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^^•^•oooJ^i. "[the mighty bu"l resting un

Law, lord of diadems, protector of Egypt, making splendid
Heliopolis with monuments." "H\to? 0e6<; yae'ya? SeovoTr]?

machis,the great god, lord of heaven," irk^pwaa^ rbv vemv rov
<f>oivtKo<; a<ya8S>v, a> oi 6eoX fa;?)? yjpbvov ihwpr'jaavro =

p EllkT^S 1! POU5 If 2

'"filling the temple of the (phcenix) with his

splendours, may the gods give to him life like the Sun for ever," etc.

The Flaminian obelisk, from which the Egyptian passages Flaminian given above are taken, was brought from Heliopolis to Rome obeliskby Augustus, and placed in the Circus Maximus,1 whence it was dug out; it now stands in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome, where it was set up by Pope Sixtus V. in 1589.' This obelisk was originally set up by Seti I., whose inscriptions occupy the middle column of the north, south, and west sides; the other columns of hieroglyphics record the names and titles of Rameses II. who, in this case, appropriated the obelisk of his father, just as he did that of Thothmes III. The obelisk was found broken into three pieces, and in order to render it capable of sustaining itself, three palms' length was cut from the base. The texts have been published by Kircher, Oedipus Aegypliacus, t. iii. p. 213; by Ungarelli, Interpretatio Obeliscorum Urbis, Rome, 1842, p. 65, sqq.,

1 Qui autem notarum textus obelisco incisus est veteri, quem videmus in Circo etc. Ammianus Marcellinus, XVII. 4, § 17. It seems to be referred to in Pliny, XXXVI. 29.

* For a comparative table of obelisks standing in 1840, see Bonomi, Notts oil Obelisks, in Trans. RoyalSoc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 158.

Champollion's estimate of Clement's statements on hieroglyphics.

plate 2; and by Bonomi, who drew them for a paper on this obelisk by the Rev. G. Tomlinson in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 176 ff. For an account of this obelisk, see Zoèga, De Origine et Usu Obeliscorum, Rome, 1797, p. 92.

The next Greek writer whose statements on Egyptian hieroglyphics are of value is Clement of Alexandria, who flourished about A.D. 191-220. According to Champollion,

"un seul auteur grec, a démêlé et signalé, dans

l'écriture égyptienne sacrée, les élémens phonétiques, lesquels

en sont, pour ainsi dire, le principe vital1 Clément

d'Alexandrie s'est, lui seul, occasionnellement attaché à en donner une idée claire; et ce philosophe chrétien était, bien plus que tout autre, en position d'en être bien instruit. Lorsque mes recherches et l'étude constante des monuments égyptiens m'eurent conduit aux résultats précédemment exposés, je dus revenir sur ce passage de Saint Clément d'Alexandrie, que j'ai souvent cité, pour savoir si, à la faveur des notions que j'avais tirées d'un examen soutenu des inscriptions hiéroglyphiques, le texte de l'auteur grec ne deviendrait pas plus intelligible qu'il ne l'avait paru jusquelà. J'avoue que ses termes me semblèrent alors si positifs et si clairs, et les idées qu'il renferme si exactement conformes à ma théorie de l'écriture hiéroglyphique, que je dus craindre aussi de me livrer à une illusion et à un entraînement dont tout me commandait de me défier."* From the above it will be seen what a high value Champollion placed on the statements concerning the hieroglyphics by Clement, and they have, in consequence, formed the subject of various works by eminent authorities. In his Précis(p. 328), Champollion gives the extract from Clement with a Latin translation and remarks by Letronne.8 Dulaurier in his Examen dun passage des Strotnates de Saint Clément dAlexandrie, Paris, 1833, again published the passage and gave many explanations of words in it, and commented learnedly upon it (See also

1 Précis du Système hiiroglyphiqtie des anciens Egyptiens, Paris, 1824, p. 321,

Précis, p. 327.

* See also Œuvres Choisies, t. I. pp. 237-254.

Bunsen's Aegyptens Stelle, Bd. I., p. 240, and Thicrbach,
Erkldrung auf das Aegyptische Schriftwesen, Erfurt, 1846.)
The passage is as follows:—

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"For example, those that are educated among the TransiaEgyptians first of all learn that system of Egyptian characters which is styled EPISTOLOGRAPHIC; secondly, the HIERA- ^om TIC, which the sacred scribes employ; lastly and finally the HIEROGLYPHIC. The hieroglyphic sometimes speaks plainly by means of the letters of the alphabet, and sometimes uses symbols, and when it uses symbols, it sometimes (a) speaks plainly by imitation, and sometimes (6) describes in a figurative way, and sometimes (c) simply says one thing for another in accordance with certain secret rules. Thus (a) if they desire to write sun or moon, they make a circle or a crescent in plain imitation of the form. And when (6) they describe figuratively (by transfer and transposition without violating the natural meaning of words), they completely alter some things and make manifold changes in the form of others. Thus, they hand

1 Clem. Alex., ed. Dindorf, t, III. Strom, lib. v. §§ 20, 21, pp. 17, 18,

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down the praises of their kings in myths about the gods which they write up in relief. Let this be an example of the third form (c) in accordance with the secret rules. While they represent the stars generally by snakes' bodies, because their course is crooked, they represent the sun by the body of a beetle, for the beetle moulds a ball from cattle dung and rolls it before him. And they say that this animal lives under ground for six months, and above ground for the other portion of the year, and that it deposits its seed in this globe and there engenders offspring, and that no female beetle exists."

Three From the above we see that Clement rightly stated that

Egyptian *ne Egyptians had three kinds of writing:—epistolographic, writing. hieratic and hieroglyphic. The epistolographic is that kind which is now called "demotic," and which in the early days of hieroglyphic decipherment was called "enchorial." The hieratic is the kind commonly found on papyri. The hieroglyphic kind is described as, I. cyriologic, that is to say, by means of figurative phonetic characters, e.g., ^ p ^> | «s3s. emsuh, "crocodile," and 11, symbolic, that is to say, by actual representations of objects, e.g., "goose," "bee," and so on. The symbolic division is subdivided into three parts:

I. cyriologic by imitation, e.g., j^, a vase with water flowing from it represented a "libation"; II. tropical, e.g., a crescent moon to represent "month," , a reed and palette to represent "writing" or "scribe "; and 111, enigmatic, e.g., ^, a beetle, to represent the "sun."1 In modern Egyptian Grammars the matter is stated more simply, and we see that hieroglyphic signs are used in two ways: I. Ideographic,

II. Phonetic. mdu, "water," is an instance of the first method, and ^ p ^> | m-s-u-h, is an instance of the second. Ideographic signs are used as determinatives, and are either ideographic or generic. Thus after ^ [j ^ mdu, "cat," a cat

is placed, and is an ideographic determinative; but , heaven with a star in it, written after & «c^> | ^er¥> 's a

'Champollion, Pricis, p. 278.

generic determinative. Phonetic signs are either Alphabetic as ^ a, J b, k, or Syllabic, as t1""^ men, clien, etc.

Porphyry the Philosopher, who died about A.d. 305, says of Pythagoras:1

Kal iv Alyvirrtp flhi Tot? Upevai avvrjv Kal Ttjv ao<f>iav Pythaege/iaOe, Kal Ttjv Airfvjrrltov (pcovtfv, ypafipdrcov Se rpiaaai and Sia<j>opd<;, €Tri(rro\oypa<j)iKa)v re Kal iepoy\v<f>tK<Sv Kal avp.- glyphics. f3o\iKa>v, Twv [lev KOivoKoyovpAvcov Kara /iifirj<riv, Twv Se aWriyopovfievayv Kara riva<; alviypavs.

"And in Egypt he lived with the priests and learnt their wisdom and the speech of the Egyptians and three sorts of writing, epistolographic and hieroglyphic and symbolic, which sometimes speak in the common way by imitation and sometimes describe one thing by another in accordance with certain secret rules." Here it seems that Porphyry copied Clement inaccurately. Thus he omits all mention of the Egyptian writing called "hieratic," and of the subdivision of hieroglyphic called "cyriologic," and of the second subdivision of the symbolic called "tropic." The following table, based on Letronne, will make the views about hieroglyphic Letronne's writing held by the Greeks plain:— summary.

IttllWTUti and Sn/.<i8lj by Herodotus and Clement,
lyxvp" by the inscriptions of Rosetta,
iir.woAO7pa0.Kd by Clement of Alexandria and

bto'twodivil'ions"5 I "• Hb-,^Crt,i Hie",iC' " <hr TM°f

divided by^ I a. Cynologic, by means of the first

Clement into

Hieroglyphic J letters of the alphabet.

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The next writer of importance on hieroglyphics is Horapollo Horapollo, who towards the close of the IVth century of our gl^TM" era composed a work called 'lepoyXvcpiKa; this book was translated into Greek by one Philip, of whom nothing is known. Wiedemann thinks that it was originally written in Coptic, which, in the middle ages, was usually called

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