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which secures all is tied, thick pads of linen are laid on the top of the feet to prevent any injury happening to them when Process of the mummy is made to stand upright.1 The bandaged arms bandaging. navjng Deen pressed closely into the sides, and the fore-arms and hands having been laid upon the stomach, the bandaging goes on again, while formulae are recited by the cher-heb. Names of Each bandage had a special name,2 each bandage gave power dages. to the deceased, and was inscribed with words and figures of gods, which also gave him power, and the adjustment of each in its proper position required both care and judgment. More folds of linen are laid on the body perpendicularly,'
1 Referring to the embalming of the feet, the following extract is of interest. "After these things perform the embalming operations on his right and left arms,
and then the and the children of Horus, and the children of Chent-aat,
shall carry out the embalming operations on the two legs of the deceased. Rub the feet, legs, and thighs of the deceased with black stone (?) oil, and then rub them a second time with the finest oil. Wrap the toes in a piece of cloth, draw two jackals upon two pieces of linen with colours mixed with water perfumed with anii, and each jackal shall have his face turned towards the other ; the jackal on the one bandage is Anubis, lord of Hert; the jackal on the other is Horus, lord of Hebennu. Put Anubis on the right leg, and Horus on ihe left leg, and wrap them up in fine linen. To complete the embalming of the legs, take six measures of anchamu flowers, natron and resin, and mix with water of ebony gum, and put three measures on the right leg and three measures on the left. Then put some fresh (?) sent flowers made into twelve bundles (?) on the left leg, and twelve bands of linen, and anoint with the finest oil." Maspero, Le Ritucl de TEmbaumcmeiit, pp. 43, 44, in Mimoire sur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre (Extrait des Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits, torn, xxiv., ITM partie; Paris, 1875).
1 E.g., one of the bandages of the nostrils was called J-j-j tj(J5 ne/ii, and the other |1 "| 5 smen '• a head bandage jjj^ ^ ^ g hehthethsu, the two bandages of the cheek j "|"| ^ anchth anchth su, the two
bandages of the top of the head °<=><N ^> | ^ | mehui'ai'
3 While the head was being bandaged the following petition was recited by one of the embalmers:— " O most august goddess, O lady of the west, O mistress of the east, come and enter into the two ears of the deceased 1 O doubly powerful, eternally young, and very mighty lady of ihe west, and mistress of the east may breathing take place in the head of the deceased in the nether world! Grant that he may see with his eyes, that he may hear with his two ears, that he may breathe through his nose, that he may utter sounds from his mouth, and articulate with his tongue in the nether world! Receive his voice in the hall of truth and justice, and his triumph in the hall of Seb in the presence of the great and more bandages are wound round the body horizontally, until, little by little, it loses its shape beneath them. When a length of about three hundred cubits has been used in folds and bandages, a coarse piece of linen is laid on the body, and is sewn up at the back. Over this again a saffroncoloured linen sheet is laid, and this having been deftly sewn over the head, down the back, and under the feet, is finally held in position by a perpendicular bandage of brownish coloured linen, passing from the head to the feet and under them up the back to the head, and by four horizontal bandages of the same coloured linen, one round the shoulders, one round the middle of the body, one round the knees, and one round the ankles. Thus the mummy is complete.
During the seventy days which have been spent in Ani's embalming Ani's body, the coffin makers have not been idle, cofhn' and they have made ready a covering of wood to be laid on the mummy, and two beautiful coffins. The covering, in the form of a mummy, is slightly vaulted, and has a human face, bearded, on it; it is handsomely painted outside with collar, figures of Nut, Anubis, and Ap-uat, the full names and titles of Ani in perpendicular lines of inscription, the cartouches of the king in whose time he lived, and scenes in which Ani is adoring the gods. On the inside of the cover, on the purple ground, are painted in a light yellow colour pictures of the horizon, the spirits of the East, in the form of apes, adoring Ra, the lion gods of the morning and evening with a disk on their united backs, etc., etc.1 The inner coffin is equally
god, lord of the west. O Osiris (i.e., the deceased), the thick oil which comes upon thee furnishes thy mouth with life, and thine eye looketh into the lower heaven, as Ra looketh upon the upper heaven. It giveth thee thy two ears to hear that which thou wishest, just as Shu in Hebtt (?) heard that which he wished to hear. It giveth thee thy nose to smell a beautiful perfume like Seb. It giveth to thee thy mouth well furnished by its passage (into the throat), like the mouth of Thoth, when he weigheth Maat. It giveth thee Maat (Law) in Hebit. O worshipper in IJetbenben, the cries of thy mouth are in Siut, Osiris of Siut comes to thee, thy mouth is the mouth of Ap-uat in the mountain of the west" (See Maspero, Le Rituel<U F Embaumement, p. 27, in Mimoire sur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre (Extrait des Notices el Exlraits des Afanuscrits), torn, xxiv., ITM partie; Paris, 1875).
1 A fine example of such a covering is that of Nesi-pa-ur-shefi, preserved at Cambridge.
handsome, and carpenter and artist have expended their best labour upon it; before Ani was embalmed he was measured for it, and due allowance having been made for the bandages, it fits the mummy exactly. It is in the form of a mummy, and the sycamore planks of which it is made are about two inches thick ; the bottom is in one piece, as is also each of the sides, the rounded head-piece is cut out of a solid piece of wood, and the foot-piece is also separate; all these parts are pegged together with wooden pegs about two inches long. On the cover is pegged a solid face, carved out of hard wood, which is thought to have a strong resemblance to that of Coffin Ani; bronze eyelids and obsidian eyes are fixed in it, and a ta"ion.e" carved wooden beard is fastened to the chin. Solid wooden hands are next fastened to the breast. The whole coffin, inside and out, is next covered with a thin layer of plaster; over this a coat of light yellow varnish is painted, and the Scenes scenes and inscriptions are painted on it in red, light and ^"coffin" dark £reen> wn'te a°d other colours. At the head is Nephthys, and at the foot is Isis, each making speeches to Ani, and telling him that she is protecting him. On the cover outside is Nut, and between two series of scenes in which Ani is represented worshipping the gods, are two perpendicular lines of inscriptions recording his name and titles; at the foot of these are figures of Anubis and Ap-uat. The sides of the coffin are ornamented with figures of gods in shrines, the scene of the weighing of the heart, Ani drinking water from the hands of a goddess standing in a tree, Shu lifting up Nut from the embraces of Seb, etc. Inside the coffin are painted figures of a number of gods and genii with instructions referring to them, and the goddesses Nut and Hathor; the first covers Ani with her wings, and the second, as mistress of the nether-world, receives Ani into her arms. Around the edge of the coffin near the cover, from head to foot, run two lines of inscription, one on each side, which repeat at considerable length the name and titles of Ani. The outer edge of the coffin, and the inner edge of the cover are "rabbeted " out, the one to fit into the other, and on each side, at regular intervals, four rectangular slots about i^in. x 2in. x gin. are cut; to fasten the coffin hermetically, tightly fitting wooden dowels, four inches long, are pressed into the slots in the coffin, and pegs
driven from the outside of the coffin through them keep them
firmly in position. Ani's body having been placed in this
coffin, the cover is laid upon it, the ends of the dowels fit
into the slots in the sides, and coffin and cover are firmly
joined together; wooden pegs are driven through the cover
and dowels, the " rabbets" fit tightly, the little space between
the coffin and cover is "stopped" with liquid plaster, and
thus the coffin is sealed. Any injury that may have hap- The outer
pened to the plaster or paintings during the process of sealing coffin"
is repaired, and the whole coffin is once more varnished.
This coffin is, in its turn, placed inside an outer coffin, which
is painted, both inside and outside, with scenes similar to
those on the inner coffin; the drawing is, however, more free,
and the details are fewer. The outer coffin being sealed in
the same way as that inside it, Ani is now ready to be carried
to his everlasting home in the Theban hills.
On a day fixed by the relatives and friends, all the various articles of funereal furniture which have been prepared are brought to Ani's house, where also the mummy in its coffins now lies awaiting the funeral; the cher-heb sees that the things necessary for a great man's funeral are provided, and arranges for the procession to start on the first auspicious day. This day having arrived, the cher-heb's assistants come, and gathering together the servants and those who are to carry burdens, see that each has his load ready and that each knows his place in the procession. When all is ready the funeral train sets The out from Ani's house, while the female servants wail and pUroCe^ion lament their master, and the professional mourners beat their breasts, feign to pull out their hair by handfuls, and vie with each other in shrieking the loudest and most often. They have not a great distance to go to reach the river, but the difficulties of passing through the narrow streets increase almost at every step, for the populace of Thebes loved the sight of a grand funeral as much as that of any European country to-day. After some few hours the procession reaches the river, and there a scene of indescribable confusion happens; every bearer of a burden is anxious to deposit it in one of the boats which lie waiting in a row by the quay; the animals which
Ani's personal property carried to the tomb.
draw the sledge, on which Ani's bier is laid, kick out wildly and struggle while being pushed into the boats, people rush hither and thither, and the noise of men giving orders, and the shouts and cries of the spectators, are distracting. At length, however, the procession is embarked and the boats push off to drop with the current across the Nile to a place a little north of the Temple of Thothmes III., opposite Asasif. After an hour spent in disembarking, the procession reforms itself in the order in which it will march to the tomb, and we see for the first time what a splendid funeral has been provided. In the front walk a number of men bearing tables and stands filled with vases full of wine, beer, oil, perfumes, flowers, bread, cakes, ducks, haunches of beef, and vegetables; one man carries Ani's palette and box of instruments which he used for writing and drawing, another carries his staff, another his bed, another his chair, others bring the ushabtiu figures in a box with a vaulted cover and made like a tomb; and following them comes the stele recording his name and titles and prayers to the gods of the nether-world; and behind them, drawn by two men, is a coffer surmounted by a jackal, on a sledge decorated with lotus flowers, in which stand the four jars which contain Ani's intestines. Next follow the men bearing everything which Ani made use of during his life, as, for example, the palette which he carried when he followed his king to war in order to keep the accounts of the army and to make lists of all the precious things which were brought to his lord as gifts and tribute, and the harp on which
he played in his leisure hours. Next comes the chest |g, in which is laid the mummy of Ani, placed in a boat which is mounted on a sledge drawn by four oxen; at the head of the chest is a figure of Nephthys, and at the foot a figure of Isis, the boat is supplied with oars as if it were really destined to row down to Abydos, so that the body might be buried there, and its soul pass into the nether-world through the "Gap"
Q ^ © Peka (/>., the 'Gap') the place whence,according to
the Egyptian belief, souls, under the guidance of Osiris, set out on their last journey. At the head of the boat stands a whiterobed Sam priest wearing a panther skin; he holds a bronze