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to conceal their opinion about the nature of the gods, and therefore handed all this down to their own children by allegorical methods and the aforesaid symbols and characters, as the sacred scribe Chaeremon says."

1. "And for joy, they would depict a woman beating a Accuracy

, . „ of Tzetzes'

tambourine. statements

[The drum or tambourine was used in the temples proved,
for festival services, and a woman beating a tam-
bourine is the determinative of the words |1 ®

seker, " to beat a tambourine," and _ G**?

2. "For grief, a man clasping his chin in his hand and bending towards the ground."

[ A man, seated, with his hand to his mouth, ^jj

is the determinative of the word J jj ^ (j ^ ^

chadndu, "grief." A seated woman with head
bent and hands thrown up before her face, is the

determinative of ^ ^ "^jj Ziat/i, "to weep."]

3. "For misfortune, an eye weeping."

[The weeping eye is the determinative of the
common word rem, " to weep." ]

4. "For want, two hands stretched out empty."

[Compare _n_ at, "not to have," "to be without."
Coptic <S-T\]

5. "For rising, a snake coming out of a hole."

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Accuracy 8. "For soul, a hawk; and also for sun and god."

of Tzetzes' fi\

statements Compare TS, ba, "soul," v^. neier, "god," and

1>r°Ved* Heru, " Horus " or "the Sun-god."]

9. "For a female-bearing woman, and mother and time and sky, a vulture."

^mut," mother," is the common meaning of a vulture, and at times the goddess Mut seems to be identified with nut, "the sky." Horapollo says that the vulture also meant "year" (ed. Leemans, p. 5), and this statement is borne out by the evidence of the hieroglyphics, where we find that

^0 = fg^-"M"ycar."]

10. "For king, a bee."

[Compare suten net, "king of the North and


11. "For birth and natural growth, and males, a beetle."

[The beetle ^ xePer<i was tne emblem of the god
Cheperd ^ (J ^j, who is supposed to have created

or evolved himself, and to have given birth to
gods, men, and every creature and thing in earth

and sky. The word O means " to become,"

and in late texts ^ <^> J | j cheperu may

be fairly well rendered by "evolutions." The meaning male comes, of course, from the idea of the ancients that the beetle had no female. See infra, under Scarab.~\

12. "For earth, an ox."

M f. ^ *^tt means field, and (j ^ dh means "ox"; can Chaeremon have confused the meanings of these two words, similar in sound ? ]

13. "And the fore part of a lion signifies dominion and protection of every kind."

[Compare „=J? ha, "chief, that which is in front, Accuracy 11 • >n of Tzetzes'

duke, prince. J statements

14. "A lion's tail, necessity." proved

[Compare □ | ^ peh, "to force, to compel, to be

15, 16. "A stag, year; likewise the palm"

[Of the stag meaning "year" I can give no example.

The palm branch | or ^ renpit, is the common
word for "year."]

17. "The boy signifies growth''

[Compare which is the determinative of words
meaning "youth " and juvenescence.]

18. "The old man, decay."

[Compare fy, the determinative of ij^^^/y^
dan, " old age."]

19. "The bow, the swift power."

[The Egyptian word for bow is s—^ pet.
Compare gL^ pet, " to run, to flee away."]

"And others by the thousand. And by means of these characters Homer says this. But I will proceed in another place, if you please, to explain the pronunciation of those characters in Ethiopic fashion, as I have learnt it from Chaeremon." 1

In another place 2 Tzetzes says, "Moreover, he was not Extract uninitiated into the symbolic Ethiopian characters, the xzeizes. nature of which we will expound in the proper places. All this demonstrates that Homer was instructed in Egypt," vol fir/v ovBe reov A10iottiks>v av(i/3o\iK&v ypafi/tdrmv a/ivrjros yeyove, irepl &v 4v T019 oiKeioii Tottoi<} SiSd^ofiev oirola elffL xal ravra Be rbv "Ofirjpov iv AtyvTrro) Trai8ev0T)vai trapaheiKvvovffi, and upon this the scholia on Tzetzes say:— TlepX T&v AlOioirtK&v ypafifidrtov Ai6[8a>posi] fiev eire/ivijadij, Kal p,eptic(i><; elnev, d\\' wairep uKorji; dWov (iadwv Kox Ovk

1 Hermann, p. 123, 11. 2-29; Bachmann, p. 823, 11. 12-34.
* Hermann, p. 17, 11. 21-25; Bachmann, p. 755, 11. 9-12,

d/ept/3<u? auTO<; iiri<rrdfievo<i [et] KaL Tiva roxnwv KwreKe^ev wairep ev 01? oiSe irapp-qaid^erai,. Xaiprifimv 6 iepoypap./Aarevs Oktjv /Si/S\oi/ Trepl ra>v Toiovtcov <ypafifia.T(Ov avveWa^ev. oLTiva, ev rot? irpo[<rcp6poi^ Tsttois T&p 'OfirjpeLmv eir&v a[Kpi]/3e<TTepov icai TrXarvrepai epcb.1 "Diodorus made mention of the Ethiopian characters and spoke particularly, yet as though he had learnt by hearsay from another and did not understand them accurately himself, although he set down some of them, as though he were talking confidently on subjects that he knew. But Chaeremon the sacred scribe compiled a whole book about the aforesaid characters, which I will discuss more accurately and more fully in the proper places in the Homeric poems." It is much to be regretted that Chaeremon's work, if he ever fulfilled his promise, has not come down to us. Greek One of the most valuable extracts from the works of

o^Egyp-0" Greek and Roman writers on Egypt is that from a translation tmntextby Qf an Egyptian obelisk by Hermapion, preserved by pion. Ammianus Marcellinus;3 unfortunately, however, neither the name of Hermapion's work nor the time in which he lived is knowa This extract consists of the Greek translation of six lines of hieroglyphics: three lines are from the south side of the obelisk, one line from the east side, and a second and a third line from the other sides. A comparison of the Greek extract with any inscription of Rameses II. on an obelisk shows at once that Hermapion must have had a certain accurate knowledge of hieroglyphics; his translation of the lines, however does not follow consecutively. The following examples will show that the Greek, in many cases, represents Compari- the Egyptian very closely. Aeyei "HXtos ftaaikei 'Pa/ii<rrri' Greek BeSwpTjfiai <roi dvh Tracrav oiKOVfiemjv yaerA ^apa<! ftaaiKeveiv,

g| m H^O] ^ fMilUl "Says Ra, I give to thee all lands and foreign countries with rest of heart, O king of the north and south, Usr-maat-Ra-setep-en-Ra,

1 Hermann, p. 146,11. 12-22; Bachmann, p. 838, 11. 31-37.

2 Liber XVII. 4.

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