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son of the Sun, Rameses, beloved of Amen-Rā.” Beoyévvntos

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“born of

the gods, possessor of the two lands” (i.e., the world). ‘OUTÒS επ' αληθείας δεσπότης διαδήματος, την Αίγυπτον δοξάσας KEKTN Lévos, ó ảylaoroińcas 'Hríov Tólu =

the mighty bull), restin

Law, lord of diadems

Law, lord of diadems, protector of Egypt, making splendid Heliopolis with monuments." "Hros Ocòs méryas deo tróTYS ohoavos = 5 | 6 8 78 7_

"Says Rā Haro mw. I DON | machis, the great god, lord of heaven,” Tenpáoas Tòv veơV TOÜ φοίνικος αγαθών, και οι θεοί ζωής χρόνον εδωρήσαντο = as www

no mu 995 000 SOA

Uiö osa III Nils “filling the temple of the bennu (phænix) with his splendours, may the gods give to him life like the Sun for ever,” etc.

The Flaminian obelisk, from which the Egyptian passages Flaminian given above are taken, was brought from Heliopolis to Romeo by Augustus, and placed in the Circus Maximus,' whence it was dug out; it now stands in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome, where it was set up by Pope Sixtus V. in 1589. This obelisk was originally set up by Seti I., whose inscriptions occupy the middle column of the north, south, and west sides; the other columns of hieroglyphics record the names and titles of Rameses II. who, in this case, appropriated the obelisk of his father, just as he did that of Thothmes III. The obelisk was found broken into three pieces, and in order to render it capable of sustaining itself, three palms' length was cut from the base. The texts have been published by Kircher, Oedipus Aegyptiacus, t. iii. p. 213; by Ungarelli, Interpretatio Obeliscorum Urbis, Rome, 1842, p. 65, sqq.,


Qui autem notarum textus obelisco incisus est veteri, quem videmus in Circo etc. Ammianus Marcellinus, XVII. 4, § 17. It seems to be referred to in Pliny, XXXVI. 29.

? For a comparative table of obelisks standing in 1840, see Bonomi, Notes 012 Obelisks, in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 158.


plate 2; and by Bonomi, who drew them for a paper on this obelisk by the Rev. G. Tomlinson in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 176 ff. For an account of this obelisk, see Zoëga, De Origine et Usu Obeliscorum, Rome, 1797, p. 92.

The next Greek writer whose statements on Egyptian

hieroglyphics are of value is Clement of Alexandria, who Cham flourished about A.D. 191-220. According to Champollion, pollion's estimate of

of “un seul auteur grec, ........ a démêlé et signalé, dans Clement's l'écriture égyptienne sacrée, les élémens phonétiques, lesquels on hiero.

en sont, pour ainsi dire, le principe vital? ..... Clément glyphics. d'Alexandrie s'est, lui seul, occasionnellement attaché à en

donner une idée claire ; et ce philosophe chrétien était, bien plus que tout autre, en position d'en être bien instruit. Lorsque mes recherches et l'étude constante des monuments égyptiens m'eurent conduit aux résultats précédemment exposés, je dus revenir sur ce passage de Saint Clément d'Alexandrie, que j'ai souvent cité, pour savoir si, à la faveur des notions que j'avais tirées d'un examen soutenu des inscriptions hiéroglyphiques, le texte de l'auteur grec ne deviendrait pas plus intelligible qu'il ne l'avait paru jusquelà. J'avoue que ses termes me semblèrent alors si positifs et si clairs, et les idées qu'il renferme si exactement conformes à ma théorie de l'écriture hiéroglyphique, que je dus craindre aussi de me livrer à une illusion et à un entraînement dont tout me commandait de me défier."? From the above it will be seen what a high value Champollion placed on the statements concerning the hieroglyphics by Clement, and they have, in consequence, formed the subject of various works by eminent authorities. In his Précis (p. 328), Champollion gives the extract from Clement with a Latin translation and remarks by Letronne. Dulaurier in his Examen ďun passage des Stromates de Saint Clément d'Alexandrie, Paris, 1833, again published the passage and gave many explanations of words in it, and commented learnedly upon it. (See also

1 Précis du Système hiéroglyphique des anciens Egyptiens, Paris, 1824, p. 321.
· Précis, p. 327.
3 See also Euvres Choisies, t. I. pp. 237-254.

Bunsen's Aegyptens Stelle, Bd. I., p. 240, and Thierbach,
Erklärung auf das Aegyptische Schriftwesen, Erfurt, 1846.)
The passage is as follows :-
αυτίκα οι παρ' Αίγυπτίοις παιδευόμενοι πρώτον μεν πάντων την Clement of

... Alexandria Αιγυπτίων γραμμάτων μέθοδος εκμανθάνουσι την επιστολογραφικήν ο Rieraκαλουμένην, δευτέραν δε την ιερατικήν, ή χρώνται οι ιερογραμματείς, glyphics. υστάτην δε και τελευταίαν την ιερογλυφικήν, ής ή μέν έστι διά των πρώτων στοιχείων κυριολογική, η δε συμβολική. της δε συμβολικής η μεν κυριολογείται κατά μίμησιν, ή δ' ώσπερ τροπικώς γράφεται, η δε άντικρυς αλληγορείται κατά τινας αινιγμούς, ήλιον γούν γράψαι βουλόμενοι κύκλον ποιούσι, σελήνην δε σχήμα μηνοειδές κατά το κυριολογούμενον είδος, τροπικώς δε κατ' οικειότητα μετάγοντες και μετατιθέντες, τα δ' έξαλλάττοντες, τα δε πολλαχώς μετασχηματίζοντες χαράττουσιν. Τους γούν των βασιλέων επαίνους θεολογουμένους μύθους παραδιδόντες αναγράφoυσι δια των αναγλύφων, του δε κατά τους αινιγμούς τρίτου είδους δείγμα έστω τόδε. τα μεν γάρ των άλλων άστρων δια την πορείαν την λοξήν όφεων σώμασιν απείκαζον, τον δε ήλιον τω του κανθάρου, επειδή κυκλοτερες εκ της βοείας όνθου σχήμα πλασάμενος αντιπρόσωπος κυλίνδει. φασί δε και εξάμηνον μέν υπό γης, θάτερον δε του έτους τμήμα το ζωον τούτο υπέρ της διαιτασθαι, σπερμαίνειν τε εις την σφαίραν και γενναν, και θηλυν κάνθαρον μη γίνεσθαι. ' “For example, those that are educated among the Transla

, tion of Egyptians first of all learn that system of Egyptian characters which is styled EPISTOLOGRAPHIC; secondly, the HIERA- from TIC, which the sacred scribes employ; lastly and finally the HIEROGLYPHIC. The hieroglyphic sometimes speaks plainly by means of the letters of the alphabet, and sometimes uses symbols, and when it uses symbols, it sometimes (a) speaks plainly by imitation, and sometimes (6) describes in a figurative way, and sometimes (c) simply says one thing for another in accordance with certain secret rules. Thus (a) if they desire to write sun or moon, they make a circle or a crescent in plain imitation of the form. And when (6) they describe figuratively (by transfer and transposition without violating the natural meaning of words), they completely alter some things and make manifold changes in the form of others. Thus, they hand



· Clem. Alex., ed. Dindorf, t. III. Strom. lib. v. SS 20, 21, pp. 17, 18,

Three kinds of Egyptian

down the praises of their kings in myths about the gods which they write up in relief. Let this be an example of the third form (c) in accordance with the secret rules. While they represent the stars generally by snakes' bodies, because their course is crooked, they represent the sun by the body of a beetle, for the beetle moulds a ball from cattle dung and rolls it before him. And they say that this animal lives under ground for six months, and above ground for the other portion of the year, and that it deposits its sced in this globe and there engenders offspring, and that no female beetle exists."

From the above we see that Clement rightly stated that the Egyptians had three kinds of writing :-epistolographic, hieratic and hieroglyphic. The epistolographic is that kind which is now called “demotic," and which in the early days of hieroglyphic decipherment was called "enchorial.” The hieratic is the kind commonly found on papyri. The hieroglyphic kind is described as, I. cyriologic, that is to say, by means of figurative phonetic characters, e.g., emsuḥ, crocodile," and II. symbolic, that is to say, by actual representations of objects, e.g., 3 "goose,” VE “bee," and so on. The symbolic division is subdivided into three parts : I. cyriologic by imitation, e.g., , a vase with water flowing from it represented a “libation"; II. tropical, e.g., a, a crescent moon to represent "month,” fog, a reed and palette to represent “writing" or "scribe"; and (II. enigmatic, e.g., e, a beetle, to represent the "sun."1 In modern Egyptian Grammars the matter is stated more simply, and we see that hieroglyphic signs are used in two ways: I. Ideographic, II. Phonetic. mm māu, “water," is an instance of the first method, and m-s-u-, is an instance of the second. Ideographic signs are used as determinatives, and are either ideographic or generic. Thus after 69 13 màu, “cat,” a cat It is placed, and is an ideographic determinative; but , heaven with a star in it, written after a o k er, is a

| Champollion, Précis, p. 278.

generic determinative. Phonetic signs are either Alphabetic as A a, b, a k, or Syllabic, as my men, chen, etc.

Porphyry the Philosopher, who died about A.D. 305, says of Pythagoras : 1

Και εν Αιγύπτω μεν τοίς ιερεύσι συνήν και την σοφίαν Pythaεξέμαθε, και την Αίγυπτίων φωνήν, γραμμάτων δε τρισσας ΕΡΓs and diapopás, érioToLoypapivov te kaì lepoylu ir kai ovu- glyphics. βολικών, των μεν κοινολογουμένων κατά μίμησιν, των δε άλληγορουμένων κατά τινας αινιγμούς.

"And in Egypt he lived with the priests and learnt their wisdom and the speech of the Egyptians and three sorts of writing, epistolographic and hieroglyphic and symbolic, which sometimes speak in the common way by imitation and sometimes describe one thing by another in accordance with certain secret rules.” Here it seems that Porphyry copied Clement inaccurately. Thus he omits all mention of the Egyptian writing called “hieratic,” and of the subdivision of hieroglyphic called "cyriologic," and of the second subdivision of the symbolic called “tropic.” The following table, based on Letronne, will make the views about hieroglyphic Letronne's writing held by the Greeks plain :


(δημοτικά and δημώδη by Herodotus and Clement, Herodotus, Diodorus ( 1. The common, yxópia by the inscriptions of Rosetta, and the inscription


επιστολογραφικά by Clement of Alexandria and of Rosetta divide

Egyptian writing | 11. The sacred, ( 1. Hieratic, or the writing of the priests.
into two divisions
divided by

( a. Cyriologic, by means of the first
Clement into (2. Hieroglyphic letters of the alphabet.
composed of

( a. Cyriological by
| 6. Symbolical imitation.

comprising b. Tropical or

c. Enigmatical.

The next writer of importance on hieroglyphics is Horapollo Horapollo, who towards the close of the IVth century of our

ir on hiero

"glyphics. era composed a work called 'Iepoylubiká; this book was translated into Greek by one Philip, of whom nothing is known. Wiedemann thinks that it was originally written in Coptic, which, in the middle ages, was usually called

1 Porphyry, De Vita Pythagorae, ed. Didot, $ 11, p. 89, at the foot,

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