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the study of hieroglyphics, it is given here, together with the scholia on it, from the excellent edition of the Greek text, by Lud. Bachmann, Scholia in Homeri Iliadem, Lipsiae, 1835, pp. 823, § 97 and 838, with an English translation.

Extract from Tzetzes' work on the Iliad.

.

"Ομηρος δε, παιδευθείς ακριβώς δε πάσαν μάθησιν εκ των συμβολικων Αιθιοπικών γραμμάτων, ταύτα φησιν· οι γάρ Αιθίοπες στοιχεία γραμμάτων ούκ έχουσιν, άλλ' αντ' αυτών ζωα παντοία, και μέλη τούτων και μόρια βουλόμενοι γάρ οι αρχαιότεροι των ιερογραμματέων τον περί θεών φυσικών λόγον κρύπτειν, δι' αλληγορικών και συμβόλων τοιούτων και γραμμάτων τοίς ιδίοις τέκνοις αυτά παρεδίδουν, ως ο ιερογραμματεύς Χαιρήμων φησί:

Ι. και αντί μεν χαράς, γυναίκα τυμπανίζουσαν έγραφαν:
2. αντί λύπης, άνθρωπον τη χειρί το γένειον κρατούντα, και προς

γήν νεύοντα
3. αντί δε συμφοράς, οφθαλμόν δακρύοντα:
4. αντί του μη έχειν, δύο χείρας κενάς εκτεταμένας:
5. αντί ανατολής, όφιν εξερχόμενον εκ τινος οπής:
6. αντί δύσεως, εισερχόμενον
7. αντί αναβιώσεως, βάτραχος"
8. αντί ψυχής, ιέρακα· έτι και αντί ηλίου και θεού
9. αντί θηλυγόνου γυναικός, και μητρός και χρόνου και ουρανού,

γύπα: 10. αντί βασιλέως, μέλισσαν: ΙΙ. αντί γενέσεως και αυτοφυών και αρρένων, κάνθαρον 12. αντί γής, βουν" 13. λέοντος δε προτομή πάσαν αρχών και φυλακήν δηλοί κατ' αυτούς: 14. ουρά λέοντος, ανάγκην: 15. έλαφος, ενιαυτόν: 16. ομοίως και ο φοίνιξ 17. ο παίς δηλοί τα αυξανόμενα 18. ο γέρων, τα φθειρόμενα: 19. το τόξον, την οξείαν δύναμιν και έτερα μυρια εξ ών "Ομηρος

ταυτά φησιν εν άλλη δε τόπιω, είπερ αιρείσθε, έδων εκ του Χαιρήμονος, και τας των γραμμάτων αυτών εκφωνήσεις Αιθιοπικώς είπω

Transla. " Now, Homer says this as he was accurately instructed tion of the in all learning by means of the symbolic Ethiopian characters extract.

For the Ethiopians do not use alphabetic characters, but depict animals of all sorts instead, and limbs and members of these animals; for the sacred scribes in former times desired to conceal their opinion about the nature of the gods, and therefore handed all this down to their own children by allegorical methods and the aforesaid symbols and characters, as the sacred scribe Chaeremon says."

I. “And for joy, they would depict a woman beating a Accuracy tambourine.”

of Tzetzes'

statements [The drum or tambourine was used in the temples proved.

for festival services, and a woman beating a tam-
bourine is the determinative of the words De
seker, “to beat a tambourine," and

o e
țechennu.]
2. “For grief, a man clasping his chin in his hand and
bending towards the ground."

(A man, seated, with his hand to his mouth,

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is the determinative of the word
chaànáu, "grief." A seated woman with head
bent and hands thrown up before her face, is the

determinative of sy hath, “ to weep.”] 3. “For misfortune, an eye weeping.”

[The weeping eye it is the determinative of the

common word 2 FT rem, “ to weep.”] 4. “For want, two hands stretched out empty.”

[Compare the it, “not to have,” “to be without.”

Coptic &T.] 5. “For rising, a snake coming out of a hole."

[Compare La= per, “ to come forth, to risc”

(of the sun).] 6. “For setting, (the same] going in."

[Compare = s hq, "to enter, to set” (of

the sun).]
7. “For vivification, a frog."
[The frog sa hefennu, means 100,000, hence

0 0
fertility and abundance of life.]

| But compare Horapollo, (ed. Leemans, p. 33), "Arhaotov di avopwtov γράφοντες, βάτραχον ζωγραφούσιν.

Accuracy 8. “For soul, a hawk; and also for sun and god."
of Tzetzes'
statements Compare A ba, “ soul,” neter, "god," and
proved.

Heru, “Horus” or “the Sun-god.”]
9. "For a female-bearing woman, and mother and time and
sky, a vulture."

[ Ô mut, “mother,” is the common meaning of a vulture, and at times the goddess Mut seems to be identified with nut, “the sky." Horapollo says that the vulture also meant “year” (ed. Leemans, p. 5), and this statement is borne out by the evidence of the hieroglyphics, where we find that o=forenpit

, “ycar.”] 10. “For king, a bee."

[Compare the suten net, “ king of the North and

South."] 11. "For birth and natural growth, and males, a beetle."

[The beetle xeperd was the emblem of the god

Cheperd 8 A, who is supposed to have created or evolved himself, and to have given birth to gods, men, and every creature and thing in earth and sky. The word

to become,” and in late texts 30 cheperu may be fairly well rendered by "evolutions." The meaning male comes, of course, from the idea of the ancients that the beetle had no female.

See infra, under Scarab.] “For earth, an ox.” [18ahet means field, and 185523. dil means “ox":

can Chaeremon have confused the meanings of

these two words, similar in sound ? ] 13. “And the fore part of a lion signifies dominion and protection of every kind.”

means

12.

[Compare ļā, "chief, that which is in front, Accuracy

of Tzetzes' duke, prince."]

statements 14. “A lion's tail, necessity."

proved. [Compare on peh, “to force, to compel, to be

strong."] 15, 16. “A stag, year; likewise the palm."

[Of the stag meaning "year" I can give no example.

The palm branch ( or renpit, is the common

word for "year.”] 17. “The boy signifies growth.

[Compare , which is the determinative of words

meaning “youth” and juvenescence.] 18. “The old man, decay.

[Compare fin, the determinative of 4

dau, “old age.”] 19. “The bow, the swift power."

[The Egyptian word for bow is om

Compare apet,“ to run, to flee away.'] “And others by the thousand. And by means of these characters Homer says this. But I will proceed in another place, if you please, to explain the pronunciation of those characters in Ethiopic fashion, as I have learnt it from Chaeremon."

In another place ? Tzetzes says, “ Moreover, he was not Extract uninitiated into the symbolic Ethiopian characters, the nature of which we will expound in the proper places. All this demonstrates that Homer was instructed in Egypt,” ναι μήν ουδε των Αιθιοπικών συμβολικών γραμμάτων αμύητος γέγονε, περί ών εν τοις οικείους τόπους διδάξομεν οποία εισί. και ταύτα δε τον "Ομηρον εν Αιγύπτω παιδευθήναι παραδεικνύουσι, and upon this the scholia on Tzetzes say : Περί των Αιθιοπικών γραμμάτων Διό[δωρος] μεν επεμνήσθη, και μερικώς είπεν, αλλ' ώσπερ εξ ακοής άλλου μαθών και ουκ

pet.

from Tzetzes.

| Hermann, p. 123, 11. 2-29; Bachmann, p. 823, II. 12–34. : Hermann, p. 17, 11. 21-25; Bachmann, p. 755, 11. 9-12.

ακριβώς αυτός επιστάμενος [ει] καί τινα τούτων κατέλεξεν ώσπερ εν οις διδε παρρησιάζεται. Χαιρήμων δε ο ιερογραμματεύς όλην βίβλον περί των τοιούτων γραμμάτων συνέταξεν. . άτινα, εν τοις προσφόροις] τόπους των Ομηρείων επών α[κρι]βέστερον και πλατυτέρως ερώ.! “Diodorus made mention of the Ethiopian characters and spoke particularly, yet as though he had learnt by hearsay from another and did not understand them accurately himself, although he set down some of them, as though he were talking confidently on subjects that he knew. But Chaeremon the sacred scribe compiled a whole book about the aforesaid characters, which I will discuss more accurately and more fully in the proper places in the Homeric poems.” It is much to be regretted that Chaeremon's work, if he ever fulfilled his promise, has

not come down to us. Greek

One of the most valuable extracts from the works of translation of Egyp

Greek and Roman writers on Egypt is that from a translation tian text by of an Egyptian obelisk by Hermapion, preserved by Hermapion. Ammianus Marcellinus ;? unfortunately, however, neither

the name of Hermapion's work nor the time in which he lived is known. This extract consists of the Greek translation of six lines of hieroglyphics: three lines are from the south side of the obelisk, one line from the east side, and a second and a third line from the other sides. A comparison of the Greek extract with any inscription of Rameses II. on an obelisk shows at once that Hermapion must have had a certain accurate knowledge of hieroglyphics; his translation of the lines, however does not follow consecutively. The following

examples will show that the Greek, in many cases, represents Compari- the Egyptian very closely. Λέγει "Ηλιος βασιλεϊ Ραμέστη: son of Greek δεδώρημαί σοι ανά πάσαν οικουμένην μετά χαράς βασιλεύειν, , translation

δν "Ήλιος φιλεϊ with the

40 Egyptian

111 text.

30 (VNOM ND) “Says Rā, I give to thee all lands and foreign countries with rest of heart, O king of the north and south, Usr-maāt-Rā-setep-en-Rā,

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| Hermann, p. 146, 11. 12-22 ; Bachmann, p. 838, 11. 31-37. 2 Liber XVII. 4.

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