Beneficent The inscriptions upon the Rosetta Stone set forth that PtolemyV. Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, while king of Egypt, consecrated Epiphanes. revenues of silver and corn to the temples, that he suppressed certain taxes and reduced others, that he granted certain privileges to the priests and soldiers, and that when, in the eighth year of his reign, the Nile rose to a great height and flooded all the plains, he undertook, at great expense, the task of damming it in and directing the overflow of its waters into proper channels, to the great gain and benefit of the agricultural classes. In addition to the remissions of taxes which he made to the people, he gave handsome gifts to the temples, and subscribed to the various ceremonies which were carried on in them. In return for these gracious acts the priesthood assembled at Memphis decreed that a statue of the king should be set up in a conspicuous place in every temple of Egypt, and that each should be inscribed with the name and titles of "Ptolemy, the saviour of Egypt." Royal apparel was to be placed on each statue, and ceremonies were to be performed before each three times a day. It was also decreed that a gilded wooden shrine, containing a gilded wooden statue of the king, should be placed in each temple, and that these were to be carried out with the shrines of the other kings in the great panegyrics. It was also decreed that ten golden crowns of a peculiar design should be made and laid upon the royal shrine; that the birthday and Festivals coronation day of the king should be celebrated each year o" Ptolemy with great pomp and show; that the first five days of the Epiphanes. month of Thoth should each year be set apart for the performance of a festival in honour of the king; and finally that a copy of this decree, engraved upon a tablet of hard stone in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek characters, should be set up in each of the temples of the first, second and third orders, near the statue of the ever-living Ptolemy. The Greek portion of the inscriptions appears to be the original document, and the hieroglyphic and demotic versions merely translations of it.

Although it is nearly certain that, without the aid of the Greek inscription found on the socket of an obelisk at Phils, and the hieroglyphic inscription found on the obelisk which belonged to that socket, the hieroglyphic alphabet could never have been recovered from the Rosetta Stone, still it is Rosetta around this wonderful document that all the interest in the base of1" decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics clings. For deciphermany hundreds of years the interest of the learned of all Egyptian countries has been excited by the hieroglyphic inscriptions of phej^ly" Egypt, and the theories propounded as to their contents were legion. Speaking broadly, the references to this subject by classical authors1 are not very satisfactory; still there are some remarkable exceptions which will be referred to presently. Inasmuch as the names of Roman emperors, as late as the time of Decius, were written in hieroglyphics, it follows that the Late use of knowledge of this subject must have been possessed by some piSa?* one, either Greek or Egyptian, in Egypt. "For a hundred and fifty years after the Ptolemies began to reign, the Egyptian hieroglyphics appear to have been commonly used, and the Egyptians were not prohibited from making use, so far as it seemed requisite, according to ritual or otherwise appropriate, of the native language and of its time-hallowed written signs." 1 Little by little, however, the Greek language dis

1 See Gutschmifl, Scriptorum rerum Atgyptiacarum Series, in Philologus, Bd. X., Goltingen, 1855, ss. 712 ff.

5 Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire, Vol. II. p. 243.

Greek writers upon Egyptian hieroglyphics.

placed the Egyptian, and the writing in common use among the people, called to-day "demotic" or "enchorial," and anciently "epistolographic," completely usurped the place of the "hieratic" or cursive form of hieroglyphic writing. Although the Greeks and Romans appear not to have studied hieroglyphics thoroughly, only repeating, generally, what they were told about certain signs, nevertheless writers like Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Hermapion, Chaeremon, Clemens Alexandrinus, and Horapollo, contribute information on this subject of considerable value.

To Hecalaeus of Miletus,1 who visited Egypt between B.C. 513-501, we owe, through Herodotus, much knowledge of Egypt, and he must be considered the earliest Greek writer upon Egypt Hellanitus of Mytilene, B.C. 478-393, shows in his Airfvjrnaica that he has some accurate knowledge of the meaning of some hieroglyphic words. 2 Democritus wrote upon the hieroglyphics of Meroe, * but this work is lost. Herodotus says that the Egyptians used two quite different kinds of writing, one of which is called sacred (hieroglyphic), the other common * (demotic). Diodorus says that the Ethiopian letters are called by the Egyptians "hieroglyphics." * Strabo, speaking of the obelisks at Thebes, says that there are inscriptions upon them which proclaim the riches and power of their kings, and that their rule extends even to Scythia, Bactria, and India.* Chaeremon of Naucratis, who lived in the first half of the first century after Christ,7 and who must be an entirely different person from Chaeremon the companion of Aelius Gallus (B.C. 25),

1 See De rerum Acgyptiacarnm icriptoribus Graecis ante Alexandrum Magnum, in Philologus, Bd. X. s. 525.

'See the instances quoted in Philologus, Bd. X. s. 539.

'n»pi Tup lv Mfpnjj iipur ypaunurun: Diogenes Laertius, fit. Democ., ed. Isaac Casaubon, 1593, p. 661.

4 Kai Til n'tv avruv ipa, rd Si Sij^orixd KaXitrtu. Herodotus, II. 36, ed. Didot, p. 84.

• Diodorus, III. 4, ed. Didot, p. 129.

• Strabo, XVII. I, § 46, ed. Didot, p. 693.

According to Mommsen he came to Rome, as tutor to Nero, in the reign of Claudius. Provinces of Rome, Vol. II. pp. 259, 273.

derided by Strabo,1 and charged with lying by Josephus,' Greek wrote a work on Egyptian hieroglyphics3 trepl rmv iep&p ^pm* ypafi/j.a.T<ov, which has been lost. He appears to have been Egyptian attached to the great library of Alexandria, and as he was phuS?y a "sacred scribe," it may therefore be assumed that he had access to many important works on hieroglyphics, and that he understood them. He is mentioned by Eusebius4 as Xaiprffiwv 6 Upoypafifiarefc, and by Suidas,5 but neither of these writers gives any information as to the contents of his work on hieroglyphics, and we should have no idea of the manner of work it was but for the extract preserved by John Tzetzes (T?eT£7;?, born about A.D. 1110, died after John A.D. 1180). Tzetzes was a man of considerable learning and Egyptian" literary activity, and his works * have value on account of the hieroglylost books which are quoted in them. In his Chiliades7 (Bk. P 1CSV., line 39s) he speaks of 6 Alyvwriot iepoypaiifutretx; Xatpyfiasv, and refers to Chaeremon's BiBdyfiara rmv lepwv ypa/ifidT<ov. In his Exegesis of Homer's Iliad he gives an extract from the work itself, and we are able to see at once that it was written by one who was able to give his information at first hand. This interesting extract was first brought to the notice of the world by the late Dr. Birch, who published a paper on it in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, Vol. III., second series, 1850, pp. 385-396. In it he quoted the Greek text of the extract, from the edition of Tzetzes' Exegesis, first published by Hermann,8 and added remarks and hieroglyphic characters illustrative of it, together with the scholia of Tzetzes, the text of which he emended in places. As this extract is so important for the history of

1 rtKuptvof SI Ta ir\iov us ikaZuiv «toi {iiiirijc. Strabo, XVII. I, § 29, eel. Didot, p. 685.

* Contra Apion., I. 32 ff. On the identity of Chaeremon the Stoic philosopher with Chaeremon the tipoypaftpartvc, see Zeller, Hermes, XI. s. 431.

:1 His other lost work, Ai-jrtnmmrd, treated of the Exodus.

* Praep. Evang., v. 10, ed. Gaisford, t. I, p. 421. 'Sub voce 'Iipoy\v<piKa.

* For an account of them see Krumbacher, Gcschichte aet Byzantinischen Lileratur, Miinchen, 1891, pp. 235-242.

7 Ed. Kiessling, Leipzig, 1826, p. 191.

8 Draconis Stratonicensis Liber dt Metris rocticis. Joannis Tzctzae Exegesis in Homeri Iliadcm. Primum edidit God. Ilermannus, Lipsiae, 1812.

B. M. 1

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